• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: 'McDonald's stands for American cultural imperialism'? Support your argument with relevant statistics about the company, and balance your answer by considering McDonalds from the point of view of the

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: 'McDonald's stands for American cultural imperialism'? Support your argument with relevant statistics about the company, and balance your answer by considering McDonalds from the point of view of the company, its customers, and the countries/communities in which the restaurants are found. Consideration of the facts, statistics and the phenomenal growth of McDonalds- with a product that is closely associated with American culture- makes McDonalds a form of representation of 'American cultural imperialism' on rest of the world. The essay considers different perspectives about the issue; for example, McDonalds as a global organisation, its justification for the charges made by social activist and consumer's perception of the company image. The essay also integrates the consideration of adverse influences of McDonalds on different culture or nations, the economic implication for countries or communities in which it operates and mixed reactions of consumers to the American cultural imperialism that is reflected through McDonalds. Due to the controversies and complex nature in constituent terms of the concept 'Cultural imperialism', most attempts to define it end up creating abstract complexities in the name of definition (Tomlinson, 1991; Barnett, 1997). However in order to understand American cultural imperialism through McDonalds it is important to define cultural imperialism. Schiller, (1976) defined cultural imperialism as "Sum of the process by which a society is brought into a modern world system and how its dominating stratum is attracted, pressured, forced and sometimes even bribed into shaping social institutions to correspond to or even promote, the values and structures of the dominating centre of the system." (Tomlinson,1991:9) .It is worth noting that in the context of cultural imperialism Watson, (1997) has taken 'culture' to mean as popular music, television, film, video, pulp, fiction, comic, advertisement, fashion, home design, and mass produced food. John Tomlinson, (1991) argues that the word 'imperialism' has a connotation of some a form of domination linking it to empire, that's why cultural imperialism in 'third world' points to the link between present cultural domination and colonial past. ...read more.

Middle

Klein, (2000) too believes that the attack from the global companies on the 'choices' people make regarding consumption happens on different fronts for example locally, with few super brands that use their capital power to wipe away small and independent businesses, and legally Consumer companies like McDonalds using Libel & trademark suits to hound anyone who brings unwanted twist on a pop culture product (Klein, 2000). McDonalds have influenced the way of life of a significant portion of the world. Fast food that is provided in McDonalds is the form of American culture that the consumers globally literally consume. By copying American eating habits of fast foods (McDonalds), people from all over the world have started to look like obese fast food loving Americans (Schlosser, 2002). Kellner, (1999) takes the argument against McDonalds by stating that McDonalds encourage such a type of food that is closely associated with risk of cancer and heart disease but also actively promoting same culture where at presence of such diseases are not considered as a problem (McLibel Support Campaign, 1994). The growth of McDonald since 1997 in Japan has accelerated the shift in Japanese eating habits. The sale of fast food industry doubled in 1980 which resulted in the doubled rate of obesity in children in Japan (Schlosser, 2002). In a similar way eating large quantities of meat has substantial negative effect on health and McDonalds have sold more than 100 Billion hamburgers (Spencer et al, 2005). Eric Schlosser (2001) referred to a study conducted by Wootan et al in 2006, in which they observed that at McDonalds the nutrition information at point of decision making was often difficult to find or completely absent. Samuelson R., J., 1989, argues that there are people who refer McDonalds as a mixture of all that is Vulgar in American culture (cited in Ritzer, 1996). Emerald Group Publishing limited (2007) has published that even though McDonalds is trying to create the company image as an ethical company promoting diversity, concern for the ...read more.

Conclusion

In conclusion, due to its phenomenal growth, McDonalds does represent American cultural imperialism. The domination of American culture in the rest of the world has helped McDonalds Corporation in its tremendous growth and consequently McDonalds has strengthened the power of American culture in the world. It shows that the relationship between American cultural domination and the growth of McDonalds is positive. However from the company's point of view, McDonalds offers the 'world' the service that satisfies the consumer's needs with due consideration to ethical issues. And for consumers it is an affordable and convenient way of experiencing the 'modern living'. However anti-globalisation activists resist McDonalds for the adverse effects it has on native cultures and argue that the culture represented by McDonalds is inappropriate for the common masses. After considering different perspectives it can be concluded that McDonalds does represent American cultural imperialism but it can not essentially be seen as bad or good for the nations of the world. However, consideration should be given to the importance of native culture, the role it plays in people's life and the effect of American culture on developing countries where such American influence is not suitable. REFERENCES: Adams C., 2006, Reframing the Obesity Debate: McDonalds Role May Surprise You, Journal of Law Medicine and Ethics-Sidebar Commentary Industry Perspective. Vol 26. No.18. Barnett, T. 1997, State of the State and the Third Worlds, Beyond Cultural Imperialism Globalisation, Communication and the New International Order, Edited by Golding, P., Harris, P., pp.25-49. Boje M. D. and Carl Rhodes, 2006, The Leadership of Ronald McDonalds: Double Narration and Stylistic Lines of Transformation, The Leadership Quarterly Vol.17 pp. 94- 103. Campbell K., Douglas W. Vick, 2001, Public Protest, Lawsuits and the Market : The Investor Response to McLibel Case, Journal of Law and Society Vol. 28 No. 2 Chrisman, L., 2003, Empires culture in Fredric Jameson, Edward Said and Gayatri Spivak, Postcolonial Contraventions Cultural Readings of Race, Imperialism, and Transitionalism, Manchaster University Press. Constantino., R,1978 Neocolonial Identity and Counter Consciousness- Essay on Cultural Decolonisation Edited by Istvan Meszaros,Merlin Press London. Curtis, R. K, Mccluskey J.J., and Wahl I. T. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Social Theory section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Social Theory essays

  1. Personal Statement

    of Tower Hamlets I gained immense experience in delivering services to a diverse community as I often had to assess and link people within the borough to services which supported their needs. Furthermore, I have graduated in 2007 from the University of Kent with a 2.1 honours degree.

  2. A Critique of New Social Movement Theory.

    Previous "revolutionary illusions" were denounced as activists, and academic theorists with them, scaled down the permissible limits of transformation, and came increasingly to celebrate the horizons of immediate existence, and to make their peace with the principles of market competition and parliamentarism, which previously they had hoped to transcend.31 But

  1. The ethnic minority population of the United Kingdom has increased at a tremendous rate ...

    'unknown' and open up their communities to each other, clearly helped increase the lack of tolerance and lack of community cohesion which was painfully evident in the city during the summer of 2001. The respondents in this study, black and white, surprisingly had a great deal in common in terms

  2. Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point ...

    This field of philosophy is then to be distinguished from, and related to, the other main fields of philosophy: ontology (the study of being or what is), epistemology (the study of knowledge), logic (the study of valid reasoning), ethics (the study of right and wrong action), etc.

  1. Is class still relevant to the explanation of inequality in modern Britain?

    another, since people are expected to end up in their class based on merit and should therefore already be in that class. However further education later in life for example could account for some intra-generational mobility as a persons abilities would improve.

  2. Is Society Intrinsically Unequal? Barbara Ehrenreichs Nickel-and-Dimed on (Not) Getting By in America

    Ehrenreich says, "I wish I could say I stood up to Ted and insisted that George be given a translator and allowed to defend himself...on the contrary, something new-something loathsome and servile-had infected me."

  1. Weber used the term, Iron Cage(TM) in relation to bureaucracy. Does this mean that ...

    more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world" Giddens, A. (2006:636). These principles include efficiency, where McDonald's for example provides efficient service so that the customer's appetite is fulfilled; "It provides an efficient means of satisfying our needs."

  2. McDonaldization. The term McDonaldization is the name George Ritzer affixes to the continuous ...

    Human behaviours are under-controlled, in order to minimize the individual uniqueness. Labours are more or less the same as machines. In addition, McDonald?s use a large amount of machines. As the workers act like robots, non-human technology can be used to replace man power.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work