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University Degree: Criminology
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The role of values, including diversity, in my practiceWithin my role as Probation Service Officer I constantly work towards and promote antidiscriminatory practice.
(Williams B. 1995). However many faiths offer ideas on ways of responding to crime. Many political and philosophical traditions have also proposed ideas as to the right way to respond to offenders and victims. Emmanuel Kant held that everyone is worthy of respect. People are of intrinsic worth regardless of whether we feel that they are useful to us or not. Values such as client self determination and treating offenders as unique and not part of a group to be generalised have tended to derive from this position. In my role as Probation Service Officer it is important to be aware of my own values and the impact it may have on my professional practice.
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This essay will look at why do youth justice professionals argue for a reduction in the use of incarceration for young people and why has it been unsuccessful.
The youth justice board revealed that there are 10 children aged 12, 75 children aged 13 and 175 aged 14 now being incarcerated in England and Wales. Burrell (2002) stated that "The number of children in custody under 14 has risen by 75 per cent since last year". Arnold (2008) believes that "If an individual is under the age of eighteen, he or she should still be considered a child and treated appropriately by the legal system". Arnold (2008) argues that "Contrary to current beliefs, children should not be treated as adults because juvenile justice system proves more beneficial to helping children".
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as weak social bonds at school or the family, biological, that is having genetic abnormalities and psychological factors such as mental health disorders (Pond p.23). On top of the issue of 'free will' which prosecutors are still proving against defendants in courts today, the classical school acknowledged how punishments that crime delivers deter people from undertaking criminal behaviour.
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Depending on how the system is designed, it can make a "best" match, or it can score possible matches and rank them according to likelihood. Identification applications are common when the goal is to identify criminals, terrorists or any other person attempting entry to a controlled area, particularly through surveillance. Verification occurs when the biometric system asks and attempts to answer the question, "Is this X?" after the user claims to be X.
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1 Why are crime statistics often a misleading indication of the amount of crime in society? Your answer should address both official and unofficial measurements.
Also another difficulty with crime is that of measuring it, as most official measurements are presumably made by the Home Office it raises questions such as who actually produces the stats?, what is counted? How are these stats counted? Is there anything in the stats that are left out? The British Crime Survey is an annual victimisation survey carried out by the Home Office which is an institute in charge of criminal justice issues, they produce official statistics, official statistics are particularly useful since they have been collected since 1857 and so provide us with an overview of the changing
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What is crime? There are many definitions of crime however crime is ultimately an act which breaks a law currently being policed which is known as the legal definition or an act that breaks a set of common norms or moral codes which is known as the normative definition. Someone, somewhere at sometime decided what a law would be and possibly based this on their own ideas and preferences. Crime whether legal or normative is based on society's assumptions and or perceptions and is therefore a social construction.
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Yet, it is also felt to be universal because everyone must be a consumer: this particular freedom is compulsory. If there is no principle restricting who can consume what, there is no principled constraint on what can be consumed: all social relations, activities and objects can in principle be exchanged as commodities. To be a consumer is to make choices: this exercise of choice is in principle unconstrained. The freedom of consumer culture is defined in a modern and liberal way: consumer choice is a private act. Two senses of meaning of this: * in the positive sense, it occurs within a domain of the private, which is ideologically declared out of bounds to public intervention, social and political
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These are not small insignificant advantages (Cialdini 2001: Aronson, 2007). Cialdini (2001) also found that defendants were sentenced to jail twice as often if they were categorized as unattractive people. Judge and Jury Kenneth Lopez (2007) wrote an article about a survey in the March issue of the ABA magazine Law Technology Today. The results revealed that attorneys and the general public communicate in significantly different ways. While "61% of the general public learns visually," the survey found that "attorneys show a greater preference for auditory learning and kinesthetic learning."
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56 murderers were executed in 1995, a record number for the modern death penalty. This represented 1.8% of those on death row. The average time on death row for those 56 executed--11 years, 2 months, an all time record of longevity, breaking the 1994 record of 10 years, 2 months. Death penalty opponents state "Those who support the death penalty see it as a solution to violent crime." Opponents, hereby, present one of many fabrications. In reality, executions are seen as the appropriate punishment for certain criminals committing specific crimes. So says the U.S.
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A criminologist studies the possible explanations of crime causation and how it can be prevented, if not reduced. Criminology allows for a focused and insightful examination of many of the issues that surround offending deviant behavour. After some reasearch on criminology one can see that social, cultural, and economic sources are a major study towards the cause of crime yet biological and psychological behaviour continue to play a strong part in deep understanding of criminology. Criminology also involves law, what the relationship is between law and order, what is the role of law in society?
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These crimes usually included intimidation, (35%) simple assault, (19%) and aggravated assault. (12)% In addition, 50 percent of hate crimes were committed based on race, 18 percent on religion, 17 percent on sexual orientation, 11 percent on ethic origin, and less than 1 half percent on disability and other multiple reasons. (Prevention Pathways 1999) The most common types of hate incidents are usually racial slurs, and graffiti, which are more than twice likely to occur than physical violence or destruction of property. African American and Hispanic students were shown to be the most likely victims.
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One of the major reasons that prisons have become overcrowded is that crime control strategies and legislative changes have favored longer sentences. These approaches have taken several forms that, when combined, have incarcerated people for longer periods of time with less possibility for early release. Many factors such as new offenses, mandatory sentences, lengthening terms, and habitual offender laws, have added to prison overcrowding. In an article found in the Los Angeles Times, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, "unveiled a new model that places one man in charge and aims to reduce crime by better preparing inmates for life on the outside.
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In analysing Adam's criminality theoretical explanations reflect that he is suffering from status frustration (1955), however Steven Box 1981 believed that Cohen's theory was only plausible for a small number of delinquents.
Becker, 1961 Lemert 1963, Erikson 1968. Following my analysis of Adam's behaviour and the results of attendance centre order, my approach is to ensure he is not subjected to further contamination that is described by Sutherland (1949) Adam has the desire to be tough and smart (Miller 1962). He displays aspirations to own things he cannot afford, but his means to achieve them are blocked and therefore he innovates (Merton 1946). The drinking can also relate to retreatism, which allows Adam to escape from the problems he is facing and the reality of potential failure.
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These figures are set to rise dramatically unless more care is taken while drinking. What to Spot! Rapists will be on the prowl this Christmas, so take extra care while downing those drinks. The most popular drug used by rapists is Rohypnol. Rohypnol (or flunitrazepam) is a prescription only tranquilliser which, when mixed with alcohol, sheds ones inhibitions, creates a trance-like feeling and induces short term amnesia. However, Rohypnol is a legitimate drug used in the treatment of sleep disorders, producing sedative-hypnotic effects including muscle relaxation and weakness.
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To begin with, domestic violence is a very common type of crime in the world. In my opinion, there are two ways to explain why people commit domestic violence. The first reason is the way that the social factors influence the experiences and behaviour of people. Life experiences could be a powerful affect to lead people to hurt someone close to them. For instance, if an individual grow up from a family that has domestic violence, this could be a strong effect to do the same thing to his/her family.
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Surveillance of Society. This is the first step towards a submissive and controlled civilization. Surveillance reinforces divisions within society
After the creation of video cassette recorders, surveillance could now be preserved on tape as evidence. This phenomena rapidly spread to other cities and was soon used at businesses prone to theft, such as banks, mini-marts, and gas stations. In response to the September 11th attacks, nations, governments, companies, and private citizens are leaning on the use of surveillance cameras more than ever before. With these widespread results it?s no surprise that reality television shows like Big Brother have come into existence. Big Brother is based on a group of people living together in a large house, isolated from the outside world but continuously being watched by television cameras.
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