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University Degree: Anthropology

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  1. Investigate the reality about Is it true that cultural and language difference blocks communication between students in pre-sessional course. and if it is not, what is the real situation in pre-sessional course?

    Furthermore, the recommendation will be given to improve the level of communication between people with different cultural background. 3 Method 4 Findings Problems of intercultural communication The problems in intercultural communication usually come from problems in message transmission. In communication between people of the same culture, the person who receives the message interprets it based on values, beliefs, and expectations for behavior similar to those of the person who sent the message. When this happens, the way the message is interpreted by the receiver is likely to be fairly similar to what the speaker intended. However, when the receiver of the message is a person from a different culture, the receiver uses information from his or her culture to interpret the message.

    • Word count: 1919
  2. Who Owns Native Culture?

    A classic example is the control in the colonial situation that consisted of laws to govern people. Colonial authorities help to create an 'Indian culture'. Indian culture is like mosaic pieces. Benhabib defines it as, "the view that human groups and cultures are clearly delineated and identifiable entities that coexist, while maintaining firm boundaries, as would pieces of a mosaic." (Benhabib 8) Culture is defined in contrast to yours. We define culture with counter distinction to ourselves. The colonial rule over what 'Indian culture' is an example of this phenomenon. Benhabib and Brown both have similar views to the answer of the question, 'who owns native culture?'

    • Word count: 1150
  3. The 1960's

    However, the 1960s were a period in which many members of the culture actively sought and achieved social change, particularly for women. This was directly in response to what was widely regarded as the austere and restrictive nature of the post-war years. This narrative regarding the 1950s was drawn upon by both my Grandparents and my peers in our respective conversations, thus strengthening its validity. My Grandmother remembers the modest, "sensible" styles of fashion worn by both males and females during the 1950s.

    • Word count: 1509
  4. The problem of the relations between culture and society is difficult to resolve in respect of media then in any other context.

    If we consider mass media as an aspect of society (base or structure) then the option of materialism is presented As defined by Williams (1981) materialist approach is an emphasis on "a whole social order" within which a specifiable culture, in styles of art and kinds of intellectual work, is seen as the direct or indirect product o an order primarily constituted by other social activities. The considerable body of the theory views culture as dependent on the economic and power structure of a society. As this economic and power structure of a society is measured by the success of people enjoy in life through material gains, reflecting "the conditions for the dominance of a determinate social class whose social power derived from its property ownership"(Marx, 1973, pp.67-80).

    • Word count: 1637
  5. Tikanga Maori

    can meet Maori, where intertribal obligations can be met, where the customs can be explored, practiced, debated, continued, or amended, and where necessary ceremonies-such as welcoming visitors or fare welling the dead can be carried out. It is the place where the generations before the present ones held the mana of the iwi or the hapu, maintained the tikanga to the best of their ability and kept the culture alive. It is a named piece of ground, registered as a Maori reservation where tikanga Maori has pride of place.

    • Word count: 1359
  6. Things Fall Apart provides a rich introduction into traditional Ibo culture and values. Present an account of the way of the life featured in Part 1 of the novel.

    This would be discussed in greater detail during this account. Firstly, let us consider the term 'evil.' Every culture has its definition of evil and what it considers as an evil act. In Things Fall Apart, the Ibo culture referred to the Africans as people who had a different way of seeing what evil was. This was quite clear in their ways of tradition. What is considered to be evil in one culture may not be seen as evil in another culture.

    • Word count: 1717
  7. Popular culture and researching Europe

    During this lecture Thematic approaches were introduced to us. This demonstrated a higher level of working out what exactly and how you arrive at the topic that you would wish to develop for use as a paper to give at a seminar/conference. Firstly, we had to list all the different kinds of ways that we had been thinking about European issues. We were told to make sure that they were coherent and well worded. Next we had to break this down into what would be good for a conference and of interest to others as a potential conference project.

    • Word count: 1696
  8. Why is Political Tolerance an important element of a democratic political culture and what are the obstacles to Political Tolerance in South Africa?

    Therefore, in our youth, it is a very important time for the development of political tolerance, and the role of socialisation becomes apparent. Political tolerance is an important element of democratic political culture. In order for a country to be totally democratic, it is essential that the citizens feel free to express their political viewpoints without the fear of recrimination. In South Africa, political tolerance was integral to the progress of our fledgling democracy. "...the willingness of citizens to put up with their political opponents, to allow...

    • Word count: 1433
  9. The Identification of the main theme in "Things Fall Apart".

    The Ibo people had their own unique culture, in which they truly believed in. Every tribe in Africa had their own culture, their own beliefs and languages. The villages were never the same, for example Umuofia, the village of Okonkwo. Umuofia's inhabitants believed in the chi, or personal god. It determined much of a person's destiny and character. "When a man says yes his chi says yes also" (page 27). But at the same time, one did not challenge his or her chi. The Ibo religion had a tendency to symbolize numerous gods. They had a god for every different natural phenomenon that occurred.

    • Word count: 1261
  10. Post War Pop-Culture.

    Both types of magazines were wildly successful; one such magazine, True-Story, exhibited growth from 300,000 readers in 1919 to almost two million by 1926. This further fueled the nation's acceptance of sex in popular culture as well as it's desire for it. Mainly however, the proprietors of newspapers and magazines in the 1920's realized that "...mention of the leading event of the day, whatever it might be, was the key to public interest." (158, Allen) The Cross-Word Puzzle craze of 1924 and 1925 owes its being to such reasoning as its advertising campaign was based on the very idea that cross-word puzzles would be the next big fad.

    • Word count: 1018
  11. Disney- wholesome family entertainment or corrupt and destructive propaganda?

    "The term folklore was coined in 1846 to refer to the ballads, folktales and customs of the rural past. Now days, folklore is taken to refer to the everyday culture and cultural traditions of all social groups- young as well as old, urban as well as rural, ourselves as well as others." (Folklore society, University College, London.) Folk cultures were originally invented by people in a specific community and were intended for the inhabitants of that community to be cherished and taught to forthcoming generations. Disney has, over the years, created numerous films surrounding these folk cultures. By borrowing folk motifs from different folk cultures and adapting them to their target market, Americans, they have succeeded in creating a new order of meaning and society that replaces the old one.

    • Word count: 1676
  12. Discuss Culture and Socialization as sociological concepts. Briefly compare human and animal societies. Consider the implications of the documented cases of 'isolated' or 'unsocialised' children for our understanding of the human learning capacity.

    (Theodorson and Theodorson 1960 as discussed in Knuttila) So, culture can be seen as the way we think and act in a society. It is a group's total way of life that consists of 'material' and 'non-material' human products. The shared 'non-material' products pertain to customs, habits, traditions, values, beliefs and knowledge where as the material aspects include material products that have developed over time and out of a social group that has endeavoured to solve its problems and meet its needs. Such examples of material products range from beds to deodorant to sound systems to computers.

    • Word count: 1731
  13. With reference to AT LEAST ONE OTHER course text, justify or contest F.R.Leavis's argument that 'in any period it is upon a very small minority that the discerning appreciation of art and literature depends'.

    Throughout Leavis's pamphlet, I get the impression that he has unreservedly ignored the popular culture in England, and insists that only what he sees as being culturally 'good' is true culture. True, the works of Shakespeare and Homer are fascinating, brilliant pieces of literature, but if the Sun newspaper sells more copies that the complete works of Shakespeare, doesn't that make the Sun better, culturally, as it is more popular? If this is true, then Leavis's argument is wrong, as a small minority would be able to appreciate certain types of art and literature, but a larger minority could still appreciate their own forms of culture.

    • Word count: 1886
  14. Alan Ginsberg's "Howl" - Understanding the necessary and complex relationships between power and language

    white American males in the 1950's, certain authoritative forms used their linguistic force to "impose on others their group's definition of events, people, and actions. Toward this end I will first seek to identify the numerous power groups explored by Ginsberg and discuss and exemplify the ways in which the various groups interacted. I will then elaborate on their individual verbal strategies and how these contributed to the inter-group dynamic. POWER GROUPS OF HOWL "Howl" begins with the phrase "I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness," and proceeds to describe their individual downfalls.

    • Word count: 1378
  15. What is Culture? Is it Possible or Desirable to have Different Approaches to its Study?

    Every human society has its own shape, its own purposes, and its own meanings. Every human society expresses these, in institutions, and in arts and learning. The making of a society is the finding of common meanings and directions, and its growth is an active debate and amendment under the pressures of experience, contact, and discovery, writing them selves into the land. A culture has two aspects: the known meanings and directions, which its members are trained to; the new observations and meanings, which are offered and tested. These are the ordinary processes of human societies and human minds, and we see through them the nature of a culture: that it is always both traditional and creative; that it is both the most ordinary common meanings and the finest individual meanings.

    • Word count: 1959
  16. A multicultural society?

    Obviously the immigrants have decided themselves to change their homeland and so are meant to try to integrate into the new society without causing any conflicts, but to a certain extent. When a person think of the immigrants, the reason of their migration, there will be found many pushing factors. Maybe a war is going on in their homelands or there had occurred a natural phenomenon, and so on. These pushing factors are so powerful that they can not even think of their new social status in a new society, in a new territory.

    • Word count: 1001
  17. Can you see any differences between Japanese and Chinese politeness practices? Do you think that people over emphasise politeness as a marker of cultural difference? If not, why not?

    Rei embraces those same principles of humbling oneself and elevating others, and also refers to 'proper' etiquette such as bowing and reciprocating favours as expected in Japanese culture. In this regard Chinese and Japanese politeness practices are extremely similar as they operate on, essentially, the same politeness principle. Furthermore, the Japanese notion of 'face', reciprocating favours, and the extensive nature of apology formulae and benefactive verbs mirror the two 'cardinal principles' of limao: sincerity and balance.2 These principles are socially sanctioned beliefs that prescribe politeness to be returned, else one be socially indebted.

    • Word count: 1769
  18. How Do Studies of Organisational Cultures Help Us In Understanding the Dynamics of Working Life?

    These can provide an insight into a company's culture, as they are the result of it. For example, Apple use the logo of an apple which ahs been bitten into. An apple is the forbidden fruit of Eden, and so might symbolise the birth of new knowledge. Mission statements too are good indicators as they detail the direction of the company, its values and what it wants to be. The architecture of a building put across an image of the company itself. It affects how the employees work and feel, and how the customer feels. For example, the identity of McDonalds is portrayed in its layout, furniture and lighting.

    • Word count: 1316
  19. The different uses and vales of camel culture in the past and present .

    competitions. I- In the past: "In 1960s, there was one car which belong to Sheikh Shakhbout Bin Sultan Al-Nahyan , the ruler of Abu Dhabi." Mohammed A. Al-Menhali. That could show us how life was difficult for local people to buy a car these days. However, camels did very well in past in major thing such as trading and traveling. A. Traveling and Trading: Traveling and trading were the main function camels because they carried more goods and traveled without drinking water for months.

    • Word count: 1008
  20. Summarise and critically evaluate the view of 'popular culture' taken by Adorno and Fiske.

    Adorno saw that Capitalism was becoming more and more entrenched within society and that there was no sign that it would either breakdown or collapse. He dismissed Marx' prediction that it would be economics that kept Capitalism afloat, and turned his attention and emphasis to the role of culture. He believed that it was the culture inflicted on society that would encourage Capitalism to thrive. Popular Culture was seen as a huge selling product and Adorno argues that these easily absorbed products would increase and boost the Capitalist market.

    • Word count: 1619
  21. Managing across culture.

    Compaq also need hire many local employees for oversea branches or customer service. Another example, my father is a manager of Shanghai B&B Peaks Garments Co. Ltd; the company is a Sino-Singapore Joint-Venture Company, It is a large-scale leather garments exporting manufacture, processes for some famous brands leather garments to export to U.S.A, Japan, Canada, West-Europe, the customers include: U.S.A - GUESS,LONDONFOG, BOSTON OUTFIT,WINLIT,G?, AUSTRALIA-ATELIER, VICTOR, and so on. The company also hires professional technician from South Korea. These employees and oversea suppliers or customers have different cultures, can cause companies thrust into international relationships. A manager needs to now what the across culture can cause, and how to manage the across culture.

    • Word count: 1429
  22. A person's identity cannot be given to them, instead a person must achieve a sense of her character through personal experience and self search. In "No Name Woman", Maxine Hong Kingston recalls the events of her aunt's life.

    In the opening scene of the story, the audience is immediately presented with a tragic story within a story. The events viewed in retrospect through the eyes of the narrator's traditional conservative mother seem skewed and moralistic, delivered in an instructive voice. The mother's speech is purely didactic. She is telling this story to Kingston to teach a lesson; never do what your aunt has done and do not bring shame upon the family name. Instead of clearly accepting this tale, Kingston has a hard time believing and consenting to her mother's message. Although Kingston is to never speak of the aunt and pretend that the aunt never existed, she disobeys her mother and comes up with a speculative version of events in retelling her aunt's story.

    • Word count: 1667
  23. Knowledge Management.

    The more effective the relationship between supplier and customer, the more successful an organisation is. This success depends on their abilities to operate in this fast moving global marketplace. According to Nonaka and Takeuchi, ' by organisational knowledge creation' we mean the capability of a company as a whole to create knowledge, disseminate it throughout the organisation, and embody it in products, services and systems. However, they suggest that although they use the phrase 'organisational knowledge,' an organisation does not create knowledge on its own but from iniatives of individuals and interaction within a group.

    • Word count: 1858
  24. Explain the difference between culture and communication and how a cultures heritage is communicated. Support your argument with relevant research.

    It also provides structure, which supplies humans with the skills and rules necessary to adapt our world. Cultures have evolved to the point where they are people's primary means of satisfying three types of needs: Basic needs, such as food shelter and physical protection. The second need is derived need such as organization of work, distribution of food, defense and social control. Last, the integrative needs like psychological security, social harmony and purpose in life. Culture is understood as collectively held set of attribute, which is dynamic and changing over time (Gopalkrishnan, 2003). Because culture influences people from the instant they are born, they rarely aware of the many messages it sends.

    • Word count: 1428
  25. How Important Is Symbolism In the African Story 'Veronica' by Adewale Maja-Pearce?

    Pain is apparent at the beginning of the story. Okeke is just about ready to leave for the University, when he meets up with Veronica for the last time. The symbolism here helps to exemplify what the two characters are feeling and thinking, without the need of using unnecessary words and phrases. When they meet at the stream, the imagery and symbolism are mostly natural, showing the need for your roots to be remembered and savoured. When you delve into the depths of people's emotions, their roots, childhood culture and traditions are what fundamentally makes them who they are.

    • Word count: 1358

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