• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"Critically debate whether the principle of integrity of professional delivery is more important than the principles of responsivity, risk and criminogenic need?"

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

"Critically debate whether the principle of integrity of professional delivery is more important than the principles of responsivity, risk and criminogenic need?" The pessimism of a nothing works epoch caused an increase in political pressure upon the probation service to demonstrate their effectiveness at reducing recidivism of offenders; a practice the service had hitherto been resistant to execute. From research emerged the governmental effective practice initiative, 'what works', demonstrating a reflection of such a political expectation. This discussion will enlarge upon the background to these developments, before moving on to investigate the significant features that form the what works ethos. This will pay particular attention to the four principles of responsivity, risk, criminogenic need and integrity. The contribution of each of the concepts within the National Probation Service, predominantly in relation to accredited programmes and professional practice will be examined. The author will investigate possible clashes between the principles This debate will serve to critically question whether integrity holds a more substantial importance to the paradigm than the others. During the 1970's, evaluation of probation interventions commenced, which led to the now famous rhetoric, attributed to Robert Martinson, that 'nothing works' in producing an appreciative effect on reducing offenders' criminal behaviour. ...read more.

Middle

implicitly states that each PSR shall contain 'an assessment of the offenders likelihood of re-offending... an assessment of the offenders risk of causing serious harm to the public...[and] identify any risks of self harm'. Risk predictions are generated using 'second generation' tools, such as the Home Office Offender Group Reconviction Score (OGRS), providing an actuarial estimate of the proportion of offenders with a particular profile who will be reconvicted, relying on static factors (Chui and Nellis, 2003. p. 167). However, Brown and Stephens (2001) ask 'does it generate reliable predictions?...In practice-it may not'. Third generation assessments have now been developed, such as the Offender Assessment System (OASys). This tool looks at both static and dynamic factors of offending, which enable interventions to be targeted more specifically. However, the tool will not produce a comprehensive assessment itself - assessment of risk of harm and dangerousness is not an exact science (Furniss and Nutley, 2000). It could be stated that this ambiguity in assessment can further damage the argument for risk being more important than integrity. 'Risk' is used to mean both probability of reconviction and danger of harmful violent offences. Confusion can set in if the offender has a high probability of one of these risks and low probability of the other (Raynor and Vanstone, 2002. ...read more.

Conclusion

The same programme delivered badly saw a reconviction rate of 48%. Paradoxically, a matched group that failed to attend the programme reconvicted at a rate of 40%. 'The message is clear, unless a programme is delivered by trained staff according to the manual, it is likely to be ineffective.' (Furniss and Nutley, 2000). This critical debate has focused upon the emergence of the what works era and there can be little doubt that we are seeing the re-emergence of treatment ethos in working with offenders. (Hollin, 1995. p.207). Expectation of evaluation is summarised as an established necessity. In examining each of the four concepts in question, it is possible to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each. Without risk and needs assessment, it would be impossible to discover the correct intervention required for each offender. Responsivity demands that the intervention designed is matched for every offender, to ensure that the learning outcome of the work undertaken is possible and beneficial. Without integrity, programmes would have a lower level of success in reducing criminal behaviour of offenders. On this subject, Chapman and Hough (1998. p.17) exclaim 'what prevents [what works] disintegrating into anarchy and chaos is integrity'. However, the key facts of the what works initiative is the important understanding that each of the principles has an equal part to play, to combine for effective interventions to be implemented successfully. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Criminology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Criminology essays

  1. Outline and critically discuss the way in which your studies have developed your understanding ...

    If a child from the Jukes family had been taken at birth to live with the Edwards it is very likely that child would not have become a social deviant. My view now on Eugenics still stands that there are medical benefits as far as disease goes although they can

  2. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of youth justice policies in England and Wales since ...

    So considering Labours main aim of having a youth justice system which prevents offending by children and young adults, the way labour went about this is to impose order from the centre. There tools to enable this was a catalogue of legislations, also the then Home secretary Jack Straw formed

  1. Stratagies for Tacling Offending Behaviour.

    How then could partnership working improve the situation? This is a question examined by Durrance and Ablitt (2001) in their research into Empowerment Work. They state that empowerment exercises have been a key aspect of assisting change in female offenders.

  2. How can research and evidence based practice inform effective interventions with substance misusing offenders?

    may help to explain the sustained high levels of recruitment to the Probation Service. The British Crime Survey (Ramsey & Partridge 1999) reported that 32% of the adult population have used illegal drugs, However, few people develop a pattern of drug misuse, approximately 3% (Edmunds, 1999).

  1. Critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of the multi agency public protection arrangements. (MAPPA)

    So how can the effectiveness of MAPPA be measured? Kemshall et al (2005, p. 19) contend that MAPPA must surely be considered effective when an offender who poses a high risk of harm to the community does not go on to reoffend.

  2. Critically examine the suggestion that punishment today is as much about risk management as ...

    The debate about how to protect the public from the risks offenders pose was sparked off in earnest (Kemshall & Maguire, 2001, p. 239) back in the 1970s by a highly publicised murder case. The case involved a diagnosed psychopath called Graham Young who had been committed to a Special

  1. Sexual Offences and Offending Behaviour. Critically compare and contrast the public notification/disclosure programmes currently ...

    sex offenders may actually serve to heighten the public's sense of fear and insecurity (Plotnikoff & Woolfson, 2007, p. 508). The origins of sex offender registration and notification/disclosure programmes can be traced back to the USA where sex offender registration laws began in California in 1947, however, full-scale notification schemes in the USA date back to the late 1990s.

  2. To have an in-depth understanding social justice we need different types of evidence. Discuss.

    unemployment benefit being conditional on actively looking for work), looking for deviations from these policies, resulting in punishments including withdrawing benefits or services and/or issuing criminal proceedings. In the subject of safeguarding children (Chapter 2) practitioners can be seen monitoring the development of young children by watching over the parents and ensuring they are behaving in ?the correct way?.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work