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University Degree: Anthropology

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  1. How useful is the term "counter-culture" to describe developments in Western Society during the 1960s? Discuss with reference to any three of the five disciplines represented in Block 6.

    Movements considered "counter-cultural" were also supported by many who did not consider themselves part of the" counter-culture", opposition to the Vietnam War, Nuclear War, and concerns for the Environment were concerns, which existed throughout society. This new freedom of expression and concern for Human Rights began in the late fifties but saw an acceleration of change during the sixties and continued into the early seventies. This period categorized as "the long sixties by Eric Hobsbawn, in his work "Age of Extremes" (Block 6 pg 31)

    • Word count: 1813
  2. social anthropology What are the linguistic origins of anthropology?

    They are two parts of participant observation; covert and overt. Covert is when you are under cover and nobody but you is aware of the research; while overt is when you are observing and some one around you is aware of the study that you are carrying out. However another type of participant observation is half covert and overt. This means that you can carry out a research that some people know about it and some people do not. E.g. doing a study in a primary school and only the principle knows about it.

    • Word count: 607
  3. is british identity in decline?

    Music films and television programmes are now being produced for an international market rather than a British one. There are a lot of concerns on those products which will become more globalise. Britain is part of the E.U and therefore are a free trade country so we do not have to pay tax when transferring goods. Mc Donald's is an example of a decline of traditional identity according to how much it as globalise. Which serves American food so we are exposed to American culture. Hybrid culture in Britain has an effect on our British identity showing that even the food in places such as Mc Donald's isn't English anymore.

    • Word count: 592
  4. When examining PepsiCo it is important to acknowledge that the organisation has many internal and external stakeholders. These stakeholders can vary from those with minority interests

    It is unlikely that minority stakeholders will have a significant degree of influence in the firm's strategy. Instead, it will be the major stakeholders who are able to influence the organisation's strategy. Below is a diagram of the Stakeholder Mapping: Power/Interest Matrix (figure 1). This concept is being used to demonstrate the level of interest and influence from the different stakeholder sector. Stakeholder Mapping: Power/Interest Matrix Figure 1 Level of Interest Low High Minimal Effort > General Public Keep Informed > Employees > Suppliers > Partners > Environmentalists Keep Satisfied > Customers Key Players > Chairman and CEO > Board of Directors > Governments > Shareholders Low High The diagram illustrates the major stakeholders in PepsiCo are the CEO, the Board of Directors, and the shareholders.

    • Word count: 1387
  5. 'Shojo culture has excelled in its potential for creating emptiness as Banana Yoshimoto is influenced by Shojo/Manga culture in her writing would it be fair to say that the content of her novella 'Kitchen' is also empty. Discuss

    There are some aspects of Shojo culture that are empty but there are also positive aspects of Shojo. Girls can learn how to be lovable for men from Manga and some Manga can even be seen as serious literature. Some people say that Shojo is empty because it for men and they see the Shojo as an object for a mans desires. Shojo culture deals with issues such as love, culture, gender, identity and society. It also has deep insights into human relationships. 'Kitchen' is similar to Manga in that it is about a teenage romance. Shojo culture can be seen as a representation of Japan today. Conventional households are disappearing which Yoshimoto shows in her novel 'Kitchen'.

    • Word count: 821
  6. What are the most important features of modern British Culture? British Culture and traditions are famous all over the world, in all sorts of countries.

    These changes have meant that gender roles have also changed. Many families are now headed by women as opposed to the traditional nuclear families which were generally dominated by men. Women are taking on far more responsibilities and challenges than they were half a century ago; they often go to work and leave their partners at home with the children, women have just as many rights as men now, but often different genders would not be expected to do particular jobs.

    • Word count: 506
  7. Organizational Cultures

    What's worth to mention, the power culture is concerned as political organization in which decisions are taken very largely on the outcome of a balance of influence rather than on logical grounds. Power cultures tend to be very proud and strong. The degree of their strength will depend in obvious way on personality of the leader. He or she has to be power-orientated, politically minded and risk-taking. One has to keep in mind that no matter how strong personality the leader has, he or she needs to be very careful when the organisation expands.

    • Word count: 1595
  8. Basically the ascetic technique will kill all microorganisms that are present and employ sterile objects and other items. The different types of contamination are:

    *Incubate at 30 degrees Celsius -this will ensure no pathogenic bacteria or viruses grow. *Work near a Bunsen burner (within 1 foot) because the upward currents will prevent particles falling down into the culture. *Prevent from placing things on the workbench as it may be contaminated with microorganisms *Wear goggles at all times whilst doing the experiment *Heat the rim of the culture bottle to prevent airborne contamination. *Flame the tongs in Bunsen burner after each go to kill all microorganisms.

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  9. The Stories "A Stench of Kerosene and "Veronica " have the same message to get across which is the role of women and they have both presented two different cultures

    In the story 'Veronica' the author has tried to give the impression that women are born to grow up, get married and take care of the family evidence for that" I have to go cook my father will be home soon". The author shows that women are not supposed to be given the choice of an education and career. In 'Veronica' it provides us with the information that Women in Africa have been brought up in a way that from childhood they have been told not to have a qualification or a career, as it says "No the city is for you not for me what will I do once I get there?

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  10. The Idea that organizational culture can be managed is preposterous. Discuss.

    Pettigrew (1979) views it as a combination of beliefs and ideologies, and for Deal and Kennedy (1982); it is the way we do things around here. It is generally assumed by OC researchers that there are three levels of organizational culture analysis: observable culture (or what Schein, 2004 describes as artefacts), shared values and beliefs, and common assumptions. (Schermerhorn, et al 1994; Schein, 2004; Ogbonna, 1993). This classification is important as we shall see later; our classification determines our interpretation of the results of culture change efforts. OCM researchers do not share a consensus about the signification of culture management.

    • Word count: 2013
  11. THE CASE OF BARBIE

    can be a good names in one culture but can carry a different meaning & image of Barbie. Second important illustration of culture is behavior. As from the beginning, Barbie had her critics, from feminists and others, has been that she reinforces sexism, representing a young woman with questionable intelligence and a near-impossible physique. Barbie is sold around the world in the original blonde-haired, blue-eyed version along with international Barbie such as Kenyan Barbie, Polynesian Barbie, spring time in Tokyo Barbie (has black hair), etc. not all cultures have responded positively to her. In Egypt and other Middle Eastern countries, Barbie is not only likely to be banned but even replaced by dolls that these countries' governments have helped develop.

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  12. Choose any two stories from opening worlds which you find both moving and amusing. How do the writers arouse these responses and support your answer with reference to the text.

    The story is both moving and compelling because it deals with important issues such as the relationship and bond between mother and daughter but it also shows other aspects which can be considered amusing such as the languages spoken by the mother to her daughter and also the competition the mother has with her friend wanting the best for their daughters. The struggling bond between mother and daughter is shown when the mother is watching a talent programme on the television when she hears a girl playing the piano.

    • Word count: 663
  13. The Culture of Britishness What role does 'language' play in notions of cultural and national identity in Britain?

    "...it may be suspected that there is little in the functional side of our conscious behaviour in which language does not play its part." (Sapir, cited in Downes, 1998:1) Due to this multitude of roles that language plays a part in, it is perhaps not surprising that the actual word 'language' is also used in many different ways. At the simplest level 'language' can be used as a word that refers to a set of skills. This can be taken as something that can be learnt as a subject in school, as children and even adults are taught how to read and write in English language lessons for instance.

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  14. How can culture contribute to social sustainability

    That is, when words written on paper were organised in such a way that they were not easily lost. Traditional people tend to rely on story telling from parent to sibling for culture to be relayed in such a way that makes life more meaningful and abundant in things that make people happy. 1 Culture contributed to social sustainability in traditional Australian Aboriginal societies because the family was at the centre of work and economic life. Aboriginal law concerning kin country meant that there were certain places that were taboo to visit. That is, a family residing in Dreaming tract x were required by law to stay there unless invited by another family into their country, Dreaming tract y.

    • Word count: 1658
  15. Political anthropology looks at how societies or groups of people develop political systems based on the structure

    Looking at how different societies develop political systems is valuable because it allows societies when in political uproar or crisis to observe the functionality of other political systems and processes, and apply them to rebuilding their own. For example the newly found political independence of Iraq has left many questions and decisions to be made as to how to establish a new political system. The political system of democracy, drawn from political systems of other societies and cultures such as the United States of America, is now being introduced to the people of Iraq.

    • Word count: 655
  16. Looking For Alibrandi

    Multiculturalism within Australian films offers its audiences an opportunity of recognising, as Australian, representations of social experience which are defined by their hybridity. Films such as Michael Jenkins' The Heartbreak Kid (1993), Aleksi Vellis' The Wog Boy (1999) and Kate Woods' Looking for Alibrandi (2000) depict a nation of "elaborate patterns of difference" as well as a construction of unity. In particular, Looking for Alibrandi's Josephine Alibrandi (Pia Miranda) typifies the hybridised Australian negotiating a cultural space for herself within her Italian community that is also negotiating its form and significance across grids of racial and cultural diversity.

    • Word count: 2020
  17. Is the representation of men and masculinity changing in popular culture

    Men's images and masculinity are fragmented, softened, subtly altered by the reference and illusion. Men occasionally appear in advertisements as sensual, caring, even effeminate; the 'new man' phenomenon, a true creation of the media, is promoted in magazines and television, and sportsmen and trade unionists weep in public in times of victory and defeat. Increasingly, thought not for the first time, masculinity is in 'crisis'.2 This paper will assess how the representation of men and masculinity is changing in popular culture and if there are new relations of looking that challenge the conventional dynamics where men own the gaze and others are the 'object' of the gaze.

    • Word count: 2569
  18. Angela Carter includes her own representation of the fairy tale 'Little Red Riding Hood' in 'The Company of Wolves'. However, she changes the whole tone of the children's tale

    Angela Carter's vivid descriptions give a nightmarish feel to the wolves, giving in to the generic beasts of the imagination, like foreboding monsters that come out as night, eating those who dare enter the forest. This is typically fairy tale-esque, and it could almost be said that the emphasised, overdone nature of the story turns it into a satire of a fairy tale, with Carter ridiculing the traditional style of them, with their weak stereotypical females and dominant males. She turns these stereotypes around, giving the girl the power at the end to use her sexuality, normally non-existent in more traditional versions, to tame the wolf and save herself.

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  19. IT IS ARGUED THAT AT THE HEART OF ALL RELATIONSHIPS THERE IS AN UNEQUAL POWER BASE. CRITICALLY EVALUATE THIS STATEMENT AND ITS RELEVANCE WITHIN THE COUNSELLING RELATIONSHIP

    It should not matter but it does. Men place more significance on different events and words; women are softer? SEXUAL ORIENTATION Do gays have different issues to straights? Would a straight male counsellor feel that every gay client fancied him? It would be hard for me not to assume what a gay client would be like prior to the first session. PROVIDE SUFFICIENT BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TO INDICATE AN AWARENESS OF THEIR OWN CULTURAL HERITAGE AND HOW THAT MAY IMPACT ON THE RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPED WITH CLIENTS Lago (2003: p28) writes that it has been estimated that, by the early 1960's, there were in excess of 160 different definitions of culture in the social science literature.

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  20. 'One of the fundamental problems of the criminal justice system is its excessive reliance upon the discretion of individual actors'. Discuss in the context of policing. One of the fundamental problems of the criminal justice system is the amount of d...

    Firstly it should be established whether there is an excessive reliance upon the discretion of individual actors. The introduction of PACE introduced wide stop and search powers. However an objective basis for this was included, stating that there should be a reasonable suspicion, there needs under s 1(3) to be 'reasonable grounds for suspecting that evidence of relevant offences will be found'. However this is an elusive concept, one which although appearing to give police guidelines to limit their discretion in fact adds to their discretion, as what they decide is reasonable will be largely based upon personal decisions.

    • Word count: 1464
  21. Philosophy for Children I. The concept of the Community of Inquiry Central to the heart of P4C lies the notion of a community of inquiry. Originally a term from Pierce to reference interaction

    that of the community the criteria of a "good" reason (the question of truth) or discovery vs. construction It is important to recognize the presence of these issues within the P4C method and to explore how these issues color our vision of that method. We will note certain tensions among writers about P4C in terms of which metaphysical vision best embraces the ideals behind the COI. In the sections below I will suggest also a series of questions that are provoked by discussions of the COI which will hopefully lead to further reflection and dialogue with the P4C community itself.

    • Word count: 3761
  22. Media and Globalization and how the concept of "cultural imperialism" could be applied to the Disney Animations

    The global flows of information are mostly believed to be a one-way traffic from "the west-to-the-rest" on one hand due to the historical colonist background that helps imposing their own culture on the others, and on the other hand owning to the technological mediated commodities that rely on the most modern and sophisticated machineries in transmitting media messages, and the growth of cable, satellite TV and internet lead to a globalized world that rely heavily on technological communication systems. Unfortunately, these technological devices are held by the west thus result in western domination.

    • Word count: 1627
  23. Discuss the role of media studies in making sense of the political, economic and cultural meaning of everyday life

    From local to global levels, the media has an enormous influence on the political aspects of peoples' lives. From the television, news papers, political campaigns and other mediums, people gain their own point of view of society. This point of view varies from person to person as their interpretation of the media may differ. Many people take the media at face value "they [the media] are constantly blamed for all kind of social ills, political problems and cultural degeneracy"1, but media studies, enables people to raise many questions about different media texts.

    • Word count: 1983
  24. Questions to ask about gravestones. Part ITake one graveyard and/or a church full of memorials and tombs

    Has it been moved? 4. Style of grave/memorial. 5. Type of grave/memorial. They don't all look the same. They can be made from different materials, be different sizes and shapes, be fixed on the wall, on the ground etc. . Think of simple ways of describing them, like black floor slab, sandstone floor slab, table tomb etc. . 6. Take photographs where possible and measurements if you can. 7. You may not be the first person to study the stones. Check in your local library to see if someone has recorded the information before you.

    • Word count: 499
  25. Discuss the view that Adorno and Horkeimer's arguments are unduly pessimistic and irrelevant to contemporary society and moder

    This may also be useful to bear in mind, when applying the relevance of their arguments in relation to modern day understanding of the cultural industries. The members of the Frankfurt School were writing during 1930s Germany, at the time of the rising of the Nazis social oppression of the Jews. Victims of European fascism, the Frankfurt School experienced first hand the ways that the Nazis used the instruments of the Mass Culture to produce submission to fascist culture and society.

    • Word count: 4142

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