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University Degree: Anthropology
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Ever since the introduction of mass media through print, media has surrounded us and has had significant impact on our political views, our economy and even shapes our culture and society.
In comparison to the written word, visual media seems to have a powerful control over the audiences' political opinions. One might assume that good looks may be a contributing factor to a political win. However, Windschuttle argues that "good looks are largely in the eye of the beholder...someone who has charisma will become good looking"2. As an example, Windschuttle refers to Richard Nixon's television appearances during the 1972 Presidential election3. According to western standards, Nixon was not considered a 'good looking' man.
- Word count: 1902
To what extent are marriage payments a reflection of the work value of women? Discuss with reference to ethnographic examples.
were used, dowries were more likely to be paid. This was because it was thought that women would have less of a productive role to play, as the men could handle all of the farm work, and so a husband would be paid to take on the economic liability of a woman. As Goody points out, this is something of a black and white view, and the two systems cannot really be seen as being in strict opposition to one another, as 'bridewealth does not go to the bride, but to her kin...; it is wealth for, not to, the bride,' while 'dowry...
- Word count: 1924
Describe and compare the attempts to classify and label different kinds of speakers of English by Barbara Mayor and David Graddol. What are the problems and issues raised?
Mayor employs a sociolinguistic approach in her approach to analysing the metalinguistic terms. When discussing the expressions used to describe language, She sees it (language) as a social construct, communicating more than just the overt message carried in the construction of the grammar and vocabulary. The issues involved end up having more to do with the identity of the speaker as perceived by themselves and others, than the language they use every day. For example, someone living in Cardiff might consider him or herself to be a staunch Welsh native without being able to speak a word of the language.
- Word count: 1829
What Are The Strengths And Weaknesses Of Richard Hoggart's Analysis Of 1950's Working-Class Culture In The Uses Of Literacy.
One of Hoggart's strength is to bring this world to life with his intimate memories of what Mulhern describes as a reflection on an older order3. While evocative his memories can, at first, appear as a parody of the working class - a Whippet breeding, flat cap wearing, cockroach infested parlour, Victorian diseased working class. It can be very easy to dismiss such memories as 'romantic tosh'. However, it is wise to remember that it is Hoggart's 'romantic tosh' - these are Hoggart's memories of a particular regional section of his class, and as long as the reader remembers this, they are perfectly valid.
- Word count: 1263
With the industrialisation of Briton, came urbanisation, workers were now pushed closer together around factories and industrial areas. The management for these factories kept away from the working classes, which took away their influence over them. In the new districts, an independent culture flourished and eventually gave birth to new political and cultural ideas developed solely through this new under-culture. Most prominently there came the idea of Chartism. Through this threat to the ruling classes it became politically prudent to monitor and study popular culture. From this time a theorist of social order and social authority, called Mathew Arnold, emerged and set a precedent for looking at Popular Culture.
- Word count: 1648
Illustrate and explain the economic importance of 'marriage', with at least two examples from different parts of the world.
Marriage is such a way of organizing society, although marriage cannot be defined universally. (Kinship, An Introduction to the basic concepts.) However in the great majority of societies it can be regarded as involving some cultural restriction on human sexual relations, restricting access for each individual to a limited number of other individuals. It is the exchange of women that draw groups together to form a society, as incest can be punished or badly frown upon in many communities. A marriage can be a recognized relationship between two individuals or an axis of an alliance between families.
- Word count: 1581
The culture and civilization described in the novel is most definitely one with many unique characteristics. It consists of functional systems used to deal with everything needed to sustain its population. It is indeed a society worth studying and preserving. The author uses the main character of the novel to explain this in further detail. Achebe introduces the protagonist early in the novel. Okonkwo is a man whose father was not well-respected in his community, and who was a great debtor. Okonkwo is ashamed of this, and in order to have achieved his status and respect in his village he proved his strength by wrestling a great fighter, and bringing honour to his people.
- Word count: 1698
The 1960's was a period of great experimentation in popular music and youth culture. 'Discuss with a reference to least ONE rock band performer'.
This mass conformity would later have a very important impact on the youth culture and music of the 60's. As the 50's tried to enforce its ideals upon its young ''to be part of a group.'' And that ''to stand out'' was bad; to be ''weird'' was not normal. These concepts focused on the children and socialising them in the ''right'' way through various organisations and activities. This attempt at forcing values ultimately produced a spoiled generation. It was labelled the ''corporate mind'' allowing the conformity to produce order. Money seemed plentiful there was no need for ''self-denial'', and materialism was a way of life.
- Word count: 1702
Critically assess the claim that globalisation produces cultural homogeneity on a global scale. Do American/Western cultural forms destroy 'local' cultures? Is the mass media simply a conduit for western cultural products and meanings?
and social relations (politics). In other words, culture is the sphere of reproduction not of goods but of life.' According to Albrow (1990, p9), globalisation refers to 'all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society, global society.' It is the interdependence and interconnectedness of global society whereby economics and politics increasingly transcend the territorial boundaries of the nation state. However, globalisation is not confined to economics, as Hartley points out, 'its cultural dimension includes global entertainment, fast food, fashion and culture.' (2002, p98) This cultural dimension of globalisation is enabled by the media, what could be said to be the primary facilitating agent for the dissemination of culture over the past hundred years.
- Word count: 1542
The definition can be explained using Ryle's example of a wink. A wink can be described as merely a twitch of the eye, this, Geertz would call a thin description. On the other hand, it could be described as a conspirational wink or a flirtatious gesture. This later description of the action does not simply observe and state the action, but takes into account other phenomena such as the different meanings different cultures may attribute to a gesture. This is what Geertz labled as a 'thick description'.
- Word count: 1813
As fashion changes, groups may wish to make a statement about their beliefs through their clothes, or lack thereof. Examples of such groups have in the past included those such as the 'punks' or the 'Goths'. 'These groups were concerned with an implicit politics of style, using fashion to quote, invert and distort dominant meanings' (Connor, 1997, p.214). This idea of signifiers and signifieds is the reason that fashion has the effect on society that it does. If people could not read into the intended meaning of the fashion statement portrayed by the carrier, fashion would not be the important issue that it is and would in fact become obsolete.
- Word count: 1835
Illustrate and explain the economic importance of 'marriage', with at least TWO examples from different parts of the world.
In this essay, I will first introduce and discuss marriage and its economic importance (or otherwise) for the Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea. I will then compare and contrast this to the same aspects of marriage for the Nuer of Southern Sudan. Having done this, I will draw from different points of the essay to come to a conclusion on the topic. A very important part of the Trobrianders' lives is yams. They work very hard to grow and harvest them, and they represent not only food, but also a very valuable asset. It is important to look at yams as more than food, because as Annette Weiner states in The Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea,
- Word count: 1781
Williams also developed a 'dual approach', which claims that culture is either anthropological or artistic. The anthropological approach stated that culture is located in specific places, and that culture is different in different places. An example of anthropological culture would be the things that we do in our spare time and the way that people speak will vary in different areas. To a certain extent, the things we do in our spare time are also affected by geography. For example in Cornwall many people spend spare time surfing, but it is not as easy to do this in London because the sea is some distance away.
- Word count: 1655
"The concept of diaspora…disrupts and unsettles our hitherto settled conceptions of culture, place and identity"(Hall 1995:207) Explain and discuss. Use examples to illustrate your answer.
One of the primary reasons for diasporic identities stems from colonisation and empire, e.g. the 'black', Chinese and Asian diaspora's evident in the U.K. today. This essay shall provide a background of the recent patterns of diaspora, critically review the role of space and place in the generation and maintenance of diasporic identities, critically discuss Hall's argument, and suggest the consequences of diasporic forms of culture, place and identity. References and examples will be used throughout. Following the end of the Second World War many of the colonised countries were released, prompting a flow of migrants from the former colonies to the colonial nations.
- Word count: 1972
Creativity and innovation have become increasingly important qualities in recent times. As a consequence of this a great deal of study has gone into how such qualities can be developed or enhanced.
These include: history; primary function and technology; goals and objectives; size; location; management and staffing; and the environment. By appreciating these key influences we will be able to take better - informed decisions as to the practical measures that we should take. The history of the firm refers to the reason, and the manner in which, the organisation was originally formed and the philosophy of its owners and first senior managers. Key events in the history of the organisation such as mergers are also important factors in determining culture. Primary function and technology is the nature of the organisations business and main function.
- Word count: 1755
MacDonald continues along these lines in his essay, "A Theory of Mass Culture" by examining specific examples of how kitsch has influenced, and debased various forms of high-culture. Hoggart's essay also examines the decline of substance in mass culture as a frenzy of immediate gratification without consideration for the greater payoffs of contemplation and reservation. Williams's essay, "The Analysis of Culture" discusses what he sees as the necessary greater social context of what we understand as culture. Williams also believes that culture can not be removed from the immediate setting of surrounding social events, such that communication between generations is always stigmatized by an inevitable degree of disconnection.
- Word count: 1429
Equally, serious contentions have been made by Crone as to the notions of a lucrative Arabian trade in luxury items surviving into the seventh century, as well as Mecca's role as an important hub within it. Thus, in order to account for the 'spectacular rise of the Arabs,' one needs to examine several crucial factors. Firstly, one needs to assess the role that decline in both the Byzantine and Persian Empires was to play, as well as to a lesser extent that of the Himyaritic and Kindan Kingdoms.
- Word count: 1986
The usefulness of Said's work can be demonstrated through showing how purported descriptions of an anterior reality for women in the 'third world' are burdened by the legacy of imperial modes of thought. For Reina Lewis it was in the past "not so much that 'imperial culture' developed to promote imperialism, but that, as a pervasive economic, social, political and cultural formation, the imperial project could not but influence how people thought, behaved and created" (Lewis, 1996, p64). Indeed, the prejudice Orientalism helps us perceive in the writing of some Western feminists lies precisely in their desire to liberate their subjects from the discrimination facing them.
- Word count: 1556
Lastly, the same parcel will be received. It is important to understand that in the concept of the SMR Model, the receiver is assumed to interpret the message as intended by the sender. The SMR model is one that is simple and easy to interpret. It is a general concept that can be used to represent communication practices using technologies like radio and telephone. For radio, the SMR model can be applied in a sense that the broadcasters as senders would plan programs which are the messages to be aired for listeners who would be the receivers.
- Word count: 1195
Discuss English band Blur's textual representations of British national identity, and analyse to what extent these representations are ideologically constructed.
PARAGRAPH 5 STRATEGY: Blur's paradigm creates a representation of British identity that is very exclusive and is therefore inaccurate. SUMMARY: Critiques Blur's representation of national identity and concludes that its exclusivity makes it inaccurate. Omission of racial minorities, women and those outside of the working classes does not portray accurately what it means to be British, or therefore, Britain's identity. States that all representations are, simply that, mere representations. Discuss English band Blur's textual representations of British national identity, and analyse to what extent these representations are ideologically constructed.
- Word count: 1459
Man is a social being and as such, one of his innate need is the desire to form interpersonal relationships with other human beings.
of union she wants to develop base on the man's capability of dealing with these issues adequately. In an attempt to explain, the gender differences observed in the mate selection process, Trivers (1972) proposed an evolutionary psychological theory in which he introduced the idea that males and females adopt different mating strategies because their roles in reproduction are different. In that, females experienced higher risks than males in opposite-sec interaction because they have higher investment in the offspring that are produced from these interactions. In addiction, females release one per month for fertilization which results in them having a lower potential fertility than that of males who produced millions of sperms per day.
- Word count: 1415
Knowing this, how then do we define ourselves? For convenience in this discourse I will refer to the "Caribbean" to speak about the region. The Caribbean as a unified region conferring some sense of collective citizenship and community is a figment of the imagination. 'The Caribbean" is a geographical expression often associated with a site, a sea and several islands. Many tourists will tell you that they have been to the Caribbean and that it is a real place. They have seen Caribbean people and can attest to a Caribbean reality.
- Word count: 1873
This paper will focus on the Agenda-Setting Theory (McCombs & Shaw, 1972) and how this theory can relate to the decline of Native American culture through the many outlets of the mass media today.
Everyday we come in contact with the mass media in one form or another. Whether it is print or broadcast, for many of us the media is a staple in our fast-paced lifestyles. No matter where we turn we are bombarded with many different forms of culture. Many of these are rather new and have been documented in some form or another. Native American culture has no documentation for it has been passed down orally from generation to generation. Some aspects of these are sacred and shouldn't be shared with just anyone, but a great deal of these hold very complex philosophical ideas which have never been conceived in contemporary society.
- Word count: 1646
"It begins, I think, with the act of recognition. Recognition that it was we who did the dispossessing. We took the traditional lands and smashed the tradition way of life. We brought the disasters...We committed the murders." First, Keating employs inclusive technique to include himself in the non-Aboriginal Australians group. Since this group of audience is the target addressee that Keating's speech intends to convince, it is thoughtful for Keating to present himself as a fellow member of the group in order to win the supports. Rather than to speaks as a politician, but to speak on behalf of the group that he belongs to.
- Word count: 1735
Throughout his essay Smith makes some very strong points that suggest how religion should be studied. He asserts that religion is the study of something unobservable yet very real. This makes sense mainly because Smith defines religion as existing within the hearts of man. Therefore if one studies religion one is studying the faith and beliefs that exist within the inner soul of each person. If one studies religion, according to Smith, one should be studying religion internally, not the documents, religious practices or history. Moreover this understanding of how Smith defines the study of religion allows some of his other more vague claims to make sense.
- Word count: 1178