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University Degree: Criminology

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  1. The role of values, including diversity, in my practiceWithin my role as Probation Service Officer I constantly work towards and promote antidiscriminatory practice.

    (Williams B. 1995). However many faiths offer ideas on ways of responding to crime. Many political and philosophical traditions have also proposed ideas as to the right way to respond to offenders and victims. Emmanuel Kant held that everyone is worthy of respect. People are of intrinsic worth regardless of whether we feel that they are useful to us or not. Values such as client self determination and treating offenders as unique and not part of a group to be generalised have tended to derive from this position. In my role as Probation Service Officer it is important to be aware of my own values and the impact it may have on my professional practice.

    • Word count: 598
  2. This essay will look at why do youth justice professionals argue for a reduction in the use of incarceration for young people and why has it been unsuccessful.

    The youth justice board revealed that there are 10 children aged 12, 75 children aged 13 and 175 aged 14 now being incarcerated in England and Wales. Burrell (2002) stated that "The number of children in custody under 14 has risen by 75 per cent since last year". Arnold (2008) believes that "If an individual is under the age of eighteen, he or she should still be considered a child and treated appropriately by the legal system". Arnold (2008) argues that "Contrary to current beliefs, children should not be treated as adults because juvenile justice system proves more beneficial to helping children".

    • Word count: 723
  3. Compare Classical and Postivist Criminologies

    as weak social bonds at school or the family, biological, that is having genetic abnormalities and psychological factors such as mental health disorders (Pond p.23). On top of the issue of 'free will' which prosecutors are still proving against defendants in courts today, the classical school acknowledged how punishments that crime delivers deter people from undertaking criminal behaviour.

    • Word count: 553
  4. Biometric Technology

    Depending on how the system is designed, it can make a "best" match, or it can score possible matches and rank them according to likelihood. Identification applications are common when the goal is to identify criminals, terrorists or any other person attempting entry to a controlled area, particularly through surveillance. Verification occurs when the biometric system asks and attempts to answer the question, "Is this X?" after the user claims to be X.

    • Word count: 520
  5. 1 Why are crime statistics often a misleading indication of the amount of crime in society? Your answer should address both official and unofficial measurements.

    Also another difficulty with crime is that of measuring it, as most official measurements are presumably made by the Home Office it raises questions such as who actually produces the stats?, what is counted? How are these stats counted? Is there anything in the stats that are left out? The British Crime Survey is an annual victimisation survey carried out by the Home Office which is an institute in charge of criminal justice issues, they produce official statistics, official statistics are particularly useful since they have been collected since 1857 and so provide us with an overview of the changing

    • Word count: 968
  6. DD100. TMA07. Outline the view that society is both fearful of, and fascinated by, crime.

    What is crime? There are many definitions of crime however crime is ultimately an act which breaks a law currently being policed which is known as the legal definition or an act that breaks a set of common norms or moral codes which is known as the normative definition. Someone, somewhere at sometime decided what a law would be and possibly based this on their own ideas and preferences. Crime whether legal or normative is based on society's assumptions and or perceptions and is therefore a social construction.

    • Word count: 976
  7. How might a consumer culture generate crime?

    Yet, it is also felt to be universal because everyone must be a consumer: this particular freedom is compulsory. If there is no principle restricting who can consume what, there is no principled constraint on what can be consumed: all social relations, activities and objects can in principle be exchanged as commodities. To be a consumer is to make choices: this exercise of choice is in principle unconstrained. The freedom of consumer culture is defined in a modern and liberal way: consumer choice is a private act. Two senses of meaning of this: * in the positive sense, it occurs within a domain of the private, which is ideologically declared out of bounds to public intervention, social and political

    • Word count: 797
  8. Beauty and the Law

    These are not small insignificant advantages (Cialdini 2001: Aronson, 2007). Cialdini (2001) also found that defendants were sentenced to jail twice as often if they were categorized as unattractive people. Judge and Jury Kenneth Lopez (2007) wrote an article about a survey in the March issue of the ABA magazine Law Technology Today. The results revealed that attorneys and the general public communicate in significantly different ways. While "61% of the general public learns visually," the survey found that "attorneys show a greater preference for auditory learning and kinesthetic learning."

    • Word count: 939
  9. Death Penalty

    56 murderers were executed in 1995, a record number for the modern death penalty. This represented 1.8% of those on death row. The average time on death row for those 56 executed--11 years, 2 months, an all time record of longevity, breaking the 1994 record of 10 years, 2 months. Death penalty opponents state "Those who support the death penalty see it as a solution to violent crime." Opponents, hereby, present one of many fabrications. In reality, executions are seen as the appropriate punishment for certain criminals committing specific crimes. So says the U.S.

    • Word count: 849
  10. Nature of Criminology

    A criminologist studies the possible explanations of crime causation and how it can be prevented, if not reduced. Criminology allows for a focused and insightful examination of many of the issues that surround offending deviant behavour. After some reasearch on criminology one can see that social, cultural, and economic sources are a major study towards the cause of crime yet biological and psychological behaviour continue to play a strong part in deep understanding of criminology. Criminology also involves law, what the relationship is between law and order, what is the role of law in society?

    • Word count: 874
  11. Hate Crimes A hate crime generally can be considered an offense committed against another person

    These crimes usually included intimidation, (35%) simple assault, (19%) and aggravated assault. (12)% In addition, 50 percent of hate crimes were committed based on race, 18 percent on religion, 17 percent on sexual orientation, 11 percent on ethic origin, and less than 1 half percent on disability and other multiple reasons. (Prevention Pathways 1999) The most common types of hate incidents are usually racial slurs, and graffiti, which are more than twice likely to occur than physical violence or destruction of property. African American and Hispanic students were shown to be the most likely victims.

    • Word count: 574
  12. The "War on Drugs" and Correctional Organizations

    One of the major reasons that prisons have become overcrowded is that crime control strategies and legislative changes have favored longer sentences. These approaches have taken several forms that, when combined, have incarcerated people for longer periods of time with less possibility for early release. Many factors such as new offenses, mandatory sentences, lengthening terms, and habitual offender laws, have added to prison overcrowding. In an article found in the Los Angeles Times, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, "unveiled a new model that places one man in charge and aims to reduce crime by better preparing inmates for life on the outside.

    • Word count: 827
  13. In analysing Adam's criminality theoretical explanations reflect that he is suffering from status frustration (1955), however Steven Box 1981 believed that Cohen's theory was only plausible for a small number of delinquents.

    Becker, 1961 Lemert 1963, Erikson 1968. Following my analysis of Adam's behaviour and the results of attendance centre order, my approach is to ensure he is not subjected to further contamination that is described by Sutherland (1949) Adam has the desire to be tough and smart (Miller 1962). He displays aspirations to own things he cannot afford, but his means to achieve them are blocked and therefore he innovates (Merton 1946). The drinking can also relate to retreatism, which allows Adam to escape from the problems he is facing and the reality of potential failure.

    • Word count: 983
  14. Be Careful this Christmas!

    These figures are set to rise dramatically unless more care is taken while drinking. What to Spot! Rapists will be on the prowl this Christmas, so take extra care while downing those drinks. The most popular drug used by rapists is Rohypnol. Rohypnol (or flunitrazepam) is a prescription only tranquilliser which, when mixed with alcohol, sheds ones inhibitions, creates a trance-like feeling and induces short term amnesia. However, Rohypnol is a legitimate drug used in the treatment of sleep disorders, producing sedative-hypnotic effects including muscle relaxation and weakness.

    • Word count: 896
  15. Domestic violence

    To begin with, domestic violence is a very common type of crime in the world. In my opinion, there are two ways to explain why people commit domestic violence. The first reason is the way that the social factors influence the experiences and behaviour of people. Life experiences could be a powerful affect to lead people to hurt someone close to them. For instance, if an individual grow up from a family that has domestic violence, this could be a strong effect to do the same thing to his/her family.

    • Word count: 725
  16. Surveillance of Society. This is the first step towards a submissive and controlled civilization. Surveillance reinforces divisions within society

    After the creation of video cassette recorders, surveillance could now be preserved on tape as evidence. This phenomena rapidly spread to other cities and was soon used at businesses prone to theft, such as banks, mini-marts, and gas stations. In response to the September 11th attacks, nations, governments, companies, and private citizens are leaning on the use of surveillance cameras more than ever before. With these widespread results it?s no surprise that reality television shows like Big Brother have come into existence. Big Brother is based on a group of people living together in a large house, isolated from the outside world but continuously being watched by television cameras.

    • Word count: 933
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"I claim that human mind or human society is not divided into watertight compartments called social, political and religious. All act and react upon one another."

-Mahatma Gandhi

Social studies is all about humans, whether it's the structure of our society (sociology), our interactions with the environment (human and social geography), our struggle forpower (politics), our tendency to break laws (criminology), or our capacity to form a wealth of distinct cultures (anthropology). If this sounds terribly interestingto you, then perhaps you should consider studying one of the social studies subjects at university.

Students of these subjects should ready themselves for a significant amount of writing. If you'd like a little bit of help with this, Marked by Teachers is here for you. Read our student-submitted social studies essays to get inspired, and study the teacher annotations to gain insight into what earns top marks. Before long, you'll be writing papers that do full justice to your great ideas.

When students of these subjects leave university, they tend to apply their degrees directly in academia, consulting, and analysis, or transfer the skillsto other careers like planning ,HR,marketing and media.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • In my essay I will attempt to describe Mills concept The Sociological Imagination and common-sense explanation and use the main ideas and differences between sociological imagination and common-sense to analyse the topic of racism in UK.

    "In conclusion I want to say that racism is alive because people do not use sociological imagination but find useful common-sense ideas: they do not think with own head just follow stereotypes. If people with racist ideas used sociological imagination and looked at asylum seekers and immigrants from the perspective of culture and loss they would understand what must it be like to leave your country, family, language, and culture for a community in which you are treated as less than human (J. Rothenberg, 10.05.2009). Moreover if a racist used sociological imagination and looked at human but not at his skin colour, ethnicity or race I think they would understand that our all blood is red, we all feel pain and we are all equal. As for the future looking at our failing economy, increased number of hate crimes I think that teaching the next generation how to practice the sociological imagination is more crucial now than ever."

  • What are the aims of the Youth Justice System in England and Wales. How did they come about and how effectively are they being met? Discuss

    "In conclusion, the radical overhaul of the YJS has led to a number of aims, all of which have to adhere to the principle aim of preventing offending. Overall, it appears these aims are effectively being met. YO are now more likely to receive an intervention when they first offend, and the time taken from arrest to sentence has dramatically reduced. In addition, prevention schemes appear effective and adequately funded, and many of the new alternatives to custodial sentences, most notably ISSP's, are making a positive impact. Most importantly, the YJB sets a clear national framework and Yots seem to successfully co-ordinate and deliver services to YO and the courts. Whilst more could be done to help reform the youth courts, the changes so far appear effective. In regards to custodial sentences, it appears that although DTO's can be effective, the programmes required to help YO are often not provided and the transition back into the community is not as good as it could be. Furthermore large numbers of YO are still being remanded into custody and the aim of increasing public awareness and confidence in the YJS is not being met. It also appears that the discrepancies regarding both gender and ethnicity need to be addressed by the YJS."

  • Examine the extent to which the media can be said to inform and misinform us about the nature and extent of crime.

    "To conclude, this essay showed how media inform and misinform people about the nature and extent of crimes and examined how newspapers represent domestic violence crimes. To resume, media do inform people about crimes, but because of need to earn money they use sensationalism and selective reporting which present a distorted and inaccurate view of crimes. Moreover evidence show that newspapers try to break the public silence around domestic violence cases but unfortunately they lack professionalism and broader understanding what is domestic violence. That's why many newspapers draw inaccurate, incomplete and potentially misleading picture of domestic violence fatalities."

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