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University Degree: Anthropology

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  1. Extended Essay on Mimicry in Humans

    For instance, people often tend to copy non-verbal behaviours like gestures and expressions. Similarly, people wince at the sight of injury, thereby imitating the behaviour of the injured person. These actions are automatic, unconscious and more often than not both parties are unaware of this behaviour. Mimicry is widely prevalent in conversations where the reflexive copying of one person by another results in the unconscious back and forth trading of smiles, interjections and head nodding (Pentland, 2010). Mimicry is different from the conscious act of imitation in several ways. According to Bandura's (1977)

    • Word count: 4901
  2. This Research paper will present an overview of traditional Chinese marriage system and customs from the Engagement to the Wedding Day, also including various forms of marriages in ancient times.

    The latter's children will form yet another circle of husbands and wives and so on. The only taboo in this marriage form is the asexual relationship between two generations, for example between a mother and her son or a grandfather and a daughter. In its typical form, a family would consist of the children of a single pair, the descendants of these children in each generation being again brothers and sisters and therefore husbands and wives of one another. In China a famous consanguine marriage is a Chinese creation myth, it says that at the beginning of the universe there were a brother, Fuxi, and a sister, N�wa, who lived in the Kunlun Mountains and who were the only survivors of a massive flood.

    • Word count: 6599
  3. The Relevance of Antropology

    To support, McCabe (2005, p. 86) suggests that the term 'tourist' is used as a concept to convey meanings about social life and activities within the context of wider social dialogues. However, Wall & Mathieson (2006, p. 17) argue that the range of the 'tourist' is complicated and has been expanded with the rise of tourism research. The ambiguity surrounding the concept provides a diverse result in human behaviour associated with leisure travel, consequently a typology of tourists can be derived, McCabe (2005, p.

    • Word count: 3581
  4. Free essay

    Dark Tourism: manipulating tourists interpretation

    Furthermore, according to Dann (1998), dark tourism destinations can also be classified in five different categories described below: Perilous Places: Dangerous destinations from the past and present such as towns of horror, dangerous destinations. E.g.: Chernobyl or Hiroshima Houses of horror: Buildings associated with death and horror, either actual or represented such as dungeons of death or heinous hotels. E.g.: The London dungeon or the house of terror in Budapest. Fields of fatality: Areas/land commemorating death, fear, fame or infamy such as bloody battlegrounds, the hell of the holocaust, or cemeteries for celebrities.

    • Word count: 3130
  5. Anthropology and Tourism Industry

    Elite tourists: individuals who have been 'almost everywhere' but with pre-arranged service facilities and adapting fully but temporally to local norms. Off-beat tourists: tourists who want to look for stay away the touristic areas and want to do something beyond the norm. Unusual tourists: individuals interested in the 'primitive' culture but with safety facilities travelling by organized tours and adapted somewhat to local norms. Incipient mass tourists: steady flow of people seeking Western amenities and comfort Mass tourists: individuals with middle-class income and values who expect Western amenities and trained multi-lingual hotels and tourists staffs in order to fulfill their needs.

    • Word count: 3292
  6. A History of Body Piercing throughout Society

    servant found Rebekah, and one of the gifts he gave her was a "golden earring" the original Hebrew word used was Shanf, which also translates as "nose-ring". This practice is still followed among the nomadic Berber and Beja tribes of Africa, and the Bedouins of the Middle East, the size of the ring denotes the wealth of the family. It is given by the husband to his wife at the marriage, and is her security if she is divorced. Nose piercing was bought to India in the 16th Century from the Middle East by the Moghul emperors.

    • Word count: 4919
  7. How has the West represented the non-West, and what are the political implications of such representations?

    I believe that the West used each of these situations for aggrandisement, by exploiting and extracting land, labour or resources. The result of this is the perpetuation of the current balance of power - the West maintains the economic and political power, and thus the control of the dominant discourse. Thus, they also retain the ability to represent the non-West in a way most beneficial to them, while the non-West nations remain marginalized and powerless. (Wallerstein in Seligson and Passe-Smith 1998, p.290)

    • Word count: 4375
  8. CBNRM - reflecting on the past to create potential for the future

    After colonial occupation, international concern about endangered species and soil erosion led to the creation of National Parks, and this has left many indigenous communities homeless in order to protect the wildlife. The result is an atmosphere of hostility and distrust between local communities and the state. This ignorance and misrepresentation of local traditions can result in local population's opinions being neglected, for example through misunderstanding different forms of protest: In Nicaragua, the reaction to the removal of the local population's access to natural resources was passive resistance, remaining silent and unresponsive.

    • Word count: 3410
  9. Discuss the extent to which tourism is a neo colonialist activity supported by cultural perceptions based on social Darwinism and colonialism.

    Further to this, there are many areas that cultural perception can focus on such as the socio-cultural impacts or Doxeys' index of irritation (Smith. M, 2003 p. 53); probably too many for the scope of this paper, therefore the issue of sex tourism will be focussed upon. 'Sexual conquest and exploitation were of paramount importance to the European colonizers, who raped and looted their way through the Americas. For more than five hundred years, the sexual labour of women has been embedded in the normal operation of political and economic structures in this part of the world.'(Kempadoo 1999, cited in Cabezas, A, 2004).

    • Word count: 3957
  10. To what extent do skateboard magazines reflect counter cultural ideologies?

    'Sport trains the work force to operate according to the norms of capitalist, or bureaucratic state capitalist exploitation. Sport is basically a mechanism of the body, treated as an automaton, governed by the principle of maximising output' (Brohm, 1978, p55). This demonstrates how Brohm's (1978) work operates from a Marxist perspective, illustrating that sport is simply used as a vehicle to reproduce capitalist values and ideologies within society. However, Brohm's (1978) work is based on work previously theorised by Althusser (1971), which focuses on class struggle.

    • Word count: 3862
  11. The Culture of Britishness What role does 'language' play in notions of cultural and national identity in Britain?

    "...it may be suspected that there is little in the functional side of our conscious behaviour in which language does not play its part." (Sapir, cited in Downes, 1998:1) Due to this multitude of roles that language plays a part in, it is perhaps not surprising that the actual word 'language' is also used in many different ways. At the simplest level 'language' can be used as a word that refers to a set of skills. This can be taken as something that can be learnt as a subject in school, as children and even adults are taught how to read and write in English language lessons for instance.

    • Word count: 3772
  12. Philosophy for Children I. The concept of the Community of Inquiry Central to the heart of P4C lies the notion of a community of inquiry. Originally a term from Pierce to reference interaction

    that of the community the criteria of a "good" reason (the question of truth) or discovery vs. construction It is important to recognize the presence of these issues within the P4C method and to explore how these issues color our vision of that method. We will note certain tensions among writers about P4C in terms of which metaphysical vision best embraces the ideals behind the COI. In the sections below I will suggest also a series of questions that are provoked by discussions of the COI which will hopefully lead to further reflection and dialogue with the P4C community itself.

    • Word count: 3761
  13. Discuss the view that Adorno and Horkeimer's arguments are unduly pessimistic and irrelevant to contemporary society and moder

    This may also be useful to bear in mind, when applying the relevance of their arguments in relation to modern day understanding of the cultural industries. The members of the Frankfurt School were writing during 1930s Germany, at the time of the rising of the Nazis social oppression of the Jews. Victims of European fascism, the Frankfurt School experienced first hand the ways that the Nazis used the instruments of the Mass Culture to produce submission to fascist culture and society.

    • Word count: 4142
  14. A characterization of communicative competence and the barriers that impede successful intercultural communication

    Ting-Toomey (1999:262) identifies three criteria for communicative competence. They are "perceived appropriateness, effectiveness and satisfaction". She adds that intercultural communicators infer appropriateness, effectiveness and satisfaction from the verbal and non-verbal messages that are exchanged during an interaction (Ting-Toomey 1999:262). 2.1 Appropriateness Ting-Toomey (1999:262) states that appropriateness refers to the extent to which intercultural communicators behave in ways that are mutually acceptable. She adds that perceptions of acceptable and unacceptable behavior are shaped by the communicators respective "cultural socialization experiences" (Ting-Toomey 1999:263). For example, in certain African cultures gratitude is expressed by clapping the hands and averting the eyes to the ground.

    • Word count: 3093
  15. Cultural diversity policy is one of the few things that unites British cultural institutions today

    Instead, cultural diversity policy represents the end of cultural policy as we have understood it. The pursuit of aesthetic or historical understanding, of attempting to distinguish good paintings from bad or correct interpretations from false ones, is deemed impossible. Instead, all cultural institutions can do is to revel in 'diversity', by promoting different kinds of art and competing judgements. Today's cultural policy rejects the ways of the traditional cultural elite, and presents itself as far more enlightened. However, if we examine the legacy that cultural diversity policy has rejected, we find that some valuable principles have been lost by the wayside.

    • Word count: 5904
  16. Muslim Reform and the Jadids

    A typical response intellectual and popular was a call for renewal. The West's challenge "proved" to be overwhelming, thereby forcing a revolutionary transformation in the minds of more and more Muslims, leading them to accept not only non-Islamic or western representations of the past and present but also and more importantly an alien non-traditional modality of change. It is this Jadidism that will be addressed now using the Russian Islamic context. Within that context two persons will be examined whose perspectives reflect the fundamental distinctions between classical Islamic and modernist approaches to reform: Abu Nasr Qursavi and Ismail Bey Gasprinskii.

    • Word count: 5687
  17. THE ROLE OF KITSCH AND MEMORY IN SOVIET RUSSIA

    Kitsch is therefore an example of materiality that through being less charged with ambiguous meaning could subtly evoke shared, communal attitudes and reinforce socialist consciousness. As a result there are two aspects of kitsch that can be considered: first, its historical causes, and second its aesthetic dimensions. Comparing a few of the most widespread uses of the term, I will explore both of these aspects and explain how they are related to memory using the case study of Soviet Russia.

    • Word count: 3085
  18. Georg Simmel spoke about the metropolitan mind

    (Huntington 1993). It is thought that without a common culture to associate them with, people struggle to communicate. With football being the most popular spectator sport in Britain (approximately 4-5 million attending a year) (University of Leicester 2002), it seems to be the perfect way to form a widespread bond amongst the public. Of course, it isn't as simple as that. Football is split into hundreds of different teams ranging from the Manchester United-types to local pub sides that all draw in varying crowds.

    • Word count: 3411
  19. Modernity in India and Tendencies of Assimilative Appropriation

    The word modernus is created from the original ablative singular of modus (mode) added to -ernus, the adjectival suffix of time. Elaboration on the etymology is crucial because of the element of time involved with seeing how the term 'modern' is used because it is time that propels movement and, therefore, evolution. In literary context modernism is the character, tendencies, or values with adherence or sympathy to the modern while maintaining estrangement or divergence from the past in arts and literature occurring especially in the course of the twentieth century and taking form in any of the various innovative movements

    • Word count: 6942
  20. What do men like about women and why?

    These standards are indicators of health and according to evolutionary theory give men clues about the reproductive capability of the woman. Without these standards of beauty, a man would have a difficult time discriminating a healthy woman who would produce healthy children from a woman of lesser health. Features of physical appearance such as full lips, clear smooth skin, clear eyes, lustrous hair and good muscle tone were all indications to our evolutionary ancestors of a healthy woman. Evidence of physical attractiveness as an important attribute to today's men comes from the content analysis of lonely-hearts advertisements.

    • Word count: 3174
  21. What is 'postmodernism'

    This evolution is marked by several key stages. The first was a transition from the period of modernity to structuralism. This occurred during the mid twentieth century by several influential French cultural theorists such as Saussure, L�vi-Strauss, Althusser, and Barthes. Structuralism arose from the linguistic development created by Saussure in the early 1910's, gradually shifting from language to culture, and instead became focused on 'the syntagmatic oppositions in language and how [they] were prevalent in all cultures'6, claiming that the majority of human activity could be understood with linguistic codes and rules.

    • Word count: 3234
  22. How far had the 'New Soviet Man' emerged in the USSR by the end of the 1930's?

    In 1920 laws were introduced that gave women the right to an abortion on demand, making the USSR the only country in Europe to do so, and thus catapulting her from a state of backwardness to one of pioneer status in one swift move. Alongside the change in society was the chance in industry. Women were, for the first time, allowed to work in the industries, albeit mostly in textiles. This was significant because it allowed for the freedom of women because they could afford to buy a home and food, whereas before the ideals women were almost totally dependant on men.

    • Word count: 3883
  23. Feminist virtue in A Vindication of the rights of Woman.

    Their prescribed role is one of servant to their male partners or family members (Gunther-Canada 13). Rousseau's book seeks to think through a way in which the modern middle-class marriage might be maintained in a culture of freedom. In giving this responsibility to the woman and insisting that she be educated properly for the responsibility, Rousseau maintains that a suitable emotional and sexual life must be established if the family is to function properly. Sexuality and the various emotional states that go along with it are essential for this to occur (Gunther-Canada 14).

    • Word count: 3018
  24. Shamanic Consciousness: Near-Death Experiences in Shamanic and Western Cultures.

    Essie Parrish, a Kashia Pomos shamaness from North America, gave the following description of her initial journey into the spirit world, which she undertook at the age of seven whilst unconscious. 'Through rolling hills I walked.... I walked and walked until I came to a footbridge, and on the right side there were a whole lot of people and they were naked and crying out, "We're stuck here. Please come over here and help us cross. The water's too deep for us."....

    • Word count: 3801
  25. What do you understand by the term Internet Culture? Address some of the key critical questions being asked in this area?

    Oral Culture, Print Culture, Popular Culture and what we are attempting to understand within this research, Internet Culture begins to have a more clear and concise meaning. The very nature of the words associated and linked to the term culture allow for a more natural semblance of association. Once a word has been linked with the massive expanse of the term culture, the essence and meaning of a task such as describing what you understand by the term Internet Culture becomes significantly easier to digest and comprehend.

    • Word count: 3592
"

"It may be in the cultural particularities of people - in their oddities - that some of the most instructive revelations of what it is to be generically human are to be found."

?Clifford Geertz

If you love challenging your assumptions and learning about different cultures, then maybe you'd enjoy studying anthropology at the university level. Anthropology is a broad discipline dealing with every aspect of humanlife, culture, and society, with particular emphasis placed on cultural relativism. It can be studied on its own, or joint with a related subject like ancient history or geography.

Advanced writing skills will be invaluable during any anthropology degree. To get up to speed, study Marked by Teachers' collection of student-submitted anthropology and social studies essays. The essays might spark an idea for a topic, and the teacher annotations will show you how to edit papers to perfection.

Anthropology students can remain in the field; take higher degrees in a related subject like sociology; or pursue careers in a wide variety of fields,including marketing, HR, media and consulting.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • How useful is the term "counter-culture" to describe developments in Western Society during the 1960s? Discuss with reference to any three of the five disciplines represented in Block 6.

    "To sum up there was no single counter culture but several movements which posed challenges to "mainstream society" I agree to a degree with Ray Davis of the pop group the Kinks who said "that the so-called "Freedom of the Sixties was a myth, that the so-called "counter-culture" never really infiltrated society and that the establishment continued to rule" (Block 6, pg 175) I agree that the establishment did continue to rule and that the sixties did not witness a political or economic revolution but it had great impact on personal and social life . In his autobiography Jim Haynes', 'Thanks for Coming!' shows the deflation felt by many at the end of the sixties. He says 'the end of the sixties came as an incredible collapse [...[we weren't going to change the world. We could only maybe change ourselves a bit. And I think that this resulted in a depression.' (Resource Book 4, page 24) I think this shows that many involved in the "counter-culture movements felt they were trying to change the world and its thanks to their "disanchantment with mainstream culture that has allowed future generations new freedoms in morality; tolerance, equality and acceptance. (Word 1810)"

  • Discuss some of the recurrent themes in western representations of the non-European 'other'.

    "What is clear from discussing these different representations of the 'other' we have is that while they may focus on very different locations, and completely different sets of misinterpretations, they all share some very common grounds - both in the way these representations are formed, and more importantly the way these representations are criticized and rejected. Therefore in conclusion, while there will always be different names given to the ways we may represent certain areas around the world, it is likely that there will always be one combined perceived 'other' that an ignorant westerner may apply very similar frameworks to, no matter how different they may actually be."

  • Assess the evidence for and against the 'media imperialism theory'

    "Conclusion Through these points I hopefully have given a small indication of what the arguments for and against the media imperialism debate are all about. Generally the criticism is levelled at the most dominant world force, America. It is true that during the whole of the 90's the Americans have sought to eliminate the international trade barriers that exist worldwide in order to capitalise on the possible financial rewards available. There may in the future be massive benefits from the weaker nations use of western orientated material, but that is far from clear. It is extremely debateable whether access to western media content is detrimental, as essentially everyone has a choice in the way that they act and the attitudes and beliefs that they chose to adopt. So in effect there will only be a negative effect on the culture of third world, developing or weaker nation if the people who are part of that culture let it slip away (Hutchinson: 1999: 200)."

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