University Degree: Environmental Sciences

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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Citing a number of contemporary issues, evaluate pressures on water and discuss the means by which the resource might be better managed in the future.

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    In 2005 it was estimated that 48.6% of the world's population lived in urban areas (Encyclopedia of Earth, 2009) with this number constantly on the rise. Urban water provision usually depends on inefficient infrastructure which is susceptible to leakage. People living in cities depend more on large scale farming and food processing industries that require large amounts of water and energy. Urban sprawl contributes to increased flooding and contamination of freshwater supplies because of impermeable surfaces which can negatively affect groundwater levels by decreasing the possibility of water seeping into the ground, increase evaporation of rainwater off bare ground and by polluting groundwater with urban waste (Pennington & Cech, 2010).

    • Length: 2624 words
  2. Discuss a range of geomorphological techniques we can use to determine the rate and magnitude of slope movement.

    On the other hand the slowest deformation of slope movement is that of creep which can be continuous or seasonal, but still movement of the land is minimal and slope movement maybe as much as a few millimetres per year. Due to interaction between humans and the surrounding environment becoming more intense and regular, slope movement is an important consideration for humans to take. There is no doubt that, due to human activity on and around slopes, hills and mountainsides, it has caused instability within the landscape.

    • Length: 1682 words
  3. Identify and discuss the Concepts, Skills and Methods deployed in: Whitmarsh L (2009) Whats in a global name? Commonalities and differences in public understanding of climate change and global warming, Public Understanding of Science, 18

    Public understanding of climate change is vital, as the electorate have huge influence over policy decision-making. Also, for individuals to tackle climate change at a local level, understanding is needed. As a result of the importance of the issue, many surveys have been carried out at all levels to investigate public understanding of climate change. Such research was primarily carried out using quantative social surveys and more recently in-depth qualitative studies. However, Whitmarsh (2009) argues that many surveys present an inaccurate impression of the publics understanding of climate change for two reasons: Firstly, Whitmarsh (2009)

    • Length: 1658 words
  4. Water Conservation Projects in agriculture in China

    Crops at risk from declining water resources are rice, wheat, corn and cotton (Lohmar et al, 2003). Traditional sustainable farming techniques - Rain-fed agriculture These practices of agriculture make use of the availability of rain, reducing the need for irrigation and piped water, and the ability of the soil to retain the moisture. Farmers which make use of these practices benefit from a clean and free source of water for their crops but also put themselves at the mercy of the elements.

    • Length: 4313 words
  5. Cultural Perceptions of the Wolf

    The wolf has been a symbol of great respect and honor as well as a demonic symbol of hatred and persecution. While the Europeans saw the wolf as a demonic machine capable of destroying a man's livelihood overnight, many Native American tribes saw the wolf as a brother, a revered companion in hunting, and a figure with deep connections to the spiritual world. These varying perceptions of wolves between European and Native American cultures at the time were the result of contrasting social backgrounds, including each culture's unique set of customs, traditions, and practices, as well as the divergent economic and religious pressures that existed between the separate cultures at the time.

    • Length: 2104 words
  6. Environmental Impact Assesment

    was needed. Upon this notion the services of Henry's Environmental Impact Limited was sought to study and report the finding to the Board and NEPA for their approval. 1.1 Description of Project The project to be undertaken is that of a Gym-no-thorium which is to be constructed on the grounds of the Knox Community College (Spalding Campus). The erection of a 73.8 square meters with two bathrooms and changing area, the hall is to be marked for badminton, volleyball and netball.

    • Length: 2957 words
  7. Free essay

    Ecomorphology: Field assessment of morphological and behavioral features of animals in relation to their ecology

    Hovering around humans Looking for blood to suck Robin Flitting from branch to branch Looking for food on the ground Spider (orange) Sitting on the edge of a web at base of oak tree Web for catching prey Long legs Legs to catch prey Brightly colored A warning to predators? Spider (yellow) Sitting on the edge of a web spread between two branches high off the ground In leaves, higher probability of catching other/more prey than from the ground Spin around insect Web production for wrapping prey Squirrel Climbing from the ground into an oak tree Flee from danger, look

    • Length: 650 words
  8. How to build a habitable planet

    The Earth has been compared to a huge recycling machine that consists of many parts. The Earth is made up of the inner core, the outer core, the mantle, the crust and the atmosphere; these parts play a pivotal role in the functioning of a successful planetary system. However, human interference in the system can have adverse effects on the ability of the Earth to perform the necessary planetary functions which could potentially be detrimental to the sustainability of the planet.

    • Length: 1767 words
  9. Environmental Chemistry of Aqueous Systems

    Two aspects are important: * Natural water systems. Water hardness (Ca2+, Mg2+), pH of rain water (CO2), weathering of minerals (CaCO3), pH of natural waters, decomposition of organic matter (aerobic and anaerobic). * Polluted water systems. Water contamination with phosphates, nitrates, detergents, heavy metals; acid rain (HNO3, H2SO4). Equilibrium and Kinetics These two factors can clearly have a strong effect on the nature of dissolved species in natural and polluted waters. * Kinetic factors may include rates of chemical reactions, rates of transport from gas to liquid, rates of transport in the liquid, etc.

    • Length: 2224 words
  10. Importance of stratospheric ozone

    O + O2 (3.4) [O + O + M ? O2 + M (3.5)] Reaction (3.5) is too slow to be important, and only reaction (3.3) destroys 'odd' oxygen. One effect of ozone formation in the stratosphere is that it absorbs radiation which heats the atmosphere, and causes a temperature inversion (hot air lying above cold). In fact, it is this process that leads to the formation of the stratosphere. The fact that ozone exists in a layer in the stratosphere can be considered with reference to reaction 3.1.

    • Length: 1359 words
  11. Atmospheric pollution

    In December 1952 London had suffered a serious smog problem resulting in 4000 deaths. The committee said that the problem of having clean air may take as long as 15 years to solve. Although the statistics were not fully available, they stated that there was a clear link between pollution and respiratory diseases. Whilst deaths in Denmark were as low as 2.2 per 100,000 men and 1.9 per 100,000 women, the figures in England and Wales were 107.9 for men and 62.7 for women in the year 1951. Following pressure in Parliament the government legislated for clean air.

    • Length: 1332 words
  12. Free essay

    internal enviroment (heat lab)

    is the temperature difference between the heated side of the material and side in contact with the heat sinks. To conduct this experiment we used the following equation which enabled us to find the heat flow through the material: Q = ? x A (t1 - t2) d And re-arranged it to make ? the subject. d x Q = ? A (t1 - t2) The apparatus we used for the duration of our experiment consisted of two identical concrete slabs which were sandwiched between two metal heat sinks which were to be tested. A sheet of electrically conducting paper was placed between the concrete slabs to act as a heater.

    • Length: 1929 words
  13. This Moral Coil

    • Length: 2167 words
  14. health promotion smoking

    Doll and Hill found that smoking can cause cancer of the lungs, chronic bronchitis, coronary artery disease and others. In the U.S.A research on smoking was done on a large scale. It was convincing to see the statistics from these cohort studies on smoking and the impact of cardiovascular diseases. In 1948 a group of people were studied. A long-term study was followed up in Massachusetts. It was clear that smoking effects blood cholesterol, blood pressure and heart disease (Shurtleff 1974). Cigarettes are legal by law but there is a health risk associated with them. All cigarette packets carry a health warning.

    • Length: 1439 words
  15. I choose milk as the food type I would investigate for microbial contamination from Farm to Fork.

    The most common bacteria found on the udder during the inflammation are E. Coli, S. Aureus and Enterobacter. There are 3 different classifications of mastitis 1. Contagious Mastitis. This is caused by bacteria, which can survive on the skin of teat and in the udder .The pathogens involved in mastitis spread from udder to udder. A common type of bacteria that causes this would be S. Aureus. 2. Environmental Mastitis. This is caused by bacteria, which usually can't live on the skin of teat or udder. This type of bacteria enters the teat canal through dirty housing conditions and poor hygiene standards on farms and milking parlours.

    • Length: 1680 words
  16. Free essay

    The Brick and brickwork.

    It has little waste and is a 'running bond'. This implies that it has little waste. This bond uses stretcher bricks which, when layed, are offset by half a brick. English bond This bond is made up of headers and footers. The bond is a full brick in dept and the strongest bond for a one brick wall. Flemish Bond This is the hardest of all bonds to lay. It consists of an alternate header and footer in each course. This bond is also one brick thick. Fairface Blockwork Block Sizes Concrete blocks come in various strengths, sizes and colours.

    • Length: 1884 words
  17. Maunal Handling Training Course

    Module 2: Basic information on the anatomy and biomechanics of the spine and muscles. How injuries can occur? The Lumbar Spine The lumbar spine is made up of the last five vertebra of the spine. The vertebrae are the bones of the spine; their function is to provide support and protection to the spinal cord. Each vertebra is composed of a large piece of bone called the body, which is attached to a bony ring. When the vertebrae are stacked one on top of the other, they form a column on the front and a bony tube in the back.

    • Length: 1402 words
  18. The use of GMOs: A Critique, from the EFSA

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) intends to keep all of our food safe for consumption. And to let our stakeholders make an informed decision about what they eat. The EFSA is a risk assessor and risk communicator within the twenty five EU member states, they provide sound independent scientific advice on all issues concerning food safety. The public is always at the heart of these decisions, and their health and welfare is at the utmost importance including that of animal and plant welfare and the environment. The EFSAs remit includes the use of directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release of GMO's whether it be onto the market, experimental release or anything else and regulation (EC)

    • Length: 4404 words
  19. Implementation of national adaptation programs of action in order to provide immediate and urgent support to start adapting to current and projected adverse effects of climate change in Bangladesh.

    The country is a land of water, with its 230 rivers extending to a total length of 24,140 kms. Flood (i.e., flash, monsoon, rain and coastal floods) affects 80% of the land area. 2. Objectives of the project: The objective of the project is to implement national adaptation programs of action (NAPAs), including meeting the agreed full cost of preparation. The NAPAs will communicate priority activities relating to the adverse effects of climate change. The rationale for developing NAPAs rests on immediate and urgent support to start adapting to current and projected adverse effects of climate change. The purpose of the proposed NAPA formulation project for Bangladesh is the development of a countrywide program that encompasses the immediate and urgent adaptation activities that address the current and anticipated adverse effects of climate change, including extreme events.

    • Length: 7091 words
  20. The History of Global Warming and What it means for the Future

    Approximately 15,000 years ago the earth had warmed sufficiently to halt the advance of glaciers and sea levels worldwide began to rise (par. 2). By 8,000 years ago, the land bridge across the Bearing Strait was under water, cutting off the migration of men and animals to North America (par. 2). Since the end of the Ice Age, Earth's temperature has risen approximately sixteen degrees Fahrenheit, and as a result, sea levels have raised a total of 300 feet (par.5). The discovery of global warming by mankind was made in 1896, when a Swedish scientist published a new idea (par.

    • Length: 3030 words
  21. Environmental Education Grants Program in Australia.

    Australia's natural wonder is Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef is as big as the total combined area of the UK and Ireland. But tourist's thoughtless to destruct of Coral Reef for souvenir. One clear message form the case is that dryland salinity and water scarcity have arisen in Australia. As water scarcity is worsened by climate variability, Australia places a very high priority on cooperative action on climate change and related issues in the Pacific region.

    • Length: 559 words
  22. The influence of differing spread of precipitation

    and dry seasons for the tropics as with the vast area of low pressure coupled with warm (promoting convection), moist maritime air Non-frontal convergence develops and intense tropical cyclones occur. These cyclones precipitate over a very large area and are responsible for intense floodings in Southern Asia. Frontal convergence occurs at the polar fronts of 60º North/South due to warm air travelling on the Ferrell cell, which continues from the Hadley cell, meeting colder air and an area of low pressure forms which can cause the formation of a mid-latitude depression.

    • Length: 1793 words
  23. Describe the processes responsible for ice movements. (20)Explain what factors influence the rate of glacier ice movement. (25)

    thus increasing the rate of ice deformation around the obstacle, allowing the ice mass to smoothly pass over or around the object. (which can form a roche moutonee) Another process that controls the flow of a glacier is a process called sub glacial bed deformation. This is where lose sediment at the bed of the glacier moves enabling the glacier to move more freely over the bed. In order to do this the subglacial bed has to be a warm based glacier, i.e.

    • Length: 983 words
  24. Global Warming

    Our atmosphere is like a blanket, as pollution is released by power plants, automobiles, and others the blanket thickens trapping heat more easily. Over the past 50 years the average global temperature has been increaseing at an overly fast pace, Scientist agree unless we compensahate for our polution the U.S. will be faced with a 3-9 degree higher temperature by the end of the century. Effects of Global Warming: There is a range of harmful effects that come from Global warming such as rising sea levels, flooding coastal areas, higher percentage of heat waves and more intense, droughts and wildfires occure more often, disease, and possible extinction of species that cannot accommodate to these changes.

    • Length: 970 words
"

"Physical science stands as one of the great achievements of the human spirit."

-Arthur David Ritchie

From the sighting of the Higgs boson to the development of clean energy, physical science research consistently alters the way we see the universe, and brings us life-changing technologies. If you're a science person who wants to learn about the universe and its properties-skimming over details like the organisms that live on earth-then a university degree in one of the physical sciences could be a great choice for you.

Strong written communication skills are important for any student of science, so be prepared to roll up the sleeves of your lab coat, and write some reports and essays. If you need a push in the right direction, browse Marked by Teachers' collection of physical science essays. The teacher annotations will show you what should be included in a good piece of science writing, and before long, you'll be writing and editing your own work with confidence.

Students of the physical sciences often take a higher degree in their field, or in a related subject like one of the biological sciences.Careers paths include business, education and research within academia and industry.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Evaluate the arguments for and against the use of GM crops in developing countries. Which do you support and why?

    "In conclusion, it would be impossible to say that there are clear-cut answers to this question as there are both advantages and disadvantages of genetically modifying crops in developing countries. For example, although GM crops could be easier to grow in the infertile soils of Africa and Asia, thus providing more food, there is no guarantee that these crops won't cause serious damage to people's health and to the environment. Scientists cannot yet say whether or not GM crops are safe, simply because they don't know. It therefore seems clear that if people's health is at risk, that should be the most important factor, showing that GM crops are more of a disadvantage than an advantage. However, if it can be proven that Genetically modifying crops is safe to people and to the environment, this opinion would probably be reversed. 1 www.maf.govt.nz 2 www.maf.govt.nz 3 www.agresearch.co.nz"

  • Discuss the similarities and differences between human and physical geography

    "In conclusion human geography focuses on all that is human and physical geography concentrates on the physical processes of the environment. Both elements are interrelated and the focus of their study has changed over time, both areas of geography have made an effort to move away from out dated simplistic theories and both areas have an interest in current affairs. It can be said that although both areas come under the heading of "geography" recently the two disciplines have moved away from each other and have established their knowledge in separate fields of expertise, this can be seen by the fact that human geography articles are published in journals of social science and physical geography articles are published in natural science journals. Space is the key to both sides of geography as both areas are concerned with how communities or environments and their distribution change dependant on their location. Despite the fact that there are many linkages between the two sides of geography, the fact that they are diverging suggests that there are rarely similarities within the two disciplines. That is not to say that this was always the case as geography began as one subject which was concerned with the mapping and cataloguing of regions in order to describe parts of the earth."

  • Discuss a range of geomorphological techniques we can use to determine the rate and magnitude of slope movement.

    "In conclusion, slope movement and magnitude of this movement can be measured and determined in many different ways. Techniques involving technology are the most astute in comparing and contrasting slope movement and the magnitude of this movement. However, the physical measuring of the slope movement highlights and determines ultimately the statue of the slope movement."

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