• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Compare and contrast Shannon and Weaver's model of communication with two of the following: Gerbner, Lasswell, Newcomb, Westley, Maclean, Jakobson. Which model would be most suited to the area of international relations?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The 1949 Shannon and Weaver model of communication is one of the most famous in the field of Political Communication, having been referred to as "one of the main seeds out of which Communication Studies has grown" (Fiske, 1982). Due to its relative simplicity it is usually the first model a student of Communication Studies will learn, so that they might get a basic grip of how the concepts of Communication Studies work. It is however, far from the only one in existence, as many flaws have been identified in the Shannon and Weaver model, therefore many other communication theories have been put forward as alternatives that fill in the blanks that the Shannon and Weaver model has. It is these models and the Shannon and Weaver model that shall be focussed on, comparing the differences between them, and analysing their relative strengths and weaknesses. From this it is hoped that a conclusion can be drawn regarding which of the models is best suited in the field of international relations. The Shannon and Weaver model was developed in 1949 by Claude Shannon, a communications engineer at Bell Telephone Laboratories in conjunction with Warren Weaver in an attempt to help engineers increase and optomise the amount of information that could be sent over the limited bandwidth of contemporary telephone lines. ...read more.

Middle

The reason for choosing these three is simply so that it is possible to compare both linear models with different focusses and equally how these two compare to a non-linear model. We must also make these comparisons trying to assess each model for its usefulness in the field of international relations. The Shannon and Weaver model is renowned for its simplicity. It deals simply with how communication travels from the transmitter to the receiver worrying only about the concept of noise scrambling the content of the message, regardless of if the meaning is still intact. It is considered by some to be too simple, with Chandler (1994) asserting that the model is "not merely a gross over-simplification but a dangerously misleading misrepresentation of the nature of human communication". And this is certainly a fair argument. Let us take for the sake of argument, the example of language. Say the Transmitter is speaking in French on a telephone connection that is crystal clear, and his message is received perfectly clearly by the Receiver, who is unable to speak French. According to Shannon and Weaver, the message can be classed as having been successfully sent, even though the receiver cannot speak French and therefore is unable to get any meaning out of the message. ...read more.

Conclusion

It is this element of interpretation that makes Newcomb much more suited in the field of International Relations than Shannon and Weaver or Gerbner. The added X element serves as a way of regulating the communication to help ensure that the interpretation of the Receiver is as intended by the Sender. But the X element is only as useful if one knows what it is. According to Fiske (1982) "This model assumes ... that people need information". Which is true. If one is not aware that a thumbs up is offensive to someone, they will not know to avoid it, meaning that being well informed is a must for the success of the model. Therefore in conclusion we can see that the Shannon and Weaver and Gerbner models of communications are sufficient if one wishes to take an academic, simplified look at communication and the way it works, but their lack of the necessary extraneous elements of communication make them next to useless in any real world scenario, representing, as they do, overly-simplified models of how communication works. Newcomb on the other hand is better suited for real world communication if only because of the added X element which ensures that interpretation can be controlled by either party, even if the X element can be rendered useless due to ignorance. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Political Theories section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Political Theories essays

  1. Realism remains the dominant paradigm in International Relations theory. Discuss

    The neo-realist theory was advanced by Kenneth Waltz who ignored human nature and focused on the effects of the international system. For Waltz, the international system consisted of a number of great powers, each seeking to survive. Because the system is anarchic, each state has to survive on its own.

  2. What is truth according to Platos allegory of the cave?

    there is a final one doesn't necessarily mean that a person needs to stop chasing this truth. Therefore in conclusion one could argue that the final stage is in fact endless. Truth is enlightenment and thus it should be the philosopher kings duty to spread this truth around to people and teach them of this truth that he knows.

  1. Steven Lukes(TM) three dimensional(TM) model of power overlooks important aspects of how power actually ...

    exercise of influence.2 This implies that one should not limit the scope of power and take into account that it includes control of oneself and the environment. This is opposed to the view taken by Lukes, which states that power is a force that is dispensed over you and something which controls you in one way or another.

  2. Compare and Contrast Western and Eastern Nationalisms.

    Another difference between the two regions can be seen in their economic situations. Stokes points out that, after 1500, the centre of European political and economic strength shifted away from the Mediterranean, towards the northwest. This was caused by several factors, primarily the discovery of the new world, which enriched

  1. Compare and contrast the oratorical skills of Martin Luther King and Winston Churchill in ...

    Therefore, it will be argued that despite having different cultural conditions, contexts and aims, both leaders employed similar devices of political rhetoric in order to persuade the audience, because they are both examples of deliberative rhetoric. In order to test this hypothesis the analysis will be divided into three categories in relation to Aristotle's theory of 'The Art of Rhetoric'.

  2. Free essay

    Explain how feminist theories criticise international relations for Marginalising women and gender

    It is Liberal feminism which explores the implications of a limited number of women in international institutions. Whilst international policy is made by males and enacted by males, it is fundamentally unrepresentative of women or their views. It fails to account for women and instead further supports the male ideal.

  1. Turkish Foreign Policy Last 10 Years

    On the contrary, Turkish independence movement adopted an understanding which fight against West with the ideas of West and which include progressive, liberal and national elements. With this understanding, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, considering countries as various but civilization as united, in this content, has established good relations withy Western states

  2. Power. A gets B to do something that he or she would not ...

    On the other hand, they label one of these types 'power' - namely the securing of compliance through the threat of sanctions. - First sense is typical power and second is coercion. Coercion exists where A secures B's compliance by the threat of deprivation, where there is 'a conflict over values or course of action between A and B' (p.24)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work