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University Degree: Criminology

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  1. Rape. This project will introduce rape as a crime using common definition, statistics and academic literature. Secondly will use feminist theories and explain the rape, providing theories strengths and weaknesses.

    Historically legal definitions of rape were very limited and narrow describing rape as forced sex done by a stranger, exclusively by a man against a woman who was not his wife. Today as laws are more global rape is gender neutral and involves not only 'men raping women' but also dating partners, spouses, homosexuals, old and young and men as victims too (Vito, Maahs & Holmes, 2007). There are a lot of myths about rape. One of the most pervasive and damaging myths about raping is that rape is actually a sexual act.

    • Word count: 5116
  2. An investigation into the extent of homophobic hate crime and the leaders involved in tackling the problem in Manchester

    (Homophobic Hate Crime 2008) There is also minimal funding for large scale studies to be carried out, which would provide a more reliable picture of the problem and how it could be reduced. (Dick 2008) Moreover the CJS and policymakers look at homophobic hate crime related data that is based on police records. This, as explained by the Association of Chief Police Officers, is highly unreliable because although all police staff are required to record different forms of hate crimes, in reality these recordings are heavily based on police officers' alacrity and willingness to record such crimes.

    • Word count: 4995
  3. Anthropology and its Uses in Single Body and Mass Fatality Cases

    Forensic anthropology is applying the science of physical anthropology and archaeology, and also applying human osteology and odontology so that legal cases can be solved and proved. Forensic anthropologists recover and identify skeletal remains; the condition of these remains varies greatly (they can be decomposed, cremated, mutilated, disarticulated or fragmented to name a few), and cases range from "recent homicides to the illegal destruction of ancient Indian burial sites" (Ramey-Burns, 2007, p.3). Forensic anthropologists work many different types of cases, from individual cases to mass disasters and human rights cases, so it is quite a wide field.

    • Word count: 16918
  4. Is the British penal system effective? Most of the evidence points to prison not being cost effective or instrumental in rehabilitation. I have also, through sociological evidence, stated effective alternatives to incarceration, the psychological effects

    From a wider context, problems such as overcrowding will be discussed. Thirdly, prisons do not serve only as a form of punishment but also aim to help criminals not to re-offend. Therefore, this essay will also mention about the services available within prisons which attempt to reduce the number of prisoners re-offending after release. The question of our prisons effectiveness will be discussed. Finally I will examine some of the alternatives tools available to Magistrates and Judges instead of incarceration. First the aim of the prison service, as outlined above, is to punish offenders and also to protect the public.

    • Word count: 4521
  5. Personality & Attitudes on Revenge in the General Population of Scotland

    The questionnaire was then utilised to determine that psychiatric inpatients scored higher than non-patients on fantasies of death, withdrawal, restitution, suffering, God and closeness but fantasies of power and revenge, admiration of self, competition and aesthetics did not differentiate between groups. Thus, suggesting that the questionnaire was able to differentiate the groups by fantasy factors such as death, withdrawal, restitution, suffering, God and closeness and highlighted associations of power and revenge, admiration of self, competition and aesthetics with an independent measure of psychology.

    • Word count: 4338
  6. Domestic violence. The following essay will concentrate on patriarchal-terrorism (Gilchrist et al. 2004) meaning the non-sexual violence of men against their female intimate partners. This kind of aggression was given many names since its social

    Recently, the "traditional" assumption that anger causes aggression (Anderson & Bushmann 2002) has been questioned. Berkowitz (2003) assumes that anger plays several causal roles in aggression, such as reducing inhibitions, maintaining aggressive intention over time, priming aggressive scripts and energising behaviour by increasing arousal levels. Contrarily, hostility is a more permanent negative attitude of resentment, mistrust or even hate (Buss, 1961, Blackburn 1998). On the other hand, aggressiveness refers to a disposition toward becoming aggressive (Blackburn, 1998). However, an act of aggression - defined by Blackburn (1998) as an Individual's intentional, goal-directed performance- does not have to be connected with a violent disposition.

    • Word count: 8876
  7. Is the increased use of electronically monitored home detention (EMHD) as recently confirmed in the CJA 2003 justifiable from a legal-psychological perspective? EMHD is said to be more humane, rehabilitative and especially less costly, than impriso

    Many countries including England and Wales followed the American example eagerly and uncritically (Christie, 1993; von Hirsch, 1992). Despite ongoing criticism concerning its ethical and legal aspects (Bishop, 1996; Mair & Mortimer, 1996; Whitfield, 1997; Mann, 1998), EMHD was established as a cost-effective alternative to prison and a risk-reducing community sentence-component. EMHD, judged to be more lenient than prison, but harsher than probation, claims to achieve broad-ranging punishment goals such as retribution, deterrence and incapacitation, but also rehabilitation (Ball & Lilly, 1988; Lilly, 1992; Payne & Gainey, 2000).

    • Word count: 10232
  8. Critically Discuss the Extent to which the Rise in the Incarceration and Warehousing of Offenders Represents the Arrival of the New Penology

    The effectiveness of these prisons was measured by its success in detaining people until the repayment was made (Muncie, 2001). The rationale behind imprisonment then changed to punishment rather than containment, although the prison population still mainly remained as debtors (Muncie, 2001). By the end of the 18th century the rises of the penitentiary saw prisoners being sorted into hierarchical groups in a regime of punishment and rewards and were subjected to hard physical labour and moral reformation (Muncie, 2001).

    • Word count: 3469
  9. Locking Children up

    There are three types of secure accommodation in which a young offender can be placed. Firstly, Secure Training Centres (STC) built for young offenders up to the age of 17 provide education, training and rehabilitation. Secondly, there are Local Authority Secure Children's Homes (LASCH's), which provide support tailored to the individuals needs, focussing on the physical, emotional and behavioural needs of the young people they accommodate. LASCH's accommodate young people aged between 12 and 16. Young Offender Institutions (YOI) run by the prison service accommodate 15 to 21 year olds.

    • Word count: 4192
  10. Race Crime

    The report illustrates that BME groups are disproportionately represented at every stage of the criminal justice system but specifically in stop and search, arrests and the prison population. However, this is not simply an issue in England and Wales, but reflects problems faced by criminal justice systems in other countries around the world (Bhui, 2009;50). It has been well established by many authors and studies that the 'use of stop and search powers by the police has been the most controversial issue' (Bowling and Phillips, 2003;534)

    • Word count: 4453
  11. Globalisation and Transnational Terrorism

    This may explain why so many TNTG have a religious ontology. This paper does not dispute that assertion but rather adds to that narrow definition any group that operates internationally, from a base of operation it does not control or have a nationalistic connection to, and any group that utilises the tools of globalisation to further their chosen cause by using transnational methods of communication, funding, recruitment and training. Globalisation and its associated tools have exacerbated the growth of terrorism through the movement of operatives across borders, through hijacked technologies outputting to a global media. This allows TNTG to strike at globalised networks and transfer money through legitimate and illegal transactions.

    • Word count: 3903
  12. Human rights and civil liberties in prisons. Should a prisoner have rights?

    The European Convention was an indirect source of domestic law until it was given further legal effect by the Human Rights Act 19985. Schedule 1 of the Human Rights Act 19986 outlines the rights and fundamental freedoms of the European Convention. Each right is contained in an individual article. These fundamental human rights are as follows: * Article 2 a right to legal protection for life; * Article 3 a right to be free from torture and inhuman or degrading treatment; * Article 4 a right to be free of slavery, servitude and forced labour; * Article 5 a right

    • Word count: 3286
  13. Term paper of criminology

    Yu's father thinks that he is not a good role model and refuses to communicate with him. Relationship between the father and son is poor. Yu feels that school is a boring hassle and eventually met a group of gangsters who are negative influences. The protagonist was assigned to be a person-in-charge in the gaming centre and was constantly exposed to violence video games. He soon becomes delusional and begins to beat up strangers on streets. Eventually, he is captured by the police and sentenced to attend a training camp specifically designed to help adolescents who were in the triad society.

    • Word count: 3506
  14. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of youth justice policies in England and Wales since 1997

    offend, faster, more efficient procedures from arrest to sentence, partnership between all youth justice agencies to deliver a better, faster system" Home Office (1997). According to the Home Office (1997) the aim of the youth justice system is to prevent offending by young people. And the Crime and Disorder Bill has in it a requirement that it is the duty of all people working in the youth justice system to uphold these. The requirement covers all the youth justice agencies in England and Wales like the police, social services the probation services and others working in the Youth Offending Teams, the Crown prosecution service, defence solicitors, the prison services and courts and the way they deal with young adults.

    • Word count: 3881
  15. Does the UK have a gang problem? Justify your answer.

    Youths that were originally smoking on street corner will now bring knives out with them and protect their corner form other groups trying to use it and the whole situation will escalate to the point where groups of gangs will emerge from previous relatively innocent groups of young people. This makes the theory of the 'self fulfilling prophecy' come into practice as acting like you are in a gang will make people treat you like you are in a one and then eventually you will become a gang because you have made it so3.

    • Word count: 3548
  16. The place of the public police is becoming less important in view of the variety of ways in which public and community security is exercised in contemporary society. Discuss

    However, there are certain basic roles that have remained constant over the years. One of these roles is preventive policing. This involves the deterrence of people from possibly committing crimes and responding to emergencies to rescue those in distress. It also involves avoiding escalation of situations where crime has been committed through timely interventions to arrests criminals or stopping a crime in progress (Neocleous, 2004). Preventive policing is typically carried out by uniformed Police personnel who carry out foot patrols popularly known as beats; vehicular patrol on streets and motorways and even aerial patrols in helicopters (especially in Northern Ireland with the troubles).

    • Word count: 4407
  17. Age and fear of crime

    100.0 Total 45069 99.9 100.0 Missing -99 51 .1 Total 45120 100.0 The frequency table produced for the variable 'Age' shows 9 age groups. This will be recoded, making it dichotomous, by grouping the age groups from 16 to 54 to make a age group of '16-54', and by grouping the age groups from 55 onwards, to make the age group '55+'. The age group 16-54 being classed as the young, and 55+ being classed as the elderly. Statistics Age group N Valid 45069 Missing 51 Frequency table - Age Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 16-54 25789 57.2

    • Word count: 3195
  18. The war on drugs versus the case for liberalisation.

    analyze the issue of drug use in relation to liberal societies, the contemporary drugs use with the risky and harmful effects, the rights of drugs users which may be jeopardised and especially whether drugs can be seen as an autonomous activity. Drug Use in Liberal Society According to J. S. Mill, a liberal society is shaped from the belief that individuals have a right to "live as seems good to themselves"2. As a result, one may elect to carry out dangerous activities under the allegation that he will endanger only himself.

    • Word count: 4386
  19. Assess the relevance and influence of risk theories upon the development of community safety strategies

    This essay will assess the relevance and influence of risk theories upon the development of community safety strategies. More accurately, this essay will present the theories of risk that have emerged and how they helped shape community safety strategies. This essay will begin by outlining these theories. Some risk theories based on the classical school of criminology and on rational choice theory, considering individuals as rational beings who calculate their choices (Department of Criminology, 2006/07). On the other hand, there is a variety of contemporary risk theories which argue that people are often irrational, governed by their own desires.

    • Word count: 4355
  20. Compare positivist approaches to crime with at least two other perspectives discussed in the module. What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of the approaches you review?

    This essay will discuss three prominent theories in the explanation of crime. This essay will compare positivist approaches to crime with two other perspectives: the classical school and the conflict theory. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these approaches will also be discussed. Firstly, positivism is divided into three main categories: 1) biological, 2) psychological and 3) sociological positivism. These formulations of positivism are based on the same theoretical foundations. 'They argued that crime resulted not from what criminals had in common with others in society, but from their distinctive physical or mental defects' (Crime theory, Positivist, 1998).

    • Word count: 4391
  21. Critically assess the extent to which discriminatory practices within the criminal justice process operate against ethnic minorities

    who goes through the criminal justice process has the right to be treated fairly and without discrimination (Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2008). However, there are some groups who receive differentiated treatment when they come into contact with the criminal justice system either as suspects or as victims of crime. These groups include women, youth/juveniles and cultural minorities (Department of Criminology, 2006/07). This essay will discuss the extent to which discriminatory practices within the criminal justice process operate against minority ethnic groups.

    • Word count: 4511
  22. Research methods

    Word count - 295 QUESTION 2 i) 10 + 70 = 80 ii) 10 � 95 = 0.10526316 0.10526316 x 100 = 10.526316 Answer = 10.5% of students neither agree nor disagree with the statement iii) The overall distribution of the scores in the bar chart sits with mostly agrees as 70 out of 95 students mostly agree with the statement. The other 25 students are distributed as follows; 10 students neither agree nor disagree, 10 students also defiantly agree with the statement and the lowest amount of students being only 5 that mostly disagree.

    • Word count: 3042
  23. Critically analyse the extent to which the interests of the female victim have been addressed in the ensuing reforms of the law of rape

    The Home Office acknowledged that this had led to a 'patchwork quilt of provisions'5. The previous law was also plagued by inconsistencies, inappropriate language and discrimination, some of which may have been interpreted as violating human rights legislation. Starting with a pledge by the newly elected 1997 Labour government to help victims of sexual offences obtain justice, a detailed and lengthy review process was initiated in 1999, which led to the SOR 20006. This was followed by a Sexual Offences Bill and then, finally, the arrival of the SOA 2003, which came into force in May 2004.

    • Word count: 3976

    This comparison portrays the movement between the public execution and the modern prison. The movement represents the shift from the body to soul for Foucault. The body exists and there are limits of punishments those the body can be exposed to whereas the soul allows new types. In short, the transportation from the body to soul has brought the end of public execution. By a supporting sentence, he notes that "this book is intended as a correlative history of the modern soul and of a new power to judge; a genealogy of..." (Foucault, 1977) Moreover, his study obeys four rules according to Foucault: one) to regard punishment as a complex social function; two)

    • Word count: 3100
  25. Comparative policing systems

    In his early study, Bayley asserts that three characteristics of the police contemporarily exist in today's world and these as dichotomous are public/private, specialized/no specialized, professional/nonprofessional. Being public/private oriented refers to the nature of the police agency and can easily be confused with community authorization, specialization for a police agency, in opposite terms of that unspecialized police force is authorized to use force but do many other things as well, concentres on the application of force, and professionalism refers to explicit preparation to perform the unique police function (Bayley, 1990, p: 11-13).

    • Word count: 3153

"I claim that human mind or human society is not divided into watertight compartments called social, political and religious. All act and react upon one another."

-Mahatma Gandhi

Social studies is all about humans, whether it's the structure of our society (sociology), our interactions with the environment (human and social geography), our struggle forpower (politics), our tendency to break laws (criminology), or our capacity to form a wealth of distinct cultures (anthropology). If this sounds terribly interestingto you, then perhaps you should consider studying one of the social studies subjects at university.

Students of these subjects should ready themselves for a significant amount of writing. If you'd like a little bit of help with this, Marked by Teachers is here for you. Read our student-submitted social studies essays to get inspired, and study the teacher annotations to gain insight into what earns top marks. Before long, you'll be writing papers that do full justice to your great ideas.

When students of these subjects leave university, they tend to apply their degrees directly in academia, consulting, and analysis, or transfer the skillsto other careers like planning ,HR,marketing and media.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • In my essay I will attempt to describe Mills concept The Sociological Imagination and common-sense explanation and use the main ideas and differences between sociological imagination and common-sense to analyse the topic of racism in UK.

    "In conclusion I want to say that racism is alive because people do not use sociological imagination but find useful common-sense ideas: they do not think with own head just follow stereotypes. If people with racist ideas used sociological imagination and looked at asylum seekers and immigrants from the perspective of culture and loss they would understand what must it be like to leave your country, family, language, and culture for a community in which you are treated as less than human (J. Rothenberg, 10.05.2009). Moreover if a racist used sociological imagination and looked at human but not at his skin colour, ethnicity or race I think they would understand that our all blood is red, we all feel pain and we are all equal. As for the future looking at our failing economy, increased number of hate crimes I think that teaching the next generation how to practice the sociological imagination is more crucial now than ever."

  • What are the aims of the Youth Justice System in England and Wales. How did they come about and how effectively are they being met? Discuss

    "In conclusion, the radical overhaul of the YJS has led to a number of aims, all of which have to adhere to the principle aim of preventing offending. Overall, it appears these aims are effectively being met. YO are now more likely to receive an intervention when they first offend, and the time taken from arrest to sentence has dramatically reduced. In addition, prevention schemes appear effective and adequately funded, and many of the new alternatives to custodial sentences, most notably ISSP's, are making a positive impact. Most importantly, the YJB sets a clear national framework and Yots seem to successfully co-ordinate and deliver services to YO and the courts. Whilst more could be done to help reform the youth courts, the changes so far appear effective. In regards to custodial sentences, it appears that although DTO's can be effective, the programmes required to help YO are often not provided and the transition back into the community is not as good as it could be. Furthermore large numbers of YO are still being remanded into custody and the aim of increasing public awareness and confidence in the YJS is not being met. It also appears that the discrepancies regarding both gender and ethnicity need to be addressed by the YJS."

  • Examine the extent to which the media can be said to inform and misinform us about the nature and extent of crime.

    "To conclude, this essay showed how media inform and misinform people about the nature and extent of crimes and examined how newspapers represent domestic violence crimes. To resume, media do inform people about crimes, but because of need to earn money they use sensationalism and selective reporting which present a distorted and inaccurate view of crimes. Moreover evidence show that newspapers try to break the public silence around domestic violence cases but unfortunately they lack professionalism and broader understanding what is domestic violence. That's why many newspapers draw inaccurate, incomplete and potentially misleading picture of domestic violence fatalities."

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