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adolescolence behaviour

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Introduction

Children and Adolescent Development - 2500 This essay discusses childhood development and the various theories and theorists that have certain preconceived ideas about childhood development, and whether development is related to either external of internal factors and/ or other variable factors. The word childhood has changed over time; children now have different experiences at different ages than previously. Childhood also changes depending on the cultural context that they are in. As the meaning of the word 'childhood' differs so greatly between generations and cultural context, is there a universal theory that can explain childhood development? The convention on the rights of children 1991 is a universally agreed set of standards in relation to basic human rights that all children have, they define children as anyone up to the age of 18. This essay discusses Bronfenbrenners ecological theory of development which suggests that a child develops in a particular way because of their external factors. Bronfenbrenners theory is related to Leanne in the case study provided, and from a social workers perspective on how suggested interventions come from this theory. As each group of theories has a different method of approaching and analysing childhood development the essay looks at further theories from the disciplines of ecological, psychosocial and developmental. Leanne's experiences and impact upon her of being abused and neglected in her development will be discussed, looking into what abuse and neglect actually is and whether Leanne's experiences would constitute being abused or neglected. Throughout the essay the forms of interventions a social worker could take are discussed relating to each particular theory, and more specifically Leanne and her family. ...read more.

Middle

All the differing theories would suggest different forms of interventions and specific practical approaches. The physiological approaches suggest a child's development is based on the individual genetic makeup of the child. This approach suggests that we inherit our behaviours from our biological family (Crawford; 2005). This theory would relate Leanne's behaviour to stages due to her age, so possibly a social worker undertaking this approach would look at Leanne's Mum and Dad and possibly grandparents and consider what they themselves were doing at the same age and their development growth at certain ages. Another way of looking at childhood development is from a psychological perspective, these theories relate to our behaviour and how the consequences of our behaviour influence our development. Skinner (2005;23) "explained development as acquisitions of behaviours, which are learned through responses to experiences". This is also known as operant conditioning, where the behaviour is leant by association with positive outcomes. Leanne's parents considered the things that Leanne did for them such as supporting them with the rearing of the children and the household tasks, as a duty as they felt it would give her good skills in childcare and housekeeping. Because there is no reward for Leanne doing these duties for her siblings or parents so therefore she just does it quickly to get the job done, whereas if positive reinforcement was utilised and perhaps a reward system was put in place she may enjoy doing these chores a little more. This theory doesn't look at the thoughts and feelings of the child like Albert Bandura social learning theory. ...read more.

Conclusion

issues of Leanne by being a young carer * Support for Leanne to go to school to enable her to achieve to her maximum potential * Reward systems for positive reinforcement of good behaviour These interventions are based on a holistic approach resulting from considering the various theories. This essay has discussed childhood development and the various theories that have differing perceptions about childhood development and whether development is related either to external of internal factors. The essay has discussed what childhood is in essence and its differences from previous definitions. The essay has come to the conclusion that there are no universal theories that can explain a children's development and it is dependent on cultural, societal and interpersonal variables. Each child should be considered on an individual basis and the theories shouldn't be used prescriptively as fact, they should be questioned and explored in to the values and ideas that are evident to enable guidance and give social workers and practitioners a basis and guide to work towards and/ or from (Crawford, 2005). Bronfenbrenners ecological theory of development has been discussed in relation to the case study, which suggests that a child develops in a particular way because of external factors. Other theories have been discussed throughout the essay in relation to Leanne and their contrasting differences to the others. Forms of intervention have been discussed throughout the essay specifically in relation to the theories in relating to Leanne. Children in need have been discussed and the essay has evaluated whether Leanne is a child in need, and if so how she is a child in need. ...read more.

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