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University Degree: Anthropology
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HOW ETHNOCENTRISM, RACISM, DISCRIMINATION, STEREOTYPING AND THE ACCULTURATION PROCESS ARE REPRESENTED IN MOVIES THAT PORTRAY INTERCULTURAL INTERACTIONS
Don Cabeza: A parrot can be thought to sing, Your Eminence. Cardinal: Yes, but how does one teach it to sing as melodiously as this? Don Cabeza: Your Eminence, this is a child of the jungle, [pulls him down] an animal with a human voice. If it were human, an animal would cringe at its vices. These creatures [he points at the Guarani] are lethal and lecherous. However it can be that our own customs and ideas may appear strange or barbaric to an observer from other society. In Walt Disney's Pocahontas, Pocahontas herself could not understand the lack of concern the settlers had for Mother Nature, to which the native Indians are spiritually connected.
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Arnold's first definition of 'culture' is that it is the fruit of 'genuine scientific passion '. By this he means the thirst for knowledge, the desire to improve our understanding of the world we live in. He leaves no space for religion in this view of 'culture', and so it could be argued that 'culture' is superior to 'religion'. However, this is an over-simplified description of 'culture', a fact that Arnold immediately recognises and amends. Therefore, the evidence provided by this initial definition for the primacy of 'culture' is by no means conclusive. Arnold modifies his definition of 'culture' to 'a study of perfection'.
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A typical American yuppie drinks French Wine, listens to Beethoven on a Japanese audio system, uses the internet to buy Persian textiles from a dealer in London, watches Hollywood movies funded by foreign capital and filmed by a European director and vacations in Bali; an upper-middle class Japanese may do much the same. Games of the National Basketball Association can be seen in more then 100 countries, Toyatas can be bought in 151 countries and Coca Cola is a very popular drink all over the world.
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The observer of human behaviour is inevitably a participant in the field of observation. Can anthropology claim to be a science?
In other words, science is not a body of truth and fact that sets itself apart from the experience in which we live; it is itself involved in culture and society. As Hacking argues, "The harm comes from [scientific thinking] a single-minded obsession with representation and thinking and theory at the expense of intervention and action and experiment" (cited in, Carrithers. 1992: 153). What we must gather from this is that to be a scientist you must be involved in the process of a social and cultural process in order to observe, interpret, interact with others to debate and discuss findings.
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On the contrary, Rushdie think it is a film which speaks to the exile. The Wizard of Oz shows that imagination can become reality, that there is no such place as home, or rather that the only home is the one we make for ourselves." Being a grown-ups of both non-native speakers of English and non-western culture, I hold the different view on the story itself. Backing from my first impression of knowing the Wizard of Oz is when I was 10 years old elementary kid. The most attracting part is the interesting characters scarecrow, tin-man and cowardly lion but except for Dorothy-the little girl.
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To accomplish these and many other more complex and specific goals, anthropology as a discipline has many sub-fields. These sub-fields, though varying in both their goals and their practices, overlap and compliment one another frequently. Each relies on the other for vital answers, much the same way anthropology relies on the other sciences. The major sub-fields of anthropology are cultural anthropology, archeology, linguistics, and physical anthropology. Cultural anthropologists are interested in human behavior, interaction, values, and customs as a group; archeologists are interested in much the same things as cultural anthropologists, but their inquiries are geared more towards ancient civilizations; linguists study speech and language and how it originated; and, finally, physical anthropologists study human biological evolution and its interaction with culture.
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The Parthenon Marbles were removed from their natural setting 200 years ago byLord Elgin, who was then the British ambassador at the Ottoman Empire (Bregman). The issue of whether they have been taken legally or not is still, and will probably remain unsettled. Also, whether lord Elgin's real intention when he moved them back to his own house was to save the marbles, which he might have done by chance, or to steal them will not easily be discovered. However, these questions which are commonly posed by both parties, have very little to do with the case.
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The cultural boundaries themselves are probably breaking down as access to another country's culture is becoming increasingly simple. Different cultures are also being assimilated together within different nations to create modified national identities. The British identity, for example, has undergone much change in the past century. Chicken Tikka Masala is now considered to be the most popular dish in the country according to Food Service intelligence [WWW 1999]. It has become a national dish and one which defines Britain's new 'multicultural' identity. Tandoori chicken transcended the Indian cultural barrier to come to Britain where it was fused with British culture by adding a gravy creating a new hybrid dish.
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By 'high culture' they mean specialised cultural forms such as art, literature and opera etc. However, it is once again important to recognise that the boundaries between 'high culture' and other forms of popular culture, often referred to as mass culture have become markedly blurred in our contemporary society. It could be argued that the term cultural competence is associated with the assertions of Leavis and his notion of cultural standards. Writing in the 1930s, he reasoned that with the exception of the educated few, these being the white middle classes - the masses were virtually unable to understand and appreciate culture.
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Cultural perspectives allow people to gain knowledge and give meaning to the world around them. Anticipatory socialization is the learning of values and orientations related to roles one may play in the future. Resocialization embraces new sets of norms, values and expectations as people encounter new situations roles and relationships. Socialization is generally, a never-ending process of learning about oneself and our connection to the world around us. Ethnocentrism is the feeling that one's group has a mode of living, values and patterns of adaption that are superior to those of other groups. It is coupled with a generalized contempt for members of other groups.
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In order for a company to succeed, it needs to have a strong and firmly entrenched culture. In this assignment we look at the definition and types pf culture, how it is managed and developed to maintain high performance, within the organisation.
Types of culture There are a number of different methods to categorise organisational culture. Handy developed the ideas of Harrison by describing four main types of organisational culture; > Power Culture > Role Culture > Task Culture > Person Culture Power Culture This type of culture is represented by a web structure. Departments within the organisation are represented by lines radiating from the centre however there are connecting lines from each department representing communication and power. Control is executed from the centre by a selection of individuals to maintain absolute control over subordinates on the outside of the web.
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African Culture in Latin America and the Caribbean - History and Methods: Landes' Scientific Contributions
As Mahony (1996) writes, "the strategy Landes used to present her evidence was one of the controversial elements of her work." Landes wrote The City of Women as a memoir: she made herself one of the main characters and she shared her personal experiences with the readers. Her realization that she would have to "persuade the Bahinas to take [her] into their life" meant that she would have to ignore more accepted styles of research: "conducting formal interviews in university offices or relying on second-hand reports" (Landes, 1994, p.
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Therefore, it has become a habit to ask each other, "Where do your parents come from?" or "Where were your parents born?". The answer to these questions never surprise us because we know that Armenians have established communities in all corners of the world. Hence, "diaspora's idea of the homeland ... could be the ancestral village in the Ottoman Empire, the city of birth, present day Armenia, or the ideal of an Armenia to be - and probably a combination of all these" (Panossian, 86). My homeland is the imagined Armenia (I have never been there), but I introduce myself as an Armenian born and raised in Lebanon.
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What is Globalization "Globalization" this vocabulary was introduction by an English economist N. Angell in the 1910. The researches of globalization were started in 1980 then accompany the Soviet empire collapse and the end of the cold war reached the climax in 1990. The definition of globalization is difficult to unify because the standpoint, viewpoint and methods of researchers are different. But some fundamental characteristics have been accepted. 1: Globalization is the result of high technology developing too rapidly, especially the revolution of information.
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are all interpretations of the word popular. Culture too has alternative meaning, one of which 'the texts and practices of everyday life' (John Storey, Cultural Studies and the Study of Popular Culture, page 2, 1993) involves the merging of two other definitions. As the definitions show the words carry different meanings depending on the context that they are used in. This is also true when the words are placed together, but a further influence has had an effect upon the term which has led to further clouding of its meaning, this being the concept of ideology.
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Organizational Culture: A Force driving IS design & use in organizations considering Skandiabanken case study
It also helps in anticipating implementation problems and launching change management activities that might otherwise be overlooked. In the 1980's, we saw an increase in the attention paid to organizational culture as an important determinant of organizational success. Many experts began to argue that developing a strong organizational culture is essential for success. Furthermore, over the past decade, a great deal has been written about organizational culture and the important role it plays in successful performance. Edgar Schein (1992), one of the leading authorities on culture, defines it as a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the [organization] learned as
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Sea Consulting and Land Consulting - This paper will examine the cultures of the individual consulting firms and how their merger created conflict in the newly formed company.
At work, there were no formal knowledge training and strict guidelines to work with and knowledge were being transferred during project through informal networking. As a partnership with equity distributed relatively evenly among the partners, partners have equal power in the governance of the firm resulting in a consensus based management style. Employees were recruited by managers through their alma maters and there was no selection process to ensure they were the right fit with the firm's values. This diversity led to a creative and flexible culture where ideas are exchange rapidly but also create individuals with little commitment to shared business objectives and a strong preference to avoid structure.
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In reality, what management pays attention to and rewards is often the strongest indicator of the organization's culture. This is often quite different than the values it verbalizes or the ideals it strives for. Think for a minute about the organization in which you work. Does your management encourage or discourage innovation and risk taking? Does it reward employees for coming up with new ideas and challenging old ways of doing things or punish those who challenge established norms and practices? Do mavericks fit in or do they get pushed out? Is rapid change the norm in your organization or does management vigorously protect the status quo?
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Some American groups formed in response to the apparent threat of these new immigrants. One such group, the Asian Exclusion League, included Indians in its agenda to oppose Asian immigration. In their first report of the "Hindoo question," the AEL warned that East Indians were "untrustworthy, immodest, unsanitary, insolent, and lustful." There was very little immigration activity between 1913 and 1965. This can be attributed to the tumultuous activities taking place in America at the time such as wars, the Great Depression, and the Civil Rights Movement. After 1965 however, Congress implemented massive reforms that equalized immigrant quotas, especially for Asian countries.
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We know that Titipu is a made up Japanese place because of the names such as Nanki-Poo and Yum-Yum. Gilbert and Sullivan gave the characters these names because of the Japanese stereotype of that time. Not a lot was known about the Japanese, so such names were made up. The only actual Japanese element of the play is the Mikado, because that is the title of the Emperor of Japan. * The play does not have to be set in any specific period. It could be set in the 1880s, the time when it was written. It could also be set in the modern world.
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Initially, the CBC was specifically set up to safeguard Canada from the threat of an overrun U.S culture. The CBC is expected to reflect Canada's multicultural being. The current CBC operates under the Broadcasting Act (1991) stating in sections 3(m) (1) that programming should "be predominantly and distinctively Canadian". By operating under this mandate Canadians are exposed to a culture that they can specifically relate to. The CBC plays a vital role in identifying the distinctive Canadian culture through a Canadian perspective.
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According to the authors, this is true of all other aspects of human thought and communication. Each idea is understood through comparison with an already established idea or concept. There are numerous examples of this process at work. In the margins of their book, Understanding Human Communication, Alder and Rodman include and define what they term "cultural idioms". The amusing expressions are in fact metaphorical concepts. A "sure-fire" plan is "certain to succeed" (18), to get "a fair shake" is to get "honest treatment" (91), to "save face" is to "protect one's dignity" (161), to "put someone down" is to "insult or degrade" them (196), and to "let off steam" is to "release tension" (481).
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say that the word transmits the concepts not as joy and luck, but instead a concept of its own joining both into one and the same. This clash of meanings is pivotal for one of the recurring themes throughout the book, the untranslatable nature of culture. Certain elements of a culture cannot be understood outside the concept of this culture, it is a self-contained entity out of which only a dimmed, broken shadow of the former self is observable. Language is often a pivotal element in cultures for though words may have a counterpart in another the underlying meanings, associations and undertones of a word will not be accurately transmitted.
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This essay will attempt to critically analyse the evolution of events and the implications of cultural commodification in regeneration strategies.
Therefore, these events were a safety valve to let all participants feel free. However, Bakhtin (1973) argues that after the seventeenth century, people did not "live" the carnival, as it lost touch with its folk origins and disappeared from the "public square to private chamber" (Harcup, 2000, pp 223). Hence it became a tradition. Harcup (2000) compares these beliefs to the Leeds St. Valentine's fair to see if Bakhtin's theory is still legitimate nowadays. The St. Valentine's fair has been running since 1992 in Leeds.
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Culture is expressed through routine behaviour and symbolic culture of their society by following guidelines and rules, these are known as 'norms' and 'values' and are important in maintaining order in society. Norms are specific rules members of a society must abide by. They guide people in particular situations with appropriate and sensible behaviour. Norms are enforced by positive and negative sanctions which can be addressed formally and informally. Values work more as general principles for human behaviour and maintain morals.
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