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Properties of Hydrocarbon

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Introduction

´╗┐Title: Properties of Hydrocarbons Introduction: Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon. The simplest form of hydrocarbon is the methane, which have the structure of CH4. The hydrocarbons can be divided into two groups that are saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon. The saturated hydrocarbons are the compounds in which all the bonds of the carbon contain single bond and all the carbons are filled with 4 bonds that are attached to other atoms. The single bond consists of a sigma bond. The saturated hydrocarbon is also known as alkane, which belongs to a homologous series of organic compounds in which the members differ by a constant relative molecular mass of 14. The chemical formula is Cn-H (2n+2), where n is the total number of carbons. The compound is said to be saturated when they follow Cn-H (2n+2), which is to say there are no double bonds. Unsaturated hydrocarbon, unlike saturated hydrocarbons, contain one or more carbon-carbon multiple bonds such as double bonds, triple bonds, or both. Instead of C ? C, it contains C = C or C = C. These compounds rose due to the loss of two hydrogens because the carbons can only have four total bonds to it. ...read more.

Middle

No reaction Cyclohexene 1. Orange colour turns pale yellow. 2. Remains clear C6H14 + Br2 C6H8Br2 1. Decolorizes 2. Remains clear C6H14 + Br2 C6H8Br2 Toluene 1. Turns cloudy with formation of small amount of sediments 2. No reaction 1. Turns cloudy and yellow 2. No reaction Unknown A 1. Turns pale yellow 2. Remains clear C6H14 + Br2 C6H13Br + HBr 1. No change 2. No reaction Unknown B 1. Decolorizes 2. Remains clear C6H14 + Br2 C6H8Br2 1. Decolorizes 2. Remains clear C6H14 + Br2 C6H8Br2 Unknown A: hexane Unknown B: cyclohexene 1. Reaction with potassium permanganate Table 1.1: Reactions of hydrocarbon with potassium permanganate Observation Chemical reaction Hexane 1. No change No reaction Cyclohexene 1. Purple colour of KMnO4 changes to brown colour C6H14 + KMnO4 C6H16O2 + MnO2 Toluene 1. No change No reaction Unknown A 1. No change No reaction Unknown B 1. Purple colour of KMnO4 changes to brown colour C6H14 + KMnO4 C6H16O2 + MnO2 Unknown A: hexane or toluene Unknown B: cyclohexene ________________ Discussion: In this experiment the physical properties of hydrocarbon that was studied was the combustion reaction of three different types of hydrocarbon namely, hexane (alkane), cyclohexene (cycloalkene), and toluene (aromatic hydrocarbon). Alkane, as observed, produces orange flame with the least amount of soot among the three hydrocarbons. ...read more.

Conclusion

Although in the KMnO4 test, the reaction of unknown A can be assumed to be either hexane or toluene, however based on the other two tests, it can be concluded that the compound is a hexane. Few precaution steps should be taken into consideration while conducting this experiment. One of it is while using the bromine water. Glove should be worn at all time because bromine is a strong oxidizing agent. Conclusion The hydrocarbons undergo combustion to produce CO2 and H2O. The alkane will react with bromine in the presence of light while alkenes reacts readily even in the absence of light. Aromatic hydrocarbon will not react with bromine. Alkane and aromatic hydrocarbon does not react with potassium permanganate unlike alkene. Through the series of test, it can be concluded that unknown A is hexane while unknown B is cyclohexene. Reference 1. C. Jim. (2003) Understanding Chemistry. ChemGuide. Retrived from http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/alkenemenu.html#top 2. D. Spurlock. (1999). Solubility and Reactivity of Alkanes, Alkenes and Aromatic Compounds Course Notes. Indiana University Southeast. Retrieved from http://homepages.ius.edu/dspurloc/c122/sol.htm 3. Garcia, C. (ed.). (2006). Laboratory Experiments in Organic Chemistry. (Unpublished manual used by the College of Science, University of Santo Tomas). Pp.31-33. 4. Matt. (2011). Properties of Hydrocarbons. MendelSet. Retrieved from http://www.mendelset.com/articles/689/properties-hydrocarbons#3 5. Shriner, R.L. & Curtin, D.Y. (1980).Chemical Classification Tests and For Derivatization. 6th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 31-33 & 90-111. ...read more.

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4 star(s)

Mark: 4/5

This is a very detailed piece of work, and a lot of consideration has gone into the explanation of reactions. The conclusions drawn are valid and the results are presented in very clear tables.

To gain a mark of 5/5, mechanisms should be shown in diagram form, and the conclusion and discussion should be differentiated properly. An indication as to why these particular properties were looked at would also give extra depth.

Marked by teacher Kathryn Bradley 01/10/2012

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