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University Degree: Anthropology

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  1. Using examples to substantiate your argument, discuss the relevance of the concept of 'culture bound syndrome' to an understanding healing processes.

    Also this paradox could apply to the common psychiatric disease in North America, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Existence of culture bound syndrome Culture bound syndrome exists in a "twilight zone" of psychiatric phenomena (Hughes). These phenomena constitute a western-derived system of psychiatric diagnosis categories, these syndromes are phenomenological, unfamiliar ways of thinking about mental illness. Sometimes these syndromes are called, "psychogenic psychoses" (Faergeman: 1963), "ethnic psychoses" and "ethnic neuroses" (Devereux: 1956), "hysterical psychoses" 'Langness: 1967) and "exotic psychoses" (Yap: 1969). In other words, these phenomena are so unfamiliar to one in this case in Western culture or moreover American society, one cannot include them into a single category.

    • Word count: 3615
  2. In what way are cultural identities marked in the city?

    But Manchester was and still is full of different cultural identities thanks to its rich supply of students within the city. There are four main universities in the city and all are providing education for its foreign students. 'Culture is about who we are and how we communicate that to others', [and] we express our cultural identity through what we wear, eat, say, value, believe and do.. the landscape around us.. Culture can make us feel different to others or it can make us feel like we belong to a group or community who share our experiences and views', (Cultural Strategy for the Wakefield District, 2002).

    • Word count: 1786
  3. Why is style important to subculture groups? Analyze the style and politics of one or two subculture groups.

    'Nuff said' This advertising slogan, coined to promote Fred Perry's tennis shirts, in its seemingly honest and simple slang style might symbolize what skinhead fashion is about: straight, unspectacular, functional, convenient, and yet stylish (at least considered as such) clothing. As not all of these qualities were promoted by the dominant and widely available pop and hippie fashion of the late 60s and early 70s, they had to be borrowed from various styles, which were used as well for their functional as for their aesthetic contribution to the new style.

    • Word count: 2371
  4. Marriage in the !Kung Compared to Traditional United States Marriages.

    Trial marriages mean, in essence, exactly what their title is. It is an arranged marriage between a young girl and a man that could possibly be ten years older than the girl. The !Kung women's' first marriages occur before they are old enough to begin menstruation. To be a true adult and be responsible for themselves they must have begun menstruation and be married. For a man to be considered an adult he must be able to provide for a family, usually signified by their killing their first large animal.

    • Word count: 1239
  5. "Heart of Darkness: An Imperialist Perspective"

    Conrad uses Marlow as the main narrator and conduit to which Conrad's own voice and opinions speak through. From Marlow's perspective, as well as from the perspective of his listeners, the reader is introduced to the story of his journey into the African Congo through a series of flashbacks. At the onset of the text, Marlow's adventurous and intensely nationalistic spirit shines through, as illustrated in the following excerpt, "Change; captains, admirals, the dark "interlopers" of the Eastern trade, and the "commissioned" generals of East India fleets. Hunters for gold or pursuers of fame, they all had gone out on that stream, bearing the sword, and often the torch, messengers of the might within the land, bearers of spark from the sacred fire.

    • Word count: 1411
  6. Minority languages - The situation of Romansh in 2002 Switzerland.

    In the last step, finally, I will list the most important measures that have been taken so far in order to strengthen the status of Romansh and to guarantee its survival. This will allow me, in the conclusion, to decide in which sense Romansh should or should not be treated as a minority language in its multilingual setting. 2. Minority languages According to the Council of Europe's 'European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages' (1996:www.riga.lv/minelres/coe), a regional- or minority language is a language which is spoken by a regionally based, autochthonous group and which is not the language of the majority of the population.

    • Word count: 3520
  7. Music Speaks (African Music… a continuation of the Oral Tradition).

    Both historically and presently, music has served Africa as an instrument of political communication, transmitting political information and values, mobilizing the population, evoking and sustaining its pride and identity. There has been little detailed examination of the social role of the musician or griot in the various West African societies, and an adequate definition of that role, based on the various activities of the musician, is difficult to articulate. The griot has been called a musician, counselor, bard and herald; a genealogist; a chancellor, master of ceremonies, traditionalist, and archivist; a praiser; an historian; a spokesman and minister plenipotentiary.

    • Word count: 2760
  8. Culture and negotiation

    Finally, we shall put our findings into action by studying some specific cultural features that can be observed in business negotiations between Finland and USA. In the comparison between the American and Finnish negotiation ways the concentration is on examining some general differences that give some guidance and help to understand the other party. The purpose of this study is not to make a thorough analysis of these two cultures because there are also the individual and company factors affecting the negotiations.

    • Word count: 7912
  9. From the Metropolis Berlin to the Global City of London, The Augmentation of Progress.

    As a consequence of new technologies, discontinuity characterized people's "day to day" life. (Fritsche, P., 1996, p. ). Today new situations and constant technological improvements are seen "as normal feature of social life". (Mc Grew, Anthony, 1993, p.67). In contrast to the "loss of inner security"(Georg Simmel) of many metropolitans, Londoners in the year 2000, living in the era of dynamic multi culture and a never ending technological progress, remain untouched and cool (London: A Global City). This reflects the fact that culture has adapted to the accelerating velocity and globalization during the twentieth century.

    • Word count: 1120
  10. Celebrity(ce-leb-ri-ty): 1.A famous person. 2.Renown;fame.

    This will bring us into the core of the new upper-class society and give a better understanding into the psychology of the wealthiest culture on earth. History of Celebrities in the UK What makes the UK different from the rest of the world especially the commonwealth countries (US, Canada, Australia, etc.) is that it is over a thousand years older than these newly formed western strongholds. With that being understood, the people through the history of England have gone through drastic changes throughout its lifespan and rooted the obsession with people who seem more than ordinary in the public.

    • Word count: 6552
  11. Critically examine the ways in which sub-cultural style has been appropriated as an object of investigation by cultural historians.

    This was followed by The Frankfurt School in 1923 who also conducted studies into the behaviour of urban groups that demonstrated a loss of authentic working-class culture. The Frankfurt School gathered Marxist theorists who severely opposed capitalism and its affect on society2 and as a result were interested in behaviour that resisted dominant cultural forms. Studies, investigations and definitions of sub-culture continued to develop during the 20th and 21st Centuries. Cultural historian, Miles Gordon states: "One of the functions of any science, 'natural' or 'social' is admittedly to discover and isolate increasingly smaller units of subject matter."

    • Word count: 2345
  12. Why is the human body an important object of anthropological study?

    This introduces the question of whether it is the body and people's perception of it that has an influence on beliefs and rituals, or if it is the society and its traditions that affect the ways in which people use their bodies. From the works of Shelly Errington and Thomas Laqueur, it seems that a particularly prominent aspect of the study of the body in anthropology is the issue of gender and sex within different societies, topics that are conceived in completely differing ways cross-culturally.

    • Word count: 1619
  13. The power of the Catholic Church in Ireland today.

    Ireland's religious profile is unusual in a number of respects. It is the only country in the English-speaking world which has a catholic majority. All of the controversy over divorce and abortion and issues dealing with sex abuse in the Catholic Church and women's role in the Catholic Church interested me, and this is why I chose this title for this essay. The Irish Catholic Church has a dreadful history of child sex abuse perpetrated by priests; it is outrageous for the Catholic Church to persist in stone-walling efforts to probe the sordid history of abuse by the clergy.

    • Word count: 1218
  14. The people known to us as the Celts, first appeared in Greek texts, around the period of 500 BC.

    Without the intervention of archaeology, we would still view them as a collective group of uncivilised warriors. Archaeology, has however, revealed to us a completely different picture, one of a society with an incredibly vibrant culture, a main feature of which was their developed artistic style. The Celts seemed to originate "in the minds of the nineteenth century antiquarians who first assembled prehistoric Celtic 'culture' from the fragments of archaeological, linguistic, and art historical knowledge available to them"2. The Celts are a number of ethnic groups who stretched over many areas of the north and west of Europe, speaking closely related dialects, that have been grouped together in modern times and defined by linguistics as 'Celtic'.

    • Word count: 1435
  15. What is cultural relativity? Why is it an important principle in anthropology and in cross-cultural studies in general? Are there limits to cultural relativity? Illustrate your answers by drawing on ethnographic examples.

    Cultural relativity challenges our ordinary beliefs in the objectivity and universality of moral truths. Different societies have different moral codes. There is no objective standard that can be used to judge one societal code better than another. The moral code of our own society has no special status; it is only one among many. It is only clear that a negative attitude towards other culture or groups arise out of ethnocentrism, while positive attitude is the result of a cultural relativist approach. One must never feel that not understanding another culture is problematic. It is always a disadvantage to view culture in an etic outside way.

    • Word count: 907
  16. Examining Western biomedicine and Shamanism.

    And finally, looking at Black Elk specifically and the influence of the authors experience with Black Elk upon the Western reader. Within the first few pages of the preface of Black Elk, Lyon states that his work is "an attempt at translation". (Black Elk, xii) As the readers are introduced to Wallace Black Elk and the ways of the Lakota people, it is made clear that the thinking of the Lakota and their understanding of their place in the world is much different from that of a Western person.

    • Word count: 1495
  17. "Kinship must, ultimately, refer to biology and genealogy". Discuss.

    This "consanguine family," Morgan felt, had originated in plural marriages including own brothers and sisters hence Morgan presumed that kinship ultimately referred to biological relations. Although Morgan's work was one of the first to recognize kinship amongst other societies, it is nonetheless out dated. Moreover, Morgan may have been influenced by the enlightenment period, thus his methodology may have been biased in understanding kinship. Symbolic Interactionist, David Schneider rejected the presumption that Kinship relationships are biological/reproductive relations and advocated that these presumptions were used as a universal genealogical grid, and made allegedly relevant to all cultures.

    • Word count: 3868
  18. Outline the key features of the Frankfurt School in relation to media theory.

    The ideological effects of the growing mass media and communication sector were that the media began to 'control' the ideas of the audience. The audience become imprinted with the notion that a capitalist regime is in their interests as well as perpetuating ideologies on family, leisure time and society that are, in fact, beneficial solely to the bourgeoisie. The media instigates a gradual process of making the audience believe that certain things are in their interests- a method which ensures that there will be little resistance or criticism.

    • Word count: 1803
  19. The Clash of Civilizations: The New Source of World Conflict.

    The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future." (Huntington, p.47). To clarify, when talking about civilizations, Huntington refers to cultural entities, or more specifically "the highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of cultural identity." (Huntington, p.48) These civilizations are defined by "common objective elements such as language, history, religion, customs, and institutions, and by the subjective self-identification of people." (Huntington, p.48). Huntington stresses that civilization identity is becoming increasingly important. He puts forth that conflicts could potentially stem from the cultural fault lines separating eight major civilizations: The Western, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American, and African civilizations (Huntington, p.

    • Word count: 2531
  20. To what extent did the "Cwl Cymru" phenomenon change perceptions of contemporary Welsh culture? How profound have these changes been?

    Thousands of Welshmen marched into war and fought side by side with English, Irish and Scottish forces. With the new closeness forged between the troops, some of the distance between the different cultures was lost, and the Anglo - Welsh identity flourished and served to further dilute welsh culture. With the loss of life in both World Wars, native language speaking communities were degraded and saw a loss of "a distinct way of life" (http://www.britannia.com/celtic/wales/timeline/html). However, there were pioneers doing their bit for national pride and to relate a separate welsh identity. Dylan Thomas was probably one of the most important representatives for Wales.

    • Word count: 3271
  21. 'Literature is a part of cultural history - The study of it may well include relations between men and women as well as issues of class and race' Do you agree?

    Gaining ideas from Gower and Boccaccio's tales. Chaucer also drew from the culture around him; The honourable and moral, chivalrous, wealthy knight emphasises the ruling classes impression of themselves, the ironic Pardonner's Tale, the ridiculed Prioress and the poor Ploughman, who represents the lower classes. The Wife of Bath's tale presents us with women who are either pristine and virginal, so pure that they are unattainable or cunning and deceitful. The experienced Wife of Bath boasts of her five husbands, pointing out that happiest marriages are where the wife is the boss and that women should have mastery over their husbands, presenting early feminist points of view.

    • Word count: 3416
  22. Have developments in Information and Communication Technology led to a homogenisation or diversification of cultural styles and forms of association amongst young people?

    What is youth, a biological phase, or a as Fornas (1995:3) argues: "Youth is also a social category, framed by particular social institutions, particularly school, but certain rituals as well, such as confirmation or marriage, legislation directed towards age limits and coming of age, and social acts, such as leaving home, forming a family, getting educated and finding a profession." Fornas (1995) also claims that youth can be 'culturally determined in a discursive interplay with musical, visual and verbal signs to denote what is young' these signs however may not be the same in each culture; legislation in different countries varies as well as the social expectations.

    • Word count: 2545
  23. Can one, and if so under what circumstances, distinguish the religious from the political? Answer, drawing on ethnographic material.

    There are obvious ways in which this affinity realises itself in a social context. The most obvious one is when power is directly based on religion. This has historically been the case pharaonic Egypt, where the pharaoh guaranteed and maintained the cosmic order, and was himself seen as divine and omnipotent. This was also found in European monarchies, where the King was considered to be the representative of God on earth, in a Christian context. Another example corresponds to the Dalai lama, considered as the reincarnation of Buddha in Tibetan Buddhism and head of the Tibetan people.

    • Word count: 2285
  24. Why Did Eunice Williams Remain Unredeemed in the Unredeemed Captive?

    John Williams himself also speaks of the strength of the puritans saying that they were, "...strong people steadfast in their faith, tested by terrible adversity." However, although John Williams dictates all this strength, physically he has very little. Demos expresses this when on the journey from Deersfield Eunice, "At first she had clung to him tightly, as a squirrel clings to a tree, but weak as he was, and clumsy on his snow shoes, he could not walk for the two of them."

    • Word count: 1514
  25. The use of nigger or nigga in present day language.

    Slang is the common language of popular culture and used often among people in their teens and twenties. Young adults use it for self-expression whereas older people may use slang out of habit. Vernon Davis, Jr., a journalist for the University of Iowa's National Association of Black Journalists, states in his article, "The Sense and Sensibilities of Using the N-Word," that nigga, is a slang term commonly used by young adults, as a noun to refer to their friends, to express a feeling, or simply in addition to "What's up...?" (par. 6). However, when certain people hear this harmless use of nigga in a slang manner, their emotions are stirred due to the fact that the word has such an awful history.

    • Word count: 1997

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