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University Degree: Criminology

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  1. Research Proposal. Public perception of child sex offenders: has the media influenced our perceptions to the extent that it has made us paranoid in this obsessed society?

    and which are not. It has been said that the media 'distinguishes the good from the bad and, in doing so, promotes social solidarity' (2003:39). Is this really the case? This literature review focuses on the issue of whether or not the public perception of child sex offenders is influenced by the media and whether or not it makes us paranoid in civilianised society. One very common area of this proposal is to analyse academics views on this topic and whether or not they agree with such suggestions.

    • Word count: 2509
  2. The place of the public police is becoming less important in view of the variety of ways in which public and community security is exercised in contemporary society. Discuss

    However, there are certain basic roles that have remained constant over the years. One of these roles is preventive policing. This involves the deterrence of people from possibly committing crimes and responding to emergencies to rescue those in distress. It also involves avoiding escalation of situations where crime has been committed through timely interventions to arrests criminals or stopping a crime in progress (Neocleous, 2004). Preventive policing is typically carried out by uniformed Police personnel who carry out foot patrols popularly known as beats; vehicular patrol on streets and motorways and even aerial patrols in helicopters (especially in Northern Ireland with the troubles).

    • Word count: 4407
  3. Marxist approach to criminology

    and Ian Tayol to mention a few. The definition of crime is controversial as the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour depends on the situation hence this means that crime is dependent on the point of view of the definer(Stuart:2006,Hagan:1985),that means it would have a different meaning to societies,hence it is cultural.To throw more light on this,there is an uncertainty why certain forms of behaviour are criminalised while others are trivialised .According to Emile Durkheim(1984) any act that goes against the state is believed to be criminal and punishable by law, hence without the law there is no crime.

    • Word count: 1685
  4. Nature/nurture and the causes of criminality

    Obstetric research examined the effects of prenatal exposure to nicotine, and birth complications on later criminal and antisocial behaviour. Raine (2002), analysed research into foetal exposure to smoking during pregnancy and later criminal behaviour, and found significant links. Brennan et al. (1999) found a significant increase in adult violent offending in individuals born to mothers who smoked 20 cigarettes a day throughout pregnancy, and also found a dose-response relationship between increased numbers of cigarettes smoked and increased violence. However, Brennan et al.

    • Word count: 2578
  5. Working with offenders after sentencing

    & Varma, 1998; Spelman, 1995; Wood & Grasmick, 1999), and expected by both that imprisonment has robust deterrent effects for reoffending in the future (DeJong, 1997). These deterrent effects are twofold; deterrence for the population as a whole (general deterrence) and for adjudicated offenders (specific deterrence) (McGuire, 2002). Clarke and Cornish's (1985) pioneering rational choice theory assumes that a potential criminal decides whether to commit a crime after evaluating costs and benefits of the particular crime. Therefore, the notion that prison will act as both a general and specific deterrent may be attempting to address the process of committing a

    • Word count: 2749
  6. Research proposal

    Context of study This proposed study is focusing on the data generated by social theorist on violence against women such as Bandura 19731who outline the reasons why some women find it difficult to leave abusive husbands. Hamilton & Coates (1993)2 rightly stated that women who do not leave abusive relationships are often pathologized and blamed for their victimization. This is what generally happens and therefore the focus of attention is shifted from the wrongs perpetrated by the abuser to people viewing the abused as passive.

    • Word count: 2522
  7. Breaking Social Norms

    The reactions from others help control the behavior of people in society. Sanctions, which are reward or punishment for following or deviating from custom behavior, are critical in keeping people operating on standard behavior. It could be as simple as an accepting smile or a shake of the head. This is a system of social control, which is the various means by which the members of a society encourage conformity to norms. As we learn the norms of our culture and society we also gain the capacity to evaluate our own behavior; such as by doing something wrong can lead to the feelings of either shame or guilt.

    • Word count: 1839
  8. Isleworth crown court

    There is no requirement for the lay magistrates to have any qualification or a background that includes law. A crown court consists of various people, these are the judge, the jury who consists of 12 members of the general public, the defendant who might be escorted by the police in case they have been sentenced already or a custody officer if the defendant is on bail, and the defendants lawyer, also the prosecutor and their lawyer is present as well.

    • Word count: 1895
  9. This essay aims to answer whether or not Honour killings are being condoned by the state and also the society. This essay will also look at different definitions of the meaning of 'honour killing in the UK and Pakistan

    Honour killings are murders which are committed by family members, mainly males to a female in the family for having brought shame, dishonour and disgrace upon the family. 'The apparent "shame" could be caused by a victim either refusing to accept the proposal of an arranged marriage or for having a relationship that is considered inappropriate by the family. This may be due to the reason of casts or statuses'. (http://marriage.about.com). Honour killings are the product of intensely ingrained patriarchal social and cultural prejudices (Yvonne Haddad: 1998: p 144).

    • Word count: 2624
  10. The last 30 years have seen a wealth of research that seeks to explore the culture or cultures of the police. The work of scholars such as Skolnick (1994), Holdaway (1983) and Chan (1997), among others, has sought to explain how the police undertake their

    Reiner (1992) provides a substantial overview of the research in this area. He argues that cop culture is integral both to the ways in which police officers make sense of the social environment in which they work and also to the ways in which they attempt to legitimize any behaviours which might be deemed inappropriate, unauthorized or illegal. Such shared 'knowledge' serves both to instil camaraderie between officers and, simultaneously, to alienate the wider public. The work of Skolnick (1994) highlights the importance of three exclusive core characteristics of police work (danger, authority and the pressure for efficiency)

    • Word count: 2887
  11. Age and fear of crime

    100.0 Total 45069 99.9 100.0 Missing -99 51 .1 Total 45120 100.0 The frequency table produced for the variable 'Age' shows 9 age groups. This will be recoded, making it dichotomous, by grouping the age groups from 16 to 54 to make a age group of '16-54', and by grouping the age groups from 55 onwards, to make the age group '55+'. The age group 16-54 being classed as the young, and 55+ being classed as the elderly. Statistics Age group N Valid 45069 Missing 51 Frequency table - Age Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 16-54 25789 57.2

    • Word count: 3195
  12. Hanson and White

    Hanson was considered for release on parole on two occasions, both times in which the parole panel were given A Parole Assessment Report (PAR) produced by the home officer along with Reports from prison staff and Probation Officers. A full Risk of Harm (RoH) assessment and an Offender Assessment System (OASys) had also been completed. These risk assessments included an OGRS score of 91% which assessed Hanson as presenting a high Risk of Harm (RoH), however they were not made available to the parole panel and so were not able be acted on by the LPA.

    • Word count: 2061
  13. Can there be such a thing as a victimless crime? Discuss with examples.

    Yet others believe that the unborn child is a victim to this 'victimless' crime and therefore it can be argued that there can be no such thing as a victimless crime as all illegal acts can indirectly harm someone or something. In criminology 'public order crime' is defined by Siegel (2004) as "...crime which involves acts that interfere with the operations of society and the ability of people to function efficiently"3. This could be the act of prostitution or any other behaviour that strikes against public norms and social values.

    • Word count: 1983
  14. Community Policing

    Police officers must be trained and encouraged to consult the public, educate the public and coordinate with community associations. This is a transformation which positions the police service at polar opposites with its traditional, paramilitary roots. Anderson writes that, "[...] police forces should be willing to undergo change, especially deep, organizational shifts from the rigid paramilitary structure, to one where accountability and public consultation are the operative philosophies." (Anderson, 1995). This metamorphosis is a restructuring from a vertical, command and control mode of operation, to a horizontal participatory system.

    • Word count: 1021
  15. Deviance. How does labelling someone deviant create further deviance?

    This behaviour is normalised by identifying the deviant act separate to the individual. E.g. A man is seen as aggressive because he is 'under stress' at work, a woman behaves oddly because it is 'that time of the month'; an elderly woman steals from a supermarket because she is 'confused', a young man runs outside naked because he is not 'aware' of his actions. But what happens if other people begin to take notice of the individual's deviance and make something of it?

    • Word count: 1084
  16. The war on drugs versus the case for liberalisation.

    analyze the issue of drug use in relation to liberal societies, the contemporary drugs use with the risky and harmful effects, the rights of drugs users which may be jeopardised and especially whether drugs can be seen as an autonomous activity. Drug Use in Liberal Society According to J. S. Mill, a liberal society is shaped from the belief that individuals have a right to "live as seems good to themselves"2. As a result, one may elect to carry out dangerous activities under the allegation that he will endanger only himself.

    • Word count: 4386
  17. 1 Why are crime statistics often a misleading indication of the amount of crime in society? Your answer should address both official and unofficial measurements.

    Also another difficulty with crime is that of measuring it, as most official measurements are presumably made by the Home Office it raises questions such as who actually produces the stats?, what is counted? How are these stats counted? Is there anything in the stats that are left out? The British Crime Survey is an annual victimisation survey carried out by the Home Office which is an institute in charge of criminal justice issues, they produce official statistics, official statistics are particularly useful since they have been collected since 1857 and so provide us with an overview of the changing

    • Word count: 968
  18. Discuss whether discrimination is inevitable in the criminal justice system, in relation to race.

    The CJS is said to mainly discriminate against ethnic minority males. Macpherson's definition of institutional racism is "The collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin." These are 3 of the most highlighted forms of discrimination and I will focus upon race/colour. Some researchers argue that there is a greater likelihood for ethnic minority groups, particularly black ethnic groups, to be criminalised as this reflects their greater involvement in crime.

    • Word count: 2244
  19. The main purpose of this essay is to look at the limitations of the common sense understanding and how statistical and theoretical information enhances our understanding of crime.

    News stories concentrate overwhelmingly on serious violent crimes against the person and less on petty crimes. The media also usually focuses on ethnic minority males as the offenders. This can create a stereotypical offender, which the public recognise. Furthermore there is great emphasis upon violent crime portrayed in the media, such as rape and murder, compared to less violent crimes such as vandalism or burglary. Some statistics oppose this view as looking at crimes overall there are considerably less violent crimes than non violent crimes, 21% of crimes recorded are violent crimes compared to just 15% of crimes recorded being vehicle related theft (Home office 2008).

    • Word count: 1711
  20. Discuss the influence of press and media in shaping the publics fears about crime.

    There is no doubt that crime is a very big problem, and that we do need to be alerted to examples of the crimes that are being committed in and around the areas in which we live, not only to alert us to the dangers we could be facing but also to help us prepare for such events. However are the crimes that are being reported day after day, actually that likely to affect us? Or are the cases being reported purposely made to sound more gruesome and likely to affect us, in an attempt to increase viewer ratings for television news programmes and increase profits of the daily newspapers?

    • Word count: 1699
  21. Summary of zero tolerance policing. ZTP acts to neutralise crime (Wilson and Boland, 1978) by targeting anti-social behaviour. Both America and England provide evidence of its success as it results in complete changes in lifestyles in populations

    ideas that zero tolerance is merely a short term fix resulting in future tensions between the police and communities. I will then go on to show that the legal application of zero tolerance policing actually serves to increase public perception of officials. The 'New York Miracle' saw a 75% reduction in 7 major crimes (Henry, 2002)since the application of ZTP, which can be attributed to the introduction of 7000 new men, Compstaat (computer system that calculates high crime areas) (Pollard, 1999), and the decline in crack cocaine use.

    • Word count: 1013
  22. What keeps the crime rate low, in a low-crime society ? Focus your answer on one particular low crime society but draw relevant contrasts with one high crime society.

    Eventually it will analyse the credibility of the statistics and contextual problems with comparing different societies. WW2 brought great devastation to a number of countries and Japan was no exception. Many cities and towns were ruined and the economy was defeated. Rapid economic and industrial growth saw the country prospering again by 1970 with a reducing rate of crime. This generated a problem for structural criminologists in the U.S who held industrialisation responsible for their increasing rates. Japan experienced a decrease in crime from 1900 per 100,000 in 1950 to 1100 per 100,000 in 1975 (Reichel,2008)

    • Word count: 2531
  23. Many contemporary criminologists have doubtedbiologicalexplanations of crime.(Williams 2004) Discuss in terms of both contemporary empirical and pre 21st century approaches.

    Other researches such as Earnest Hooter (1939) and William Sheldon (1949) also looked at physical characteristics of criminals trying to challenge Lombroso's ideas, and found similar results. Inheritance of criminal behaviour received a vast amount of attention as research developed by biologists believing that behaviour could be passed down through generations (Hunter & Dantzker, 2005). Before the development of genetic transmission became apparent, hereditary influence was studied through family trees. Richard Dugdale (1877) famously studied a well-known family, who had six members in prison by 1874.

    • Word count: 2263
  24. Assess the relevance and influence of risk theories upon the development of community safety strategies

    This essay will assess the relevance and influence of risk theories upon the development of community safety strategies. More accurately, this essay will present the theories of risk that have emerged and how they helped shape community safety strategies. This essay will begin by outlining these theories. Some risk theories based on the classical school of criminology and on rational choice theory, considering individuals as rational beings who calculate their choices (Department of Criminology, 2006/07). On the other hand, there is a variety of contemporary risk theories which argue that people are often irrational, governed by their own desires.

    • Word count: 4355

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