• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Evaluating Madagascar's EAP: Problems for the future!

Extracts from this document...


Evaluating Madagascar's EAP: Problems for the future! Madagascar is globally recognized as a biodiversity hotspot. The world's fourth largest island is home to some 10,000 plant species, 316 reptile species, 187 amphibian species, 199 bird species, and 84 mammal species (including 71 primates) found nowhere else in the world.1 It is also home to a population of 17 million people plagued by abject poverty: 71% live below the poverty level and 75% live on less than $1 a day.2 In rural areas, the picture is bleaker, with the average income as low as 41¢ a day. Most rural people rely on natural resources for their survival, eking out a living as subsistence farmers. Agricultural yields are among the lowest in the world because farmers use primitive slash-and-burn agriculture techniques, and have almost no access to land-title due to a corrupt and decrepit bureaucracy. Increasing demand and competition for fertile land has caused alarming habitat loss. Deforestation (due to slash-and-burn agriculture and for firewood) has reduced the country's primary forest by over 90% since human inhabitance less than 2,000 years ago. In the past forty years, Madagascar's population has doubled and the forest area has halved. In the past twenty years, the forested area has been reduced from 20 to 9 million hectares. ...read more.


for providing short-term incentive to rural Malagasy to adhere to land restrictions and conservation policies; he should know, though, from the nation's experience with Ranomafana National Park, launched in 1992 as a showcase project combining conservation and development, the limited revenue-generating potential of ecotourism in practice.7 If he thinks it will be different for Madagascar this time around, he need only to look to other parts of the world to see that ecotourism has had a limited capacity to generate sufficient revenue to support conservation efforts in practice. Royal Chitwan National Park (RCNP) in Nepal is one of the most heavily visited parks in Asia. By creating economic incentives for impoverished villagers and their communities, ecotourism at RCNP is thought to encourage local guardianship of biological resources. However, a study of ecotourism's effect on villagers found minimal economic impact: 1,100 of 87,000 (4%) locals were employed directly by the ecotourism industry, and only 6% earned direct or indirect income from ecotourism. 8 Researchers attribute the remarkable success of RCNP in restoring its rhino and tiger populations to the strict protection by Nepalese army and park staff, the law-abiding nature of Nepalese citizens, and the absence of firearms among the rural populace, rather than from any incentive program.9 By contrast, the CAMPFIRE program in Zimbabwe, in which local people have financial stake in preservation of wildlife because they receive a sizeable portion of revenues generated from safari fees, does provide tangible benefits from ecotourism for conservation. ...read more.


Education about the importance of biodiversity and conservation will have no resonance with individuals whose fundamental concern is day-to-day survival. Without the cooperation of rural Malagasy-because enforcement of land restrictions on 6 million hectares is financially and physically unfeasible-the EAP is unlikely to succeed in affecting its noble conservation and development goals. Ravalomanana's commitment to more than triple the size of protected areas has been hailed by conservationists as one of the most important announcements in the history of conservation, as Madagascar-with megadiversity and levels of endemism unlike any place on earth-is globally recognized as an urgent biodiversity priority. While his efforts are certainly commendable, the EAP at present is just "hot air" and without serious reevaluation and coordination at local, national, regional, and international levels, the few remaining primary forests of Madagascar will go up in smoke. Resources Article: Cocks, Tim. (Nov. 8, 2004) "Madagascar Readies More Protected Nature Sites" in Planet Ark. <www.planetark.com/avantgo/dailynewsstory.cfm?newsid=28028> Other Articles: Cocks, Tim. (Dec. 20, 2004) "Madagascar's Poor See No Benefit From Conservation" in Planet Ark. <www.planetark.com/avantgo/dailynewsstory.cfm?newsid=28629> Cocks, Tim. (Mar. 16, 2005) "Madagascar To Spend $110M US Aid on Land Reform" in Planet Ark. <www.planetark.com/avantgo/dailynewsstory.cfm?newsid=29955> Stoddard, Ed. (Jul. 17, 2003) "Madagascar's Lemurs Cling to Survival" in Planet Ark. <www.planetark.com/avantgo/dailynewsstory.cfm?newsid=21533> Stoddard, Ed. (Sept. 26, 2003) "Park Initiatives May Connect Dots of Life" in Planet Ark. <www.planetark.com/avantgo/dailynewsstory.cfm?newsid=22368> Stoddard, Ed. (May 14, 2004) "World Bank Gives Madagascar Record Environment Grant" in Planet Ark. <www.planetark.com/avantgo/dailynewsstory. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Human & Social Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Human & Social Geography essays

  1. Petroleum and Politics. The report aims to analyse the evolution of oil over ...

    Occident as they can adopt more aggressive policies on oil and affect the global economy. The UNDP argues that Iran is one of the countries better positioned to achieve the MDGS by 2015. The country is relative advanced in access to health care and education.

  2. Who Benefits From Neo-Liberal Globalization?

    2-3 23 Matthew Sparke, "A Review of Mexico and the North American Free Trade Agreement: Who Will Benefit?", in Journal of Far Eastern Business, eds. Victor Bulmer-Thomas, Nikki Craske and Monica Serrano (London: Macmillan, 1994.) 148-153 24 Ibid, 157-159 25 Peet and Hartwick, Theories of Development 55-56 26 Fried, "Life

  1. Critically evaluate an urban poverty programme you are familiar with. In particular discuss a) ...

    However as outlined above this is the approach in which Plan places itself, thus the logic follows that it must consider poverty as a lack of child rights to survive, develop, participate and be protected. 4.0 Implicit Messages in the Selection of Poor Locations The way in which Plan selects

  2. social science

    In education, government is similarly using the carrot and the stick to encourage the removal of large numbers of schools from LEA control over the next three or four years. ........ The impact of this shift in social policy is not entirely clear.

  1. Bristol Report - Sustainable future. This report will suggest and discuss strategies to ...

    city and influence more visitors to use bikes as a means of sustainable transport. The proposed strategy for Bristol becoming a cycle city will have positive effects on the environment. 'A bicycle is the cleanest, most sustainable, healthiest and fastest mode of urban transport.

  2. What do you understand by the term peacebuilding when applied to NGOs working in ...

    two aspects in that a rush of funds aimed at physical reconstruction led to inappropriate and non-participatory allocations while the Guatemalan example had more positive outcomes in that synergies between the approaches emerged. So despite the fact that Galtung's triangle can be used to explain that peacebuilding aims to transform structures (Miall et.

  1. Sustainable Development is Vital for Future Survival of any Modern Company…

    The first step on the journey is compliance with regulatory measures. The introduction of new environmental regulations, both national and international, forces businesses to improve their environmental performance. But compliance often creates unexpected costs that threaten profitability. The most significant financial liabilities for companies are those associated with remediation, clean-ups and penalties for breaches of legislation.

  2. Delivering food security through conservation agriculture

    It focusses resource conservation and profitable management of sustainable production intensification and ecosystem services. Basically, CA consists three interlinked principles that are better applied simultaneously (FAO, 2010; Friedrich and Kassam, 2009; Kassam et al., 2009). Here are the three principles of CA: (1)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work