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University Degree: Anthropology
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Why is Political Tolerance an important element of a democratic political culture and what are the obstacles to Political Tolerance in South Africa?
Therefore, in our youth, it is a very important time for the development of political tolerance, and the role of socialisation becomes apparent. Political tolerance is an important element of democratic political culture. In order for a country to be totally democratic, it is essential that the citizens feel free to express their political viewpoints without the fear of recrimination. In South Africa, political tolerance was integral to the progress of our fledgling democracy. "...the willingness of citizens to put up with their political opponents, to allow...
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The Ibo people had their own unique culture, in which they truly believed in. Every tribe in Africa had their own culture, their own beliefs and languages. The villages were never the same, for example Umuofia, the village of Okonkwo. Umuofia's inhabitants believed in the chi, or personal god. It determined much of a person's destiny and character. "When a man says yes his chi says yes also" (page 27). But at the same time, one did not challenge his or her chi. The Ibo religion had a tendency to symbolize numerous gods. They had a god for every different natural phenomenon that occurred.
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Politician Edmund Burke feared that "learning was being trampled under the hooves of the swinish multitude" whilst academic Tom Paine celebrated the "future enlightenment of the common people" (Naramore & Brantlinger 1991: 3). This amalgamation of the people via this new media, it was worried (especially by the bourgeois), would lead to the development of an anonymous, classless crowd, potentially "threatening upper class hegemony via revolution, and threatening upper class distinction through entropy and apathy" (Naramore & Brantlinger 1991: 5).
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Both types of magazines were wildly successful; one such magazine, True-Story, exhibited growth from 300,000 readers in 1919 to almost two million by 1926. This further fueled the nation's acceptance of sex in popular culture as well as it's desire for it. Mainly however, the proprietors of newspapers and magazines in the 1920's realized that "...mention of the leading event of the day, whatever it might be, was the key to public interest." (158, Allen) The Cross-Word Puzzle craze of 1924 and 1925 owes its being to such reasoning as its advertising campaign was based on the very idea that cross-word puzzles would be the next big fad.
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The Euro-Disneyland Case represents a lack of cultural focus and national responsiveness within the concept of globalization of the Disney franchise.
And once a letter of intent had been signed, Disney held out for one concession after another. As stipulated, Disney cut the value added tax from 18.6 percent to 7 percent, a quarter of the financing would come from subsidized loans, and that Disney would respect and utilize French culture in its themes. This way of doing business is not consistent with their particularistic practices of negotiation or implementation. Along with negotiations, Disney made little effort and neglected to establish good relations with local residents, particularly with the resident farmers and agricultural sector of the region. Disney ignored the cultural differences between the US and France.
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"The term folklore was coined in 1846 to refer to the ballads, folktales and customs of the rural past. Now days, folklore is taken to refer to the everyday culture and cultural traditions of all social groups- young as well as old, urban as well as rural, ourselves as well as others." (Folklore society, University College, London.) Folk cultures were originally invented by people in a specific community and were intended for the inhabitants of that community to be cherished and taught to forthcoming generations. Disney has, over the years, created numerous films surrounding these folk cultures. By borrowing folk motifs from different folk cultures and adapting them to their target market, Americans, they have succeeded in creating a new order of meaning and society that replaces the old one.
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Discuss Culture and Socialization as sociological concepts. Briefly compare human and animal societies. Consider the implications of the documented cases of 'isolated' or 'unsocialised' children for our understanding of the human learning capacity.
(Theodorson and Theodorson 1960 as discussed in Knuttila) So, culture can be seen as the way we think and act in a society. It is a group's total way of life that consists of 'material' and 'non-material' human products. The shared 'non-material' products pertain to customs, habits, traditions, values, beliefs and knowledge where as the material aspects include material products that have developed over time and out of a social group that has endeavoured to solve its problems and meet its needs. Such examples of material products range from beds to deodorant to sound systems to computers.
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'Organization culture is a variable that can be controlled and manipulated like any other organizational variable'. Critically discuss this view of culture and organization.
These lead to conclusions about how organization cultures can be and cannot be managed. Organization cultures should be distinguished from national cultures. Cultures manifest themselves, from superficial to deep, in symbols, heroes, rituals and values. National cultures differ mostly on the values level; organization cultures at the levels of symbols, heroes and rituals, together labelled 'practices'. Identifying organisations with particular cultures is a relatively new phenomenon that was only really considered since the late 70s. Traditional organizational research takes a scientific approach and assumes that methods are objective. The original move to the cultural metaphor was based on the observation that there is more going on in organizations than completing tasks.
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With reference to AT LEAST ONE OTHER course text, justify or contest F.R.Leavis's argument that 'in any period it is upon a very small minority that the discerning appreciation of art and literature depends'.
Throughout Leavis's pamphlet, I get the impression that he has unreservedly ignored the popular culture in England, and insists that only what he sees as being culturally 'good' is true culture. True, the works of Shakespeare and Homer are fascinating, brilliant pieces of literature, but if the Sun newspaper sells more copies that the complete works of Shakespeare, doesn't that make the Sun better, culturally, as it is more popular? If this is true, then Leavis's argument is wrong, as a small minority would be able to appreciate certain types of art and literature, but a larger minority could still appreciate their own forms of culture.
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I grabbed my binoculars and digital camera and as I left the hut, I felt I was ready to experience the thrilling adventure and untainted magnificence of African culture, one that is so pure and unadulterated by modern society, a culture so unrestricted, a culture that holds a deep, hidden inner beauty, that only blind men can see. The morning dew hung gently upon the edge of every blade of grass like a bed of sparkling diamonds. The rising sun painted the perfect picture of the unforgettable day that lay ahead of us.
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"What is Organizational Culture? Critically analyse the extent to which it is related to organizational processes and outcomes."
Organizations have the paradoxical quality of being both 'part of' and 'apart from' societies. They are embedded in a wider social concept, but they are also communities in their own right, with distinctive rules and values. They can thus be thought of as 'culture producing phenomena.' (Smircich, 1983, cited in Fincham R and Rhodes P S, 1992) The best way to think about culture is to view it as the accumulated shared learning of a given group, covering behavioral, emotional, and cognitive elements of the group members' total psychological functioning.
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Alan Ginsberg's "Howl" - Understanding the necessary and complex relationships between power and language
white American males in the 1950's, certain authoritative forms used their linguistic force to "impose on others their group's definition of events, people, and actions. Toward this end I will first seek to identify the numerous power groups explored by Ginsberg and discuss and exemplify the ways in which the various groups interacted. I will then elaborate on their individual verbal strategies and how these contributed to the inter-group dynamic. POWER GROUPS OF HOWL "Howl" begins with the phrase "I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness," and proceeds to describe their individual downfalls.
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Every human society has its own shape, its own purposes, and its own meanings. Every human society expresses these, in institutions, and in arts and learning. The making of a society is the finding of common meanings and directions, and its growth is an active debate and amendment under the pressures of experience, contact, and discovery, writing them selves into the land. A culture has two aspects: the known meanings and directions, which its members are trained to; the new observations and meanings, which are offered and tested. These are the ordinary processes of human societies and human minds, and we see through them the nature of a culture: that it is always both traditional and creative; that it is both the most ordinary common meanings and the finest individual meanings.
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What do you do, when you promise to love, honour and respect……………..your father, but you fall in love with the wrong man! Honour your family?
Heshu was described as lively and loving and had decided to run away with 18 year old Lebanese teacher. It was also reported that she was suffering abuse by her father leading up to her death. She left a message to her parents saying: "me and you will probably never understand each other, but I'm sorry I wasn't what you wanted, but there are some things you can't change. Hey, for an older man you have a good strong punch and kick. I hope you enjoyed testing your strength on me, it was fun being on the receiving end.
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This sentence show us her body language and how she very anxious and shy. The chair is described as 'big' because Hosain wanted to make a comparison in size and make the Muslim wife seem smaller and irrelevant to some extent. The words: drooping and nervously show again how 'on the edge' she is. The first image of an accident we come to is her view of the other lady(ies) and how they have 'dressed' themselves up. 'The women held a wineglass in one hand and a cigarette in the other. She wondered how it felt......The women had long nails, pointed and scarlet.
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Paul Magnarella, of the University of Florida Anthropology Department has developed a systematic paradigm in regard to materialism. He proposes that as societies become more complex and differentiated, due to technological developments, more specialists are needed, and social integration is becoming based on the interdependence of specialized functions. (Magnarella,1997) Modern humanity is adjusting to life in the global community. This has far reaching impact in how personal, social and cultural identities are formed and maintained. As twenty-first century technology accelerates and expands access to information and virtual environments, constraints upon individuals to exclusively rely upon, and respond to their local physical environment is diminished.
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Usually clothes start out as being practical and later evolve as fashions. Clothes too develop according to cultures and, especially, religious beliefs. In countries where women are expected to be modest in dress, they cover themselves more. In other cultures there are no rules. In come societies where being practical in order to survive is the main rule, minimum clothing is emphasized for both men and women. But one thing stands out; traditional dress is usually graceful and says a lot about the history and cultures of the people. Most traditional clothes are graceful; at least cultures of the wearers.
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However corporate cultures often display themes and patterns established from the national culture indigenous to an organization's own geographical origin. Where multinational organizations attempt to replicate these values in another national setting, problems may arise. Mead (1994) suggests that such organizations may have to modify these home country systems, structures and values to comply with local norms. Theorists have advocated opposing arguments on the transferability of corporate culture to locations with different national cultures. Burack (1991), for example believes that values in a corporate culture are deeply ingrained, producing patterns of uniformity in behaviour and underlying values among organizational units, regardless of geographic, functional or business boundaries.
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The Muslims live by following the five rules in 'Rukun Islam' that are the saying of 'dua kalimah syahadah', the performs of prayers five times a day, fasting in the month of Ramadhan, paying the 'zakat' and the perform of hajj. Unlike the Japanese society, most of them do not believe in god and they do not stick to one religion. There are four religions in Japan, Shinto, Buddhism, Christian and Civil. For average Japanese, religious affiliation does not translate into regular worship or attendance.
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Parents or adults who live a busy life prefer to eat fast food simply because their children are eating it and it is really convenient because they do not have to cook. Thus this has become a popular culture. High culture can be defined as a culture that can distinguish a society's elite. High culture is usually being spread among the elitists. As an example, playing golf or equestrian are considered as high culture in Malaysia. This is because not everyone have enough money to be a member of a golf club since most golf resorts here are only allow registered members to play at their golf course and the golf set itself is rather expensive.
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An essay exploring a case of a cultural-linguistic phenomenon discussed in the context of theories of the relationship between social practice and language, or language and cognition.
"Social conventions, norms of social appropriateness, are the product of communities of language users" (Kramsch, 1998). Edward Sapir and a pupil of his Benjamin Whorf, two pioneering linguists whose theories form the basis for many debates about whether culture and language are or are not related entities influencing the thought processes of the social group. Sapir (1921), an anthropologist and linguist by profession, in his acclaimed book Language .................. Whorf believed that since individuals are born into a particular culture and a particular language community, this language being a feature of culture, would be the greatest influence on the individuals way of thinking (Gross, 1992).
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Obviously the immigrants have decided themselves to change their homeland and so are meant to try to integrate into the new society without causing any conflicts, but to a certain extent. When a person think of the immigrants, the reason of their migration, there will be found many pushing factors. Maybe a war is going on in their homelands or there had occurred a natural phenomenon, and so on. These pushing factors are so powerful that they can not even think of their new social status in a new society, in a new territory.
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Before looking further into the question of what social historical situations brought about postmodernism, it is important to develop a working definition of the term. The definition can only be crude one since a clear definition has not yet been established. It is also virtually impossible to define a concept that spans so many disciplines. In the broadest of definitions, postmodernists are people who disagree with the notion that an absolute reality exists. They claim instead that the world is filled with varying realities and that not one of them can be considered more "true" then any other.
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The outer layer consists of explicit products. It is the tangible items, such as food, buildings, houses, shrines, markets, and the intangible ones, like the language, preference, fashion, taste, of a culture (Trompenaars F. & Hampden-Turner C., 1997). The middle layer consists of customs and ethics that determine human action. Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner refer to this layer consisting of norms, which is the reciprocal sense of a group of people that enables them to decide between 'right' and 'wrong', and values, which relates to the principles shared by a group concerning what is 'good' and what is 'bad'.
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Globalization has been defined in business schools as the production and distribution of products and services of a homogenous type and quality on a worldwide basis.
for a human being who is taken from his familiar environment and placed in a foreign setting."1 For more than a century now, our society has experienced numerous changes. Numerous is probably too weak to describe a century that have seen the greatest inventions. The discoveries emerge at a tremendous pace and the era of communication slowly fades away at the benefit of the era of telecommunication. In these decades of renewals, those very same discoveries open new perspectives in the commercial, industrial, political, economical and human relations between communities, cities, countries and broadly between cultures.
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