University Degree: Physics
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136 University Degree Physics essays

Hooke's law lab report. Hookes law and the investigation of spring constant k
Below is the equation of Hooke's law: *where F = the force applied, here is the weight (N), k = the spring constant (N/m), e = the size of displacement (m) Historical background: Hooke was never a person who did one thing at a time; indeed he seemed at his best when his mind was jumping from one idea to another. At the same time that he was working on the air pump he was also thinking about clocks and how they could be used in determining the longitude at sea.
 Essay length: 946 words

Investigation of the relationship between period and length for a simple pendulum and the determination of g
o The period of a simple pendulum is independent of the amplitude of oscillation, provided it is small. o The period of a simple pendulum is directly proportional to the square root of length of the pendulum. o The period of a simple pendulum is inversely proportional to the square root of the acceleration due to gravity. [1] *where T = time for 1 cycle (s), l = length of pendulum (m), g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) This study invests the relationship between the period and the length of a simple pendulum to determine the approximate value of the acceleration due to gravity g on planet Earth and planet X.
 Essay length: 973 words

Semiconductor bandgap Report. In this work, transmission spectroscopy was used under continuous light excitation to determine the optical band gap of semiconductors. The experiment was performed using indirect and direct semiconductors, Gallium Phosphate
Most Optical and electrical properties of semiconductors can be well explained by the band gap model. As metals, semiconductors are arranged in periodic structures called crystals. Let us explore shortly the origin of the band gap starting from the free electron model. The free electron model of metals has been used to explain the photoelectric effect. This model assumes that electrons are free to move within the metal but are confined to the metal by potential barriers as illustrated by Figure 2.1. The minimum energy needed to extract an electron from the metal equals q?M, where ?M is the work function.
 Essay length: 3347 words

Fermi Surface. The properties of a material is guided by the arrangement of atoms within the material, which reflects the shape of a Fermi surface, thus the Fermi surface has a direct correlation with properties of materials.
In order to create a visual representation of this, we imagine and theoretical threedimensional "momentum space" where the usual Cartesian coordinates become components of momentum. Taking all of this into consideration, the Fermi surface can be defined as the surface of a given volume in momentum space which separates occupied electron states from empty ones. The properties of a material is guided by the arrangement of atoms within the material, which reflects the shape of a Fermi surface, thus the Fermi surface has a direct correlation with properties of materials.
 Essay length: 1371 words

The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the uncertainty of experimental measurements. The freefall times of two metal balls of varying weight were measured. This data was used to calculate the best estimate of these measurements and its consi
The fall time was recorded in seconds in a table and was repeated for twenty trials. The average time of the twenty trials was calculated using the following equation where xN is the fall time and N is the number of trials. Then , the standard deviation was determined using the equation , where x is fall time. The experimental value of the freefall time of the heavy metal ball was, which is the best estimate ± uncertainty. Another table was made to determine the number of trials that occurred for each value of time.
 Essay length: 1090 words

Torque Physics Lab Report. The purpose of this experiment was to help understand torque by not only measuring it but also by manipulating and adjusting the weights experimentally.
The numbers were recorded and the weights of down and upward forces were measured as well as the clockwise and counter clockwise torques. For the last part of the experiment six clamps were arranged on the bar( with weights on them ) so that one was at 10cm and one at 90cm and the rest were spread in between , one end was supported by the knife edge and the other by the spring scale. The forced shown by the scale was recorded, the ends were than switched and the force was once again recorded.
 Essay length: 1330 words

The objective of this laboratory was to measure the speed at which sound was traveling through the air, using the resonance of longitudinal waves.
: V speed of sound = 331.4 + 0.6Tc m/s V speed of sound = 331.4 + 0.6(24) m/s V speed of sound = 345.8 m/s I found the % error using the following equation: % error = experimental value  theoretical value X 100 theoretical value % error = 344.064 m/s  345.8 m/s X 100 345.8 m/s % error = + 0.502 % Error Analysis The error analysis for this laboratory was a percent difference calculation between the theoretical value of the speed of sound traveling through air and the experimental value.
 Essay length: 2028 words

Acceleration of a Freely Falling Object
Once the ball was released, the time it took to fall the measured distance was collected and recorded. The height h and the time t of the freely falling object are related by the following formula: h = 1/2 gt2 (2) By using the relationship between height and time, as stated above, and plotting the data on a graph, we were able to determine the acceleration of the gravitational field strength g. Equipment error was also found and taken into consideration. Analysis And Results Once the ball was released, the time it took to fall the measured distance was collected and recorded in the table that follows.
 Essay length: 896 words

Is there really an energy crisis?
Studies have predicted the world peak oil supply to fall within a common range of between 2006 and 2015. The world devours over 80 million barrels of oil a day, and near 30 billion barrels a year. This figure is rising fast and will keep doing so for years to come. The International Energy Agency, an advisory organization on energy set up by industrialized countries, forecasts 121 million barrels a day by 20303. It will be difficult for supply to meet this demand.
 Essay length: 2505 words

Is Human Activity Responsible For Increased Global Warming?
As the earth warms up it radiates its own heat  infrared rays. The rays which don't escape the atmosphere are absorbed by greenhouse gas molecules. Similar to the glass panels in a greenhouse. However the number of greenhouse gases has increased, which means they absorbing too much heat and the earth is being warmed too much. (http://www.bbc.co.uk/climate/evidence/greenhouse_effect_img.shtml, this is a reliable website because the bbc is a big global organisation. I also checked the information on some other sites such as; http://www.ecocentre.org.uk/globalwarming.html, 1996 This is an original document written by ECO Centre, http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/climate.html, Last Modified on Friday, January 7th, 2000 and Wikipedia on the article, 'The Greenhouse Effect.)
 Essay length: 1465 words

Conservation of Angular Momentum
Describe in 34 sentences what you observed. Feel free to use diagrams or pictures to illustrate what you observed. Ball 1 was released and traveled down the ramp to hit the stationary ball (Ball 2) placed in the middle of the ramp. After the collision: Ball 1 ceased moving forward briefly but continued to spin, then continued up the ramp following the path of the second ball; Ball 2, once hit, moved up the ramp. Both balls collided again on their way back down the ramp before finally coming to a stop in the middle.
 Essay length: 979 words

Historia del Movimiento
cuando pasamos de jóvenes a adultos, o cuando una hoja cambia de color en Otoño; Según la cantidad la tiza se desgasta con el uso, el niño crece; y el Lugar como cuando nos trasladamos en Metro de un lugar a otro. Según la ontología aristotélica todas las cosas que podemos percibir, todas las cosas sensibles (tanto las naturales como las artificiales) están compuestas con la estructura acto y potencia y, dado que el movimiento es el paso de la potencia al acto, todas las cosas sensibles tienen el movimiento como uno de sus rasgos más característicos y definitorios.
 Essay length: 1447 words

Los diferentes Tipos de Energa
Este defecto o exceso de energía es el que se pone en juego en la reacción. La energía desprendida o absorbida puede ser en forma de energía luminosa, eléctrica, mecánica, etc... pero habitualmente se manifiesta en forma de calor. El calor intercambiado en una reacción química se llama calor de reacción y tiene un valor característico para cada reacción. Las reacciones pueden entonces clasificarse en exotérmicas o endotérmicas, según que haya desprendimiento o absorción de calor. Energía Atómica y/o Nuclear: Es aquella que se libera como resultado de cualquier reacción nuclear. Puede obtenerse bien por fisión o por fusión. En las reacciones nucleares se libera mayor cantidad de energía que en las producidas en explosiones convencionales.
 Essay length: 954 words

Projectile Motion
Therefore, the range the water bottle covered will be less than the theoretical value. In addition to air resistance, there is a presence of wind in reality. As no sophisticated equipment that can track the direction and velocity of the wind can be obtained, it is difficult to calculate the effects of wind on the course of the projectile motion. Therefore, the result of this experiment will be deviated from its theoretical prediction. 2.0 Objective * To determine the launching velocity and angle of the projectile.
 Essay length: 18624 words

Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research
Maintaining and improving health is not an abstract notion. We already know much about where and how we fall short in assuring health. We also know the potential to improve health grows daily as result of the steady flow of research advances. The health of individuals and the population depends on four major domains of our vast, complex, and disorganized health sector. To improve health, we must strengthen and integrate four cornerstones of our health system: Personal health management: citizens/patients equipped to manage their personal health Health care delivery: a health care delivery system that meets evidencebased expectations for safety,
 Essay length: 10116 words

Measurement of gravity using a rigid pendulum
Due to these fluctuations in the Earth's gravity, the local value for g is very useful for various reasons: from predicting the underlying geology of the rocks in the Earth's crust [2], to the oscillations of a pendulum. Therefore we decided to measure the value of g in Bristol as accurately as possible. There have been a number of different methods used previously to calculate the value for gravity, some of which are as follows. You can measure gravity by timing how long it takes for a body to drop a certain distance, as the distance a body falls is proportional to the time it takes squared, and the constant of proportionality is the gravitational acceleration [3].
 Essay length: 2479 words

Micheal Jordan
Michael Jordan appeared in 11 allstar games in his 14 season in the national basketball league (N.B.A) and had won 4 allstar games most valuable player (M.V.P). His most memorable game was in Las Vegas in February 1999 were he scored 41 points and was just brilliant. These examples show how much Jordan was a great player. Jordan led the bulls to 6 N.B.A championships in the years of 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1998. The reason why Jordan won those Simon 2 many championships because he was such a great player and it was difficult to stop his force on the court.
 Essay length: 813 words

Double Slit Interference
Figure 1 When the angles to the fringes are small, then it can be assumed that: By using trigonometry, it can be shown that: where y is the distance between the mth bright fringe and the central maximum, and D is the distance from the slits to the screen center point. By using the three previous equations, the following formula can be achieved: The spreading of light after passing through an aperture is known as diffraction. In addition to the interference caused by the superposition of the laser beams coming from two slit, a diffraction happens at each of the two slits which results in the envelope shown in the next page.
 Essay length: 1564 words

The Current Balance
Procedure and Observations: Required Apparatus: 1. Current balance with calibrated weights 2. Telescope with support stand 3. Caliper 4. Power supply 5. Scale 6. Measuring tape Figure 2: The experimental setup The current balance was set up on the laboratory bench with the current carrying bars extending in a northsouth direction to eliminate the effect of the Earth's magnetic field. The distance from the mirror to the scale was approximately 2 meters. The beam lift mechanism was designed to raise the beam, which caused the knife edges to come clear of their supports and then to return them to a certain position.
 Essay length: 1503 words

Standing Waves on a String
Nodes occur where there is not any amplitude, motion, in the string (wave). Antinodes occur where there is maximum amplitude and motion in the string (waves). The fixed ends of string are each nodes on the string. The distance between two nodes is equal to ?/ 2 where ? is the wavelength. The distance between a node and antinode is equal to ? / 4. In the figure indicated below, the nodes and antinodes of the wave are labeled. In a wave, the distance between the nodes (1) and antinodes (2) is given by the formula: (1)
 Essay length: 1655 words

The Heating Effect of An Electrical Current
+ mcalccal(TfTi) + mhch(TfTi) 20{(167.2(1) + 47.4(.217) + 15(.217) =3615 cal Equation (13): J = W/Q % difference: Table 5. Dependence of the temperature on time Initial temperature, Ti = 21.9ºC Final temperature, Tf = 41.9ºC Voltage = 9.4V Amperage = 2A Time Time Run 1 min s I = 2A Temperature Temperature T, °C (T  Ti), °C 0 0 21.9 0.0 1 60 23.0 1.1 2 120 24.9 3.0 3 180 26.4 4.5 4 240 27.9 6.0 5 300 29.2 7.3 6 360 30.6 8.7 7 420 31.9 10.0 8 480 33.3 11.4 9 540 34.5 12.6 10
 Essay length: 706 words

Acceleretion due to gravity
producing gradient value equal to 4T2/k. The value of K can be calculated from Slop = 4T2/k. By plotting the above equation g is already involved from which can be calculated. The value of g can then be calculated from Hooks Laws equation for the spiral balance. The equation g = Kb/m Where: K = spring constant (k) m = mass of the bob (kg) b = length (m) of the spiral spring with mass (l) less the length of the spiral spring without the mass (lo). b = (llo) m. Results Table 1: Time (s) taken for 20 swings of spiral spring balance The value of each swing was obtained by dividing the average values of 20 swings by 20.
 Essay length: 711 words

Reprt to Ashford
This camera has large crystal detectors that detects the radiation signal and which then converts to faint light. This is then converted to electric signal and been reformed as an image by a computer (The images come sin grey scale). Production of xray The xray machine consists of an xray tube that contains two essential electrodes: the anode (target) made out of tungsten or any heavy metal and the cathode, which is used for the emission of electrons. The typical potential difference (kilo electrons kV) needed is the force that makes the electrons to accelerate. When the electrons are emitted from a heated filament, it accelerates at a high voltage.
 Essay length: 1092 words

How does changing the force applied on the elastic band affect the distance travelled by the margarine tub?
If no weights had been used, we would expect the tub to change direction and possibly jump due to the force applied and therefore this result would be deemed anomalous. Background knowledge The forces on the tub at the start are equal and the margarine tub is therefore stationary. The elastic band is pulled and released, and as a result, when it comes into contact with the tub, the tub is pushed forwards by the force and accelerates. It then stops a distance away from the elastic band.
 Essay length: 1742 words