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University Degree: Anthropology

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  1. The Dao of virtue and power that Master Lao wrote discussed the primordial emptiness and mysterious subtlety.

    ????????, ????????, ?? "??" ??????,???????, ?? "????"?????????, ????, ????, ????, ?????, ????; ??????, ????, ???????????????????, ??????, ????????, ??????? (JHY, 23, p.165) The content of Shaozi elaborated here is actually a self-reference of the content of the Jinghua yuan ??? (The flowers in the mirror, hereafter Flowers) written by Li Ruzhen ??? (ca. 1763-1830) in the early nineteenth century.1 The Flowers had enjoyed a remarkable popularity since its first publication in 1818.2 Its remarkable diversity in both narrative content and stylistic mode has attracted much scholarly attention, and at the same time prevented critics from an integral interpretation of the whole work.

    • Word count: 1098
  2. Organisational cultures.

    The manager has totally knowledge of everything that is happening in the organization. It is usually found in small entrepreneurial organizations where control rests with a single individual or small group of individuals. The culture is often characterized by internal power struggles where individuals try to improve their own position by conflicting with others. In this type of organization the emphasis is on individuals rather than group decision-making, however decisions can therefore be maid quickly. There is a weakness, however, in that, because the organization is autocratic, individuals may feel suppressed and de-motivated by the lack of challenge on the company.

    • Word count: 1095
  3. Chasing freedom, in the novels, Halfbreed, and Wild Geese

    In Wild Geese, women's rights, while not addressed outright, are an important theme. Although raised under very different conditions, Judith and Maria share many of the same struggles. They both long for a different life, one where they are free to live their own dreams and pursue their own goals. The prairies have a way of humbling a person, as though the vast distances of land and sky could strip a person down to the bare bones of their existence and force them to uncover their own truths at the most basic level.

    • Word count: 1905
  4. The differences between men and women

    " Boys were fickle and likely to be unkind, my mother and I knew that, as surely as we knew they tried to make you do things in the dark they wouldn't respect you for afterwards, and would spoil your rep." Anne Roiphe continues, " Boys appeared to be hypocritical, self- seeking, exploitative, untrustworthy, and very likely to be showing off their precious masculinity."(Roiphe, Anne 504). Men are equally exposed to gender typing of women at an early impressionable age.

    • Word count: 1357
  5. The topic of truth has been a debated topic for many century, defining it has been very complicated due to the many loopholes and exceptions involved; hence many philosophies have been developed.

    Culture refers to a group or community which one share common experiences that shape the way one understands the world. A knower's interaction with others is limited to those surrounding them as one is unable to interact with everyone that exist or has existed in this world. One's culture would include the groups that one is born into, like gender, race or national origin, and also the groups one joins or become part of. Therefore, an individual conforms to the truth that is held by the group of people they belong with.

    • Word count: 1506
  6. Socialisation change.

    The following concepts are beliefs and customs of society and its whole way of life. Norms: These so called norms give us guidance on how to think act, speak, think and even feel. Norms are also rules about how people should or should not behave in certain situations. We learn a variety of different norms from the society and the influence of others surrounding us. Values: These are things we regard as important. For instance life is a high value and culture allows us to accept and work out the meaning of life and how to make sense of it all.

    • Word count: 1161
  7. Barbara Kingsolves novel The Poinsonwood Bible as an example of post-colonial literature.

    'The church service lasts twice as long now because the Reverend has to say it once in English and then...'.'On a walk one morning our father turned to his daughters and said...' These quotes emphasise this point of distance between Mr.Price and his family. His daughters always address him as 'the Reverend' or 'Father' and never use colloquial, friendly slang such as dad or papa as they do with their mother. This just proves that there are clear elements of respect and even veneration in their father-daughter relationships.

    • Word count: 1989
  8. Legends - A long long time ago in a deserted town called Romberine existed an old woman that liked very much to told stories.

    Romberine began to be famous for its stories, consequently many people from all over the world went there in order to hear them with their own ears. Little by little people spread them and adjusted them to their own cultures. After 10 years every country developed their own adventures and stories that by being told from generation to generation became what we know now as legends. For over a thousand years, storytellers have developed tales, songs and stories twisted and turned over the centuries which defined our expectations of heroism, romance, and adventure, as well as our explanations of the world.

    • Word count: 1403
  9. Relationships are necessary for all humans to define and comprehend each other and the world around them. Discuss this quote with reference to the set text (Maestro) and two other texts of your choice.

    This contrasts with the adult Paul's reflections of 'I find it hard to understand how much I came to love the man, to depend on him'. (P13) The contrast in the voice of the young narrator Paul and adult Paul reflect the changes in Paul in terms of understanding himself and Keller through their relationship. His relationship with Keller is also crucial in defining himself, in terms of his musical limitations. Without their relationship, Paul would not have realized he is not as talented as his parents think.

    • Word count: 1648
  10. Do culture and individual beliefs affect logical thinking?

    any logical thinking, this child would grow up believing that what he learned during his childhood is the truth and that he is correct. However in many cases the child would have been brought up with incorrect ideas. As an example, the Indians in the interior of Brazil, are all brought up learning what their parents and tribe members do. From their point of view there are lots of gods and each god has a specific function e.g. god of the rain, god of nature and of the sun.

    • Word count: 1451
  11. Is a truly multicultural society possible?

    Millions, thousands... or at least a few times. People who are from a different culture, or give the impression of being different or even have different set of opinions are often used as scapegoats and come across many stereotypical views of them and teasing by the 'normal' people. Looking diverse on the outer surface, doesn't necessarily mean being different. Nevertheless, a high figure of people portrays it so and then a problem arises. Often the minorities are the ones, which suffer from this misunderstanding.

    • Word count: 1916
  12. In writing "Ah Mah", Shirley Lim has drawn upon her Chinese background to reveal to us how powerfully a culture shapes the ideals and life of its society as an entity and the individuals, be it familial or the single persons.

    In the first stanza, the grandmother's stature is compared to a child of eight. As a child symbolizes weakness and helplessness, the poet has liken her grandmother to the same vulnerable state. By posing a question in the second line, one is invited to contemplate the sort of life the old lady might have led, controlled and manipulated such as that of a child. In the second stanza, the true state of the grandmother is revealed to us. She is "helpless (and)

    • Word count: 1361
  13. Management styles: Democratic, Consultative & Autocratic

    In an organisation with a culture of consultation, there will be a series of mechanisms e.g.: - newsletters, briefings. The structure is likely to be flatter with very good communication channels. There will be a forward-looking culture. Autocratic Management Style: The autocratic management style is one where the manager is used to giving instructions - telling people what to do rather than asking them for their opinions. The manager is the only person contributing to the decision-making process. This style was more typical in the 1970's. A number of managers who have had this approach find it difficult or impossible to change their ways.

    • Word count: 1461
  14. The sense of culture associated with A Stench of kerosene.

    "Once every year, there was a harvest festival when the girls would have new clothes made. Their dupattas would be dyed, starched and sprinkled with mica." This goes to show the preparations that take place for such a valued event in their lives which conveys the message to the readers that their lives are dull and the future ahead for them is rather bleak. One would assume that her duration of the stay would be of some length but of course realistically it was only to be a " few days" and even then a man was sent to escort Guleri as if she was a criminal back to what some might say is her cell.

    • Word count: 1751
  15. Explain The Meaning of The Following Terms: Race, Ethnicity, Culture, Prejudice and Discrimination

    Culture is something that someone is born into depending on their origins. Someone from Africa will have different cultural values to those from England. These values are learnt from one generation to another and have nothing to do with race or ethnicity, neither is any one culture superior to another. Cultural differences include things like: * Household items (tools) * Dress/fashion * Religion * Art and literature * Education * Accommodation Every culture has a different way of life and even though a person moves to another country, they don't necessarily adopt all of that country's culture, they usually keep their own beliefs and ways of life.

    • Word count: 1833
  16. Beth Heke, A Symbol of Maori Struggle In Once Were Warriors

    The morning after a particularly terrible beating, Beth tells her daughter, Grace, "such is a woman's lot." She says this in reference to the terrible things a husband does, proving that she has been colonized as a woman. To be colonized is to have lost part of your identity to someone or something different from you. Jake's tribal ancestors were a poor, low-level tribe. Beth's were royalty. Beth left her title of princess when she left with Jake. According to Pionair Adventure's history of New Zealand,"[New Zealand] remained largely uncolonized until the early 1800's. England's Captain James Cook, who first visited the Maori in 1769, opened the door to European (chiefly British)

    • Word count: 1483
  17. Ortner/Orientalism

    By way of this, I want to make it evident that Orientalism is in fact a universal phenomenon. The Box of Agency Model Agency [image001.gif] Factors influencing boxes' structure Ortner, in studying the relationship of the Sahib and Sherpa demonstrates how the conception of Orientalism is a world-view. She doesn't assert it as a typical ethnographic model, as the theory on its own is not enough, but stresses it as a model which the average European (like the Sahib) may use for dealing and understanding the `other' culture (in this case; Sherpa). Orientalism, though real and evident and apparently used as a form of control by the Sherpa, only plays a minor role and so the reasons for it must be observed and be considered.

    • Word count: 1258
  18. Comment on the history and legacy of slavery in relation to Jean Rhys’ Wide Sargasso Sea

    These systems included having property qualifications, membership of professional bodies and the possession of a university degree. As we can see already, exploitation was rife. Although the sugar colonies did wonders for the wealthy, it has generally been agreed that the colonies were dismal social failures. The work associated with sugar production was burdensome because it involved a considerable manufacturing input on the plantation, as well as harsh agricultural labour. That is to say, it was very labour intensive. It was for this reason that the slave trade developed and thrived. Natives, other Caribbean people and West Africans were all brought in to fuel the riches greed.

    • Word count: 1606
  19. The Netherlands

    Telephone and fax are widely used for communications. The most popular newspapers are De Telegraaf and De Volkskrant. Foreign newspapers are widely available and read. Mastercard, American Express, Diners Club and Visa are all accepted almost anywhere. There are no restrictions on the import and export of either local or foreign currency. Transportation within the Netherlands are by rail, sea, and air. KLM Cityhopper operates between Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Groningen, Enschede, Maastricht and Eindhoven. Ferry services run to the Wadden Islands from across the Ijsselmeer and Schelde Estuary. There is also a service to the Frisian Islands across the Waddenzee.

    • Word count: 1046
  20. How have ethnographic analogies have been used in the interpretation of Prehistoric exchange systems?

    According to Torrence, archaeology as a discipline is heavily dependent on ethnography in trying to define past economic systems. For example, modern ethnography and economic anthropological theory is used in order to explain the economic structure in the late Bronze Age. (Ostaja-Zagorski 1993). Interpretation of prehistoric economic phenomena was influenced by a deterministic model of economic social formation and means of production (Ibid.). This model was presented as a motor that goes through different stages of economic development and was often linear in progress, suggesting that all societies developed in the same way (Bahn and Renfrew 1996, Ostaja-Zagorski 1993).

    • Word count: 1999
  21. Maori Culture. Describe mana and comment on its relevance during the powhiri using a detailed example.

    (Ka?ai & Higgins 2004:14)All people possess mana but at varying amounts, delegated by a range of sources. Generally, the amount of mana is directly connected to ones whakapapa (genealogy), which transfers the status of one?s ancestors from the Te Taha Wairua (spiritual side) to the Te Taha Kikikiko (physical side) (Duncan 2012). This is most evident in, the primary source of mana, mana atua (mana from the gods). Mana atua occurs when you are the eldest child, of a long line of elder sons, referred to as tuakana (senior line)

    • Word count: 1217
  22. What can the study of childrens literature tell us about different models of childhood?

    During this period, story books were not considered necessary for children and fiction was generally disliked as it could lead to children developing vain fantasies and unchristian ideals. These attitudes can still be found today in more extreme faith groups, in particular towards the fantasy genre. (Hall, 2003, p.137) A turning point in popular attitudes in Britain came with the theories of philosopher John Locke published in this book Some Thoughts Concerning Education in 1693. He believed children were born with minds like ?blank slates?, or tabula rasa in Latin, with individual thoughts and ideas.

    • Word count: 1833

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