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University Degree: Anthropology

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  1. Recently, senior managers in many organisations have tried to change the cultures of their organisations. Explain what are they trying to do, and why they are trying to do it. Assess the chances of their success.

    One important objective to be achieved is to instil values that can be shared company wide ; from the management to the shop floor. This is usually done by setting up corporate goals, values, principles that can inspire employees to a sense of belonging to the organisation, a collective identity. Many successful companies use this approach, as its believed to, in the end, deliver what the senior managers really want to achieve, which is profit maximisation and growth. Organisational culture has been analysed at many levels, beginning in the 1970s in the USA.

    • Word count: 2369
  2. Compare and Contrast Ancient Egyptian and Mayan civilisations, can archaeology help account for these differences?

    It is also interesting to contrast this period of enlightenment in Mesoamerica, with the events in Europe at a similar time, it would seem that our dark ages were the New World's golden era. Although it is important to note that the beginnings of Mayan culture can be traced as far back as 1,500 B.C. However, development in ancient Egypt is on a much more broad timescale. For example, when we look at the start of what is considered Egypt's greatest period, there is little to contrast it with in Europe or America.

    • Word count: 2787
  3. Asian Philosophies of Critical Thinking: divergent or convergent to western establishments?

    If critical thinking is clearly presentable in these Asian cultures then why are there still concerns for introducing it to them? This is the question I intend to answer in the latter section "Needham's Grand Question and Fuller's Interpretation." During this section, I would also show that discussions of modern science seem to enable us to see how the tradition of critical thinking arose and how they were promoted or discouraged. I would cover how Asian historical, economic, social and cultural factors have a big influence on their development of critical thinking.

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  4. What is Culture? Discuss

    However, a people's culture consists of all the ideas, objects, and ways of doing things created in a society. Culture includes arts, beliefs, customs, inventions, language, technology and traditions. A culture is any way of life, simple or complex. Cultural anthropology defines culture as the following: "A set of learned rules, standards or manners shared within a human group that describes a range of behaviors and beliefs that are proper, acceptable and valid, and are in place to promote the survival of the group. These rules govern all aspects of behavior within the human group and in most instances provide for repercussions when the rules are violated. These rules also govern relationships to other human groups and the environment.

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  5. Conceptualising globalisation – the global and the local

    It is not about subsistence. Food in this sense has always been a marker of shared cultural identity. For the British in the past, snails and frog legs were very much for "Fogies". However, the forces of globalization can undermine previously stable identity categories. Alison James (1996, p. 78) reflecting on the increasing creolisation of food in Britain asks, "If food is literally for thinking about identity - 'you are what you eat', 'one man's meat is another man's poison', and so on - then does the confusion of culinary signposts ... signify the loss of the markers of distinctiveness which separate Others from ourselves?"

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  6. Star TV in India, an analysis of the fit between culture and strategy

    They then build brand new strategy, taking into considerations the cultural differences and the language barrier that exists, turned around the company and managed to be among the top players in the field. Issues regarding the mismatch of the culture and strategy In general, the failure of Star TV in the India was rooted from their failure to recognise the model for going International. They have never thought of the cultural differences in Indian societies opposing the Western societies could have a big of an impact to their operation.

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  7. The sense of culture associated with A Stench of kerosene.

    "Once every year, there was a harvest festival when the girls would have new clothes made. Their dupattas would be dyed, starched and sprinkled with mica." This goes to show the preparations that take place for such a valued event in their lives which conveys the message to the readers that their lives are dull and the future ahead for them is rather bleak. One would assume that her duration of the stay would be of some length but of course realistically it was only to be a " few days" and even then a man was sent to escort Guleri as if she was a criminal back to what some might say is her cell.

    • Word count: 1751
  8. Explain The Meaning of The Following Terms: Race, Ethnicity, Culture, Prejudice and Discrimination

    Culture is something that someone is born into depending on their origins. Someone from Africa will have different cultural values to those from England. These values are learnt from one generation to another and have nothing to do with race or ethnicity, neither is any one culture superior to another. Cultural differences include things like: * Household items (tools) * Dress/fashion * Religion * Art and literature * Education * Accommodation Every culture has a different way of life and even though a person moves to another country, they don't necessarily adopt all of that country's culture, they usually keep their own beliefs and ways of life.

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  9. To a large degree, culture determines behaviour. How far do you agree with this statement?

    Socialisation involves the teaching of norms and values, language, rituals, traditions, knowledge; everything common to the society that we are brought up in. A child in Spain for example, would not be brought up with say, a Japanese culture - he/she would not speak Japanese; or follow Japanese traditions like eating with chopsticks or taking one's shoes off at the door. Rather, this child would be brought up speaking in a Spanish tongue and following Spanish norms, like taking a siesta in the afternoon. Norms and values are key to understanding culture, but first we must understand the terms themselves.

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  10. Beth Heke, A Symbol of Maori Struggle In Once Were Warriors

    The morning after a particularly terrible beating, Beth tells her daughter, Grace, "such is a woman's lot." She says this in reference to the terrible things a husband does, proving that she has been colonized as a woman. To be colonized is to have lost part of your identity to someone or something different from you. Jake's tribal ancestors were a poor, low-level tribe. Beth's were royalty. Beth left her title of princess when she left with Jake. According to Pionair Adventure's history of New Zealand,"[New Zealand] remained largely uncolonized until the early 1800's. England's Captain James Cook, who first visited the Maori in 1769, opened the door to European (chiefly British)

    • Word count: 1483
  11. Ortner/Orientalism

    By way of this, I want to make it evident that Orientalism is in fact a universal phenomenon. The Box of Agency Model Agency [image001.gif] Factors influencing boxes' structure Ortner, in studying the relationship of the Sahib and Sherpa demonstrates how the conception of Orientalism is a world-view. She doesn't assert it as a typical ethnographic model, as the theory on its own is not enough, but stresses it as a model which the average European (like the Sahib) may use for dealing and understanding the `other' culture (in this case; Sherpa). Orientalism, though real and evident and apparently used as a form of control by the Sherpa, only plays a minor role and so the reasons for it must be observed and be considered.

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  12. Identity Culture and Power - Cop Culture

    A very closed shop environment, which is hard to penetrate. Police cop culture has created a set of values and beliefs, which in many ways reflect those of a wider society from which they come. The major population of the police force is taken from working class and the lower middle class persons, who make up the bulk of the population. So it can be seen generally that the views actions and opinions of this segment of society will generally reflect that of a wider society.

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  13. Ibo Culture

    They may have been curious, but they didn't allow that curiosity to manifest into something more than meek compliance. In the trial portrayed in the novel, a man, who had obviously been battering his wife, was trying to convince the egwugwu to force his wife, who had left him and was living with her in-laws, to come back to him.

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  14. What is Anthropology?

    Cultures are comprised of learned behaviors and concepts, principal viewpoints, customs, rituals and many artifacts. The people in a human society generally share common cultural behaviors, which are produced through evolution. Why is it so important to understand human life? In order for society to be more productive we must do so. As a clear result of September 11, 2001, we see that cultural differences cause endless worldwide conflict and division. To deal with this and to put forth the proper changes necessary to eliminate the conflict, an accurate assessment and understanding of culture is required.

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  15. Tattooed People as Taboo Figures in Modern Society - Tattooed People as Taboo

    Cultural expression is based on how people relate to and express (usually through art and symbolism) the values and standards of their particular society (Kottack, 2000: 480). Whereas, nonverbal communication encompasses many different channels, it is communication "given off" that is, it is nonverbal and relates to the presentation of self and to the impression one desires to make (Goffman, 1959: 29). The following is an overview, briefly introducing the arguments I will present to support my claim. There is a historical precedence for women tattooing, as an ancient practice, it is tied inextricably with human concepts about aestheticism, gender and social identity.

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  16. Comment on the history and legacy of slavery in relation to Jean Rhys’ Wide Sargasso Sea

    These systems included having property qualifications, membership of professional bodies and the possession of a university degree. As we can see already, exploitation was rife. Although the sugar colonies did wonders for the wealthy, it has generally been agreed that the colonies were dismal social failures. The work associated with sugar production was burdensome because it involved a considerable manufacturing input on the plantation, as well as harsh agricultural labour. That is to say, it was very labour intensive. It was for this reason that the slave trade developed and thrived. Natives, other Caribbean people and West Africans were all brought in to fuel the riches greed.

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  17. Overview of the story Veronica

    Veronica seemed to have a strong sense of family and was totally accepting her fate. Many years past and Okeke had been successful in his studies and returned with work to his home village, he was shocked by he squalor and disease. He returned to Veronicas house and was shocked by her appearance, "My immediate impression was that the ten years had told on her more than they should of". It seemed that the family she worked so hard for had disappeared, her parent's dead and her sisters and brothers had moved away. She was now married and had a child; her husband had got involved in the troubles.

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  18. The Netherlands

    Telephone and fax are widely used for communications. The most popular newspapers are De Telegraaf and De Volkskrant. Foreign newspapers are widely available and read. Mastercard, American Express, Diners Club and Visa are all accepted almost anywhere. There are no restrictions on the import and export of either local or foreign currency. Transportation within the Netherlands are by rail, sea, and air. KLM Cityhopper operates between Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Groningen, Enschede, Maastricht and Eindhoven. Ferry services run to the Wadden Islands from across the Ijsselmeer and Schelde Estuary. There is also a service to the Frisian Islands across the Waddenzee.

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  19. Culture, in sociology and social anthropology, is the beliefs, behavior, language, and entire way of life of a particular group of people at a particular time.

    Judgment of what is wrong right or wrong, good or bad, acceptable or taboo are based on cultural values. Culture is the result of all the daily discussions and negotiations between people. They are frequently agreeing (sometimes openly, usually tacitly) about the 'proper' way to do things and how to make meanings about the events of the world around them. If you want to change a culture you have to change all these conversations-or at least the majority of them. Sources: 1 http://www.olemiss.edu/courses/psy561/lect0_files/frame.htm 2 "Culture Defined," Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2000. 1993-1999 Microsoft Corporation. 3People learn culture. Many qualities of human life are transmitted genetically--an infant's desire for food, for example, is triggered by physiological characteristics determined within the human genetic code.

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  20. Using the seven characteristics of community life outlined by Beatson, describe and analyze a group you are familiar from reading or first hand experience.

    Some may well have identified with that fact. Once a number of the Wanganui East suburb residents started using the pool a smaller Swimming Community began to develop. The individuals that were using the pool at this point were an aggregate. They may have shared common traits but did not necessarily inter relate as a group. Tyson (1998 2nd edition pp4) gives an example of an example of a number of people in a doctor's waiting room as an aggregate, the general public using a public swimming pool is certainly another example of an aggregate from which the Wanganui East Swimming Club was to originate from From the users of the pool, (the aggregate)

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    31-34), then it could certainly be suggested that Sitting Bull was operating successfully at some, if not indeed all, of these levels. Stanley Vestal's biography Sitting Bull Champion of the Sioux (3rd ed. 1989) approached the character of Sitting Bull by way of the literary method after spending 5 years gathering information for the original edition of the book in 1932. Vestal spent much of his youth living in Indian Territory, playing games with Cheyenne and Arapaho boys and consequently developing what would seem to be an abiding interest in their culture.

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  22. To what extent can human cooperative and social behaviour be explain by the selfish gene theory?

    Sachs et al (2004) define human cooperative behaviour as an interaction which involves more than one person where costs and benefits may be incurred by either both or one member in the exchange. Cooperative behaviour may benefit both parties where the benefit from the actions of both exceeds the cost of performing that action which makes the cooperation one of mutual gain, this is known as mutualism (Griffin, Gardner & West, 2006; Gardner & West, 2004). In this type of interaction the genes of both organisms would have an increased chance of survival and therefore from the perspective of the

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  23. How have ethnographic analogies have been used in the interpretation of Prehistoric exchange systems?

    According to Torrence, archaeology as a discipline is heavily dependent on ethnography in trying to define past economic systems. For example, modern ethnography and economic anthropological theory is used in order to explain the economic structure in the late Bronze Age. (Ostaja-Zagorski 1993). Interpretation of prehistoric economic phenomena was influenced by a deterministic model of economic social formation and means of production (Ibid.). This model was presented as a motor that goes through different stages of economic development and was often linear in progress, suggesting that all societies developed in the same way (Bahn and Renfrew 1996, Ostaja-Zagorski 1993).

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  24. Article review- Deep Play/ Balinese Cockfight Clifford Geertz 1993

    Here he states ?In Bali, to be teased is to be accepted. It was the turning point so far as our relationship to the community was concerned, and we were quite literally ?in?.? (Geertz 1993:416). Here he explains how suddenly from this experience he was able to bond., therefore it was through the cockfight Geertz could learn and communicate the Balinese culture. Geertz goes on to use this banal and mundane practice to unpack the tellings of this certain culture. He does not look for absolute truth but rather the meaning.

    • Word count: 479
  25. Book Review - The book, Return to Laughter is an ethnographical work of fiction based on the experiences of Laura Bohannan, an American anthropologist who spent time in the African bush living with and studying the Tiv tribe.

    Similar to the reasoning behind undertaking the research, the theoretical and practical impetus of the study is not clearly defined in the text. From the information given, it can be deduced that she is not the first individual to live with and study the Kako homestead and nearby regions (Bowen 1954: 4). It is mentioned that Mr. Sackerton has explained her presence in the homestead by stating a desire to learn the language, and this does come into play throughout the book many times as she persistently practices and improves her knowledge of the language (Bowen 1954: 1).

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