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University Degree: Criminology
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The study of Criminology helps us to consider and understand why criminals commit these acts in the first place and what it is that drives certain people to become criminals. Criminology helps us understand whether or not people are born criminals, whether they choose to follow this path of their own free will or whether they evolve into criminals as a direct result of those social, cultural and personal factors and circumstances that they are exposed to throughout their personal lives.
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Marijuana Legalization. The first and most basic reason that marijuana should be legal is that there is no good reason for it not to be legal
From a philosophical point of view, individuals deserve the right to make choices for themselves. The government only has a right to limit those choices if the individual's actions endanger someone else. This does not apply to marijuana, since the individual who chooses to use marijuana does so according to his or her own free will. The government also may have a right to limit individual actions if the actions pose a significant threat to the individual. But this argument does not logically apply to marijuana because marijuana is far less dangerous than some drugs which are legal, such as alcohol and tobacco.
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David Gauntlett(1995) looked at the worrying influence of ?media effects?, instead of focusing on how media effects individuals to commit a criminal act, like Banduras? theory, Gauntlett focused on what motivates and causes violent behaviour, he looked at the background that individuals came from and what their goals were (Gauntlett 2001, Cited in Greer 2010). Gauntlett believed to understand violent behaviour it is necessary to understand violent people (Gauntlett 2001, Cited in Greer 2010). In 1994, Hagell and Newburn conducted a study in which there were seventy eight teenage offenders who had some sort of a violent history, and compared
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Diploma in Criminology Assignment . Is youth crime a problem in your area? If so what do you consider may be contributing factors?
Many children may have been living in many different foster homes or in hostels from a young and when they become teenagers they feel angry, lonely and let down resulting in them becoming criminals. Task 16. Discuss the role in the community in supporting youths and preventing youth crime. There are several different roles in my community that are in place to support youths and prevent youth crime. A major role is set within the Police Service who train their officers and show the public how they work with all children and young people.
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The origins of the criminological imagination lay with C. Wright Mills and his book The Sociological Imagination.
This new idea provided by Mills, examines and gives an understanding of a person?s biography within history. For Mills this was the key nature of the sociological imagination (Young 2011). However, no individual?s biography couldn?t be taken out of the historical contexts it was in. This demanded the present need to be understood in order to connect with the ways in which the phenomena under scrutiny had been produced and reproduced. Taking Mills idea of the sociological imagination, the biography of individual?s remains important but you must also understand that an individual?s behaviour cannot be detached from their historical and material contexts (Barton, Corteen, Scott, and Whyte 2007).
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Hanging was seen as the best option, so much so that around 75,000 people were thought to have been executed in this manner between the year of 1530 and 1630. There were other types of punishments including fines, the use of the stocks/pillory, boiling alive, and forfeiture of land or property. These would be used for petty crimes; there was no obvious punishment structure so punishments were handed out according to what was thought to be best. It was thought that if punishments were carried out publicly, it would be seen as a deterrent for others.
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Discuss the different academic responses to contemporary criticisms of the old police. How helpful are these discussions in highlighting explanations for the establishment of the Metropolitan Police force in 1829.
These riots made a profound impression on policing, it showed how ineffective our legal system was and that it was in need of reform (George F. E. Rudé 1956: 93-111). The role of the Constables required them to apprehend anyone accused of a crime, and bring them before a justice of the peace. Constables also had a general responsibility to keep the peace, but there was no expectation within society that they should investigate or prosecute crimes. The constables were seen to be corrupt but when policing a small town or village, where you live then it was safe to assume they ultimately knew everyone e.g.
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??We are looking at social divides far more important than those reflected merely by income?.poverty and wealth are fundamentally about being excluded from society or included in it? (Dorling et al, in John Clarke, pg: 38). When the Dorling Study looked at the distribution of wealth as well as income it reported that income inequalities grew rapidly in the UK in the late twentieth century, and that geographical areas are increasingly dominated by wealthy or poor residents with a decline in social mixing (John Clarke, pg: 38).
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Critically evaluate the current methods employed in the Sex Offender Treatment Programmes (SOTP). Include in your answer an overview of their theoretical foundations
A sex offence is the ?... commission of acts of a sexual nature against a person without that persons consent? (Hale, C. 2005, Pg 574). There are many different types of sex offenders such as those who offend against adults, against children and those who take the form of sexual murderers. The sex offending itself takes many forms, from the man who indecently exposes himself the man who possesses illegal pornography to the man who offends against his children (Thomas, T.
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However, if their behaviour crosses the limit into illegal behaviour, then the formal system of punishment will get involved for instances, police and courts. Durkheim argued that ?both the basis and form of punishment changes over time. Crimes are often also enforced by social sanctions. What is deviance is learned through our parents, teachers, media and religion. Durkheim (1960) Causes for criminal behaviour are believed to involve both inherited and environmental factors. Genetic causes are linked to chemical imbalances within the brain brought about by gene mutations and which can cause the brain to produce too little serotonin.
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The ultimate goal in the fight against domestic violence should be to provide the ground work to stop the abuse before it begins.
Educating society as a whole also is a very important key to ending domestic violence this is accomplished through changes in public policy and practices Only recently, within the past twenty-five years, has been the issue of domestic violence been ?brought into the open as a field of concern and study? (Violence against Women in the Family) The Domestic Violence Movements main focus is to improve the treatment of victims and make laws accountable for the act. Much tougher laws are needed since most abusers are given a slap on the wrist, it gives them and other people like them,
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Surveillance of Society. This is the first step towards a submissive and controlled civilization. Surveillance reinforces divisions within society
After the creation of video cassette recorders, surveillance could now be preserved on tape as evidence. This phenomena rapidly spread to other cities and was soon used at businesses prone to theft, such as banks, mini-marts, and gas stations. In response to the September 11th attacks, nations, governments, companies, and private citizens are leaning on the use of surveillance cameras more than ever before. With these widespread results it?s no surprise that reality television shows like Big Brother have come into existence. Big Brother is based on a group of people living together in a large house, isolated from the outside world but continuously being watched by television cameras.
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Prohibition laws and their enforcement carry a significant cost to society. While there are likely to be many social costs associated with cannabis prohibition, they may be difficult to quantify. One concern which may be noted, however, is the harm caused to those convicted in jurisdictions where possession or personal use of cannabis are criminal offences. The penalties may be severe, ranging from prison sentences to heavy fines, and while it may be argued that prison sentences for minor cannabis offences are rare, a cannabis user may still receive a criminal record which will stay with them indefinitely, negatively affecting
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The effects of neglect and physical abuse in children can vary and can have long term effect. Children who have abused and neglected display significant developmental delays ,have poor speech and learning ability ,may lack the ability to interact socially and are prone to accidents due inadequate protection and supervision.[Hanks and Stratton2007] Later effect of neglect can result in criminal and risky behaviour such as substance and alcohol abuse and self-harm[.www action for children .org]In extreme cases abuse and neglect may result in the death of a child like the case of Victoria Climbie .who was an 8 year old
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A victims, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, or race can all play a part in hate crimes. The "Office of Justice Programs Fact Sheet" (2011) website As of December 2011, 45 States currently provide statistics for hate crimes that differ in categorization of crimes, and protected groups, including a difference in penalties. However, varying statutes across the 45 states make data collection hard to estimate the presence of hate crimes accurately. What Congress did, was to pass the ?Hate-Crimes and Statistics Act? in 1990, allowing the Justice Department to gather data on hate crimes.
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How does the notion of harm reveal the entangled relationships between social welfare and crime control?
This relationship causes entanglements because there is a fine line between social welfare and crime control policies. Using the notion of harm, mainly discrimination, the following essay will reveal the entanglements between social welfare and crime control. One of the greatest social harms that has plagued the history of man has been discrimination, mainly racism. Only recently have some countries introduced laws to tackle violent displays of prejudice including indecent behavior linked to racism, known as hate crimes. (Clarke,2008, p.51)
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Under the consequentialism framework, Utilitarianism states that actions are to be evaluated solely on their consequences (Mills 2010, 2). Jeremy Bentham, known as one of the first individuals to fully develop the system of utilitarianism, believes that we should tally the consequences of each action we perform and establish whether an action is morally right or wrong on a case by case basis (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2005, 1). This is also known as act-utilitarianism. The second key point of Bentham is that we should tally the results of our actions in accordance to pain and pleasure, which Bentham believed should determine our moral conduct (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2005, 1).
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