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University Degree: Criminology
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So what constitutes domestic violence? This question has posed lots of enigmas for researchers and professional agencies as domestic violence covers a broad spectrum of criminal acts and sub criminal behaviour. To define domestic violence has proved to be difficult task in which to provide a solid example. The shared understanding stated by the Home Office is as follows, " 'Domestic violence' shall be understood to mean any violence between current or former partner in an intimate relationship, whoever and whenever the violence occurs.
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'Focus on inter-gender relations led to an unprecedented criminological interest in women's experiences of sexual violence, while male victims of rape were ignored' (Allen 2002) Allen (2002) states strongly that the existing research concentrates on describing the symptomatic response of victims to their experiences, thus it focuses on the changes observed in the behaviour of victims but does not seek to explain the cause of those changes'. But she does explain that an exception to this flaw in research is a study carried out by Mezey and king (1989), they questioned 22 victims of sexual assault and aimed to find out the effects of that the assault had had on them.
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"Women's imprisonment in England and Wales at the end of the twentieth Century is: Excessively punitive; totally inappropriate to the needs of women being sent to prison; and ripe for abolition in its present form"(Carlen 1998)
and one of the many differences between incarcerating women as oppose to men. The evidence shows that just because women are imprisoned it does not necessarily mean that they disregard the caring role they had previously undertaken. As a senior officer explained 'there are a lot of women still running the home from inside prison...I see women here write shopping lists everyday to give to their fellas' (Devlin 1998). Indeed many of the pains felt by these women are 'largely because of their greater need for family life and the deleterious consequences of enforced separation from their children' (Smart 1976 p.146).
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The order is generally seen as a very effective alternative to imprisonment. The community rehabilitation order is less of a punishment order and more of a getting back on track order. The offender is supervised by a probation officer who devises an action plan for the offender, if the offender fails to take a keen interest in it or fails to attend a meeting with the officer then he or she can alert the court who will re-sentence. It offers a push towards getting a job which is seen as very helpful for the rehabilitation of offenders.
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However, Asians suffer the same disadvantages in terms of the environment where they live, but they have a lower crime rate than that of white citizens. The reason could be because Asians are more socially tied to the family and do not got out at night, they also tend not to commit offences due to their strong religious beliefs. Why then did the number of stops and searches carried out by the police in 2001, fall by 8% for whites, but rose 30% for black people and 40% for Asian people? Only 14% of these searches resulted in an arrest.
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In analysing Adam's criminality theoretical explanations reflect that he is suffering from status frustration (1955), however Steven Box 1981 believed that Cohen's theory was only plausible for a small number of delinquents.
Becker, 1961 Lemert 1963, Erikson 1968. Following my analysis of Adam's behaviour and the results of attendance centre order, my approach is to ensure he is not subjected to further contamination that is described by Sutherland (1949) Adam has the desire to be tough and smart (Miller 1962). He displays aspirations to own things he cannot afford, but his means to achieve them are blocked and therefore he innovates (Merton 1946). The drinking can also relate to retreatism, which allows Adam to escape from the problems he is facing and the reality of potential failure.
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"Walklate (1998: vi) suggests Feminism and Criminology may be contradictions in terms. To what extent do you agree with her?
In any discussion of the relationship between feminism and criminology it is important to recognise the complexities in their relationship. There is no one feminism and no one criminology. "Different schools of thought within the sphere of feminism have developed out of different political and theoretical traditions. Central to all feminist criminology is the commitment to ending sex-based discrimination in society towards women" (source adapted from Tierney, 1996:163). There are feminists who have made a strong case for abandoning criminology (Smart, 1990), or who, because of resistance to a feminist transformation of the discipline of criminology, see fundamental incompatibilities between feminism and criminology (Stanko, 1993; A.
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The average female prison population increased by 3% to 3, 350 reaching its highest level since 1901. There were a record number of prisoners (492) that were received into custody for life in 2000. The number of prisoners in England and Wales expressed as a rate per 100,000 populations was the second highest in Western Europe. There was also evidence that 58% of prisoners that were discharged from prison in 1997, but who were reconvicted of a standard offence within two years of release (Home Office findings, 2000).
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Critically assess the key principles which currently guide the National Probation Service. Which principle(s)do you think should be dominant and why?
HISTORY "The rehabilitative roots of the modern probation service lie in the late nineteenth century when religiously driven volunteers attended courts and sought to 'advise, assist and befriend' adult offenders in an effort to 'rescue' them and their souls from a life of sin, drunkenness and crime." (McLaughlin and Muncie, 274:2000). Since its early inception as a purely Christian driven endeavour, probation has been struggling between the two ideals of control and care, and progressively from the 1960's and into the twenty first century, government agenda has required a constant re-working and toughening up of the service.
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The public police often perform a broad range of roles ranging from public reassurance such as visible patrol to crime investigation such as reactive detective work to identify and arrest offenders. The word 'police' is not a singular entity, as mentioned in the introduction there are different roles within policing for example 60% of resources are consumed in foot or traffic patrol by uniformed officers and CID account for 15%. The role of the 'police officer' shall be discussed first; Goldstein (1977), highlights certain duties police officers have in society.
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(Eaton 1986) together with the small numbers of women who do become involved with the criminal justice system, has led to the study of women and crime being generally disregarded as a sociological problem, dominant criminological theories were based on men, and little attention had been paid either to the deviance (including crime) or the apparent conformity of women. To see how accurate this statement by Eaton is, it is necessary to examine the issues that have dominated criminology since it became a subject in its own right.
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Critically assess electronic 'tagging'. Include both technical and ethical considerations in your discussion.
The subject of electronically monitoring offenders has continued to gather momentum, as has the debate into the issues it has produced. This essay will track the development of the implementation of electronic monitoring technology and its subsequent usage as an alternative to incarceration and will address some of the issues, both for and against, that electronically monitoring offenders raises. The essay will also examine ethical issues including civil liberties concerns and the issue of public social control in private spaces.
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The Probation Service has been described as a law enforcement agency. Explain this term and identify features of probation practice that support or negate this notion.
The NPS takes on the supervision of approximately 175,000 offenders who complete up to eight million hours of unpaid work in the community a year. Before applying 'Law Enforcement' to probation practice, it is important to understand the terms 'law' and 'enforcement' as two separate entities brought together in protecting the public. The term 'law' can be described as a set of standards or social rules established by a governing authority to prescribe what is "usual, expected and permissible way of doing things..."
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Can the drugs problem be tackled primarily through legal enforcement? Discuss this with reference to national and local force perspectives.
The impact of the misuse of drugs on crime and community safety has become so significant that it is also one of the most frequently encountered area of criminal law for police officers.' "Throughout history people have taken drugs to alter their perceptions and change their moods. The attractions lie in the promise of instant pleasure and the possibility of heightened perceptions. Nietzsche said that no art could exist without intoxication and believed that a dream-like state was an essential precondition to superior vision and understanding" (Bragg 2002).
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"Prison makes bad people worse". Critically evaluate this statement in the light of rising prison numbers.
Prior to the nineteenth century punishment for criminals was very different. The focus of punishment in these historic times was the body. Punishments were physical in nature with execution and torture being combined with public humiliation. Within just a few decades the brutal torture and public humiliations stopped. The body was no longer the major target for penal repression. Punishment ceased to be centred on torture as a technique of pain; it assumed as its principle object loss of wealth or rights.
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When someone is under parole they have been released from prison. This means that the two officers work with different types of criminals. Probation officers will deal with criminals who have mostly done a minor infraction or people awaiting trial, where as parole officers tend to deal with more severe offenses which required incarceration. In many states these two position are combined into one. An officer will work with either adults or juveniles. Probation officers work with the courts doing background investigations, presentence reports, rehabilitation recommendations and sentencing recommendations. Sentencing recommendations are reviewed with the offender before being submitted to the court. In some situations the officer may need to testify.
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Compare and Contrast 'reactive' and 'proactive' approaches to police investigation and to determine whether there are any potential ethical or legal problems in adopting a proactive approach.
This may result in conviction or may not depending on the information and evidence found by the police if undertook the investigation, which would have been undertaken depending on the seriousness of the crime. If the result is not conviction then a warning may be issued instead or no formal warning whatsoever. An example of when police have undertaken reactive policing was in the case of Holly Wells and Jessica Chapman where they were reported missing by their parents and the police reacted to the call and undertook an investigation into their disappearance.
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These figures are set to rise dramatically unless more care is taken while drinking. What to Spot! Rapists will be on the prowl this Christmas, so take extra care while downing those drinks. The most popular drug used by rapists is Rohypnol. Rohypnol (or flunitrazepam) is a prescription only tranquilliser which, when mixed with alcohol, sheds ones inhibitions, creates a trance-like feeling and induces short term amnesia. However, Rohypnol is a legitimate drug used in the treatment of sleep disorders, producing sedative-hypnotic effects including muscle relaxation and weakness.
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No one can be trusted, when you start drinking. Always feel comfortable and know your surroundings when you're out. Many barmen carry the drug or help out to insert the drug into a drink being made. Again some personal advice, don't accept the drink if the barman has turned his back to you or moved half way down to the other side of the bar to make your drink.(Just to be safe!) The Drug Your probably wondering what sort of drug is inserted into your drink to have no characteristics! Well... Its brand name in the medical world is called "ROHPNOL".
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The National Probation Service is an organisation within the criminal justice system that works with offenders on and before their release from prison.
A total of one thousand people were interviewed over the telephone and a further 635 face to face. The sample included ethnic minorities. Of those interviewed, only 2% spontaneously cited the probation service as being a public service organisation which can affect the levels of crime, rating equally with prison, 13% cited schools and education and, unsurprisingly 77% cited the police. The most revealing statistic though is when asked if they knew what the probation service does, 7% believed they know a lot, 43% know a little, 35% know hardly anything and 15% claim to know nothing at all.
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This ethos continued until the Criminal Justice Act 1991 was established and an era of significant change was to challenge and change the Probation Service. Ward, Scott, Lacey, (2002, p.28) mention the aim of this act was to recommend custody as a last resort, but more emphasis towards rehabilitation was to be encouraged. However, Michael Howard (Home Secretary at the time) contradicted this philosophy when he spoke about "Prison Works", encouraging the courts to use Prison Sentences instead of non-custodial options available to the offence.
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He originally suggested that criminals were "born not made". He was however criticised for his methods. Lambroso only looked at convicted criminals already in prison during his research but never made comparisons with non-criminals or even non-convicted criminals, so he had no control group to back up his findings against. It has also been suggested that he confused criminality (the study of criminals) with psychopathology (the study of people with severe mental disorders, who commit violent crimes). He has however also been praised with the fact that he started people looking into the reasons of why people become criminals at all.
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In what ways does crime reporting give us a distorted impression of crime and society? What are the social consequences of that distortion?
Indeed, everyday there are also many ordinary people in trouble, but they rarely receive such prominent coverage. American studies covering a wide range of newspaper markets demonstrate that crime news doesn't offer a realistic picture of real crime - "interpersonal crimes, particularly those involving violence, are consistently over-reported in relation to official statistics, whereas routine property crimes are under-reported." According to the US media researcher Doris Graber, an "exaggerated picture is presented of the incidence of the most violent kinds of crime while the incidence of lesser crimes is minimized".
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"Critically debate whether the principle of integrity of professional delivery is more important than the principles of responsivity, risk and criminogenic need?"
Chui (2003, p.58-59) states that the outcome of this statement weakened rehabilitation as a theory and devastatingly, academics and policy-makers lost faith in offender treatment. Emphasis shifted to more punitive ideals of punishment and retribution. Martinson later recanted on the findings of his initial evaluation studies, acknowledging that the review had not made use of approximately ninety percent of the research available, as it had not been evaluation based. This inference however did little in overturning the negativity which had settled upon the probation service and the nothing works opinion (Crow, 2001.
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I will firstly begin with identifying and describing current community penalties in England and Wales. These are: * Curfew order * Drug treatment and testing orders * Suspended sentence supervision order * Community punishment order * Community rehabilitation order * Community punishment and rehabilitation order Curfew order This type of penalty is not often used with adults. This requires the offender to stay in a certain area between a certain hours. This can vary between two to twelve in one day and the order cannot last for more than six months.
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