CRISIS INTERVENTION AND TASK-CENTERED MODELS IN SOCIAL WORK
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CRISIS INTERVENTION AND TASK-CENTERED MODELS IN SOCIAL WORK ARUN PAUL CONTENTS 1. Crisis Intervention 03 a. What Theory Says 03 b. Stages in Crisis Intervention 04 c. Steps in Reintegration 04 d. Model of Crisis Intervention 04 2. Task Centred-Casework 05 a. Problems with which Task Centred Work is effective 06 b. Points of Leverage 06 c. Steps in Task- Centred Work 06 3. Conclusion 08 4. References 08 CRISIS INTERVENTION: NAOMI GOLAN WHAT THEORY SAYS? Naomi Golan, in her book, offers a well-articulated description of crisis intervention theory. She outlines main points of the theory. They are as follows: * Every person, group and organization has crises. * Hazardous events are major problems or a series of difficulties which start crises off. * Hazardous events may be anticipated (like adolescence, marriage, moving house) or unanticipated (such as death, divorce, redundancy, environmental disasters like fires) * Vulnerable states exist when hazardous events cause people to lose their equilibrium, which is their capacity to deal with things that happen to them. * When equilibrium is disturbed, we try out our usual ways of dealing with problems. If these fail we try new problem-solving methods. * Tension and stress arise with each failure. * A precipitating factor on top of unresolved problems adds to the tension and causes a disorganized state of active crisis. This account presents crisis as a sequence, but Parad and Parad describe it as a configuration or matrix, seeing many events as interlocking.
be defined clearly; * Come from things that clients want to change in their lives; * Come from 'unsatisfied wants' of the client rather than being defined outsiders. PROBLEMS WITH WHICH TASK CENTERED WORK IS EFFECTIVE: REID * Interpersonal conflict * Dissatisfaction in social relationships * Problems with formal organizations * Difficulty in role performance * Decision problems * Reactive emotional stress * Inadequate resources * Psychological and behavioral problems not otherwise categorized, but meeting the general definition of problems in the model POINTS OF LEVERAGE Beliefs usually guide our actions. They are changed by interactions between the worker, client and others. Such beliefs are called points of leverage. They can be used to change beliefs. Points of leverage are as follows: * Accuracy, where workers help clients understand how accurate their beliefs are. * Scope, where workers help clients see the implications or range of beliefs which client thinks are more limited. * Consistency, where distortions due to dissonance between one belief and another can be removed by the worker. STEPS IN TASK-CENTERED WORK I. PROBLEM SEPCIFICATION It is the first step, taken early on through agreement with clients to undertake a short period of assessment. Doel and Marsh use a newspaper metaphor. We look first at the front page for the main news, then scan headlines, identify the storylines (details of the problems) and client quotations (putting the whole issue in the client's words).
* The worker's contribution is planned. The workers task may involve the following: Working with people other than the client to help the client to complete their tasks; Arranging for rewards and incentives for success; Sharing tasks with clients where they have insufficient skills or resources to do them alone. V. THE ENDING PHASE a. Describing the target problem as it was and it is now, including checking whether it was the most important problem. b. Assessments by the worker, client and others involved of any charges and achievements; c. Planning for the future and helping clients manage evident future problems; d. Additional contracts, to extend the process to finish off properly, or to establish new problem and task definitions; e. An explicit end where (as residential care or continuing supervision of a client subject to legal requirements) contact with the worker or agency continues; f. Movement to a long term treatment process, or arranging for follow-up to check that progress is maintained; g. Referral to another agency for additional or alternative help. CONCLUSION Both theories represent a trend in social work to clearer, more focused activity than the long term, non-directive, insight giving methods of psychodynamic work. However, they are in the traditional lineage of social work problem-solving, using a conventional social work individualizing relationship with clients who are treated on a medical model with the aim of getting better. Crisis intervention, with its more psychodynamic roots, offers a greater emphasis on emotional responses and irrational or unconscious behavior than task-centered work, which assumes greater rationality on the part of clients.
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