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University Degree: Human & Social Geography
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Sustainable development is a concept that is very much open to interpretation and therefore it can mean different things to different people.
Motorways (Wahab, 1997:109). Rapid economic growth often is seen as unsustainable as it compromises the ability of future generations to meet their needs. The excessive consumption of natural resources has detrimental implications both socially and environmentally. However, not all rapid economic growth has been unsustainable. Spain has experienced rapid economic growth in the past years, this large scale economic growth however, has had many detrimental impacts on the environment and therefore the growth is viewed as unsustainable.
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During the 17th century, some significant changes occurred. The first women writers appeared, although the major part of female writers still published their pieces under the cover of a male name. The most famous writers were Rachel Speght, Katherine Evans, and Margaret Fell. Since no woman before them had dared to be so outspoken, this opened other doors for female artists. It is safe to say that from the 17th century, the role of women started changing- slowly, but steadily. The 18th century is not by chance called the 'Age of Enlightment'- change over treatment of ladies was great.
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2.0 Key sustainability issues The main issue for the UNEP is potentially climate change as fossil fuels are continuously used and also, the use and protecting ecosystems by attempting to have a total green economy. "The defining issue for many is climate change - not just because it presents a multitude of very real threats, but because it provides tangible opportunities to make progress on a wide range of sustainable development issues. By pursuing a green economy based on efficient and equitable resource use we can not only cut down greenhouse gas emissions and protect essential ecosystems, but reinvigorate national
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describes as the nature of being, existence and reality, or 'what can be known'. The manner in which we answer the question of 'what exists' determines what can be accepted as fact and thus is the basis of every investigation. The divergent epistemologies and ontology's together inform the methodologies for any piece of research, which, in turn, must be appropriate to the questions or problems that prompt the research enterprise (Graham in Flowerdew and Martin, 2005). Methodology is defined as a "a set of rules and procedures which indicate how research and argument are to be constructed: how information can be collected and organised" (Johnston, 1986).
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To what extent is there a place for rational choice, represented by the human capital theory, in explaining modern occupational segregation of gender.
The aim of this essay is to critically evaluate the explanatory power of rational choice in offering an account of occupational sex segregation. The HCT theory views the individual as being rational actors whom are able to make decision about their investments in things that will bring about changes in their own capital (Becker, 1962). Accordingly jobs with higher status and pay are a direct reward for personal investment (Becker 1962); it follows that man's greater pay relative to women is related fundamentally to human capital. In its simplest form, HCT identifies a number of assumptions which account for this.
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With careful scrutiny, philosophers attempt to differentiate truth from belief and appearances. Epistemology aims to provide a foundation for what we consider to be true knowledge. Many of the most important philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle maintained that knowledge is possible. Their epistemology rested on the ability to clearly differentiate between appearance and reality. For Plato, this epistemology was famously illustrated through his theory of forms. Aristotle's epistemology asserted that true knowledge could be attained through the examination of cause and effect, combined with the application of reason and logic.
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To maintain a professional relationship with disabled users it is important to inform them of their rights and treat them with respect at all times and keep them informed of the progress of the case on a constant basis. Trust needs to build up by being honest and reliable, empathizing with the service user to understand his or her situation. It is essential to make the service user feel comfortable and understood and listened to. (GSCC code of practice 2006)
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With reference to empirical examples, explore the everyday activities of different groups of migrant workers in (re)producing processes of globalisation
stimulating trade and economic growth, 2) reducing poverty without rise in inequality and 3) contributing to economic and political stability..."and statistics provided strongly support these claims. For example, Uganda in 1990 had its poverty rates fall by around 40 per cent whilst its rate of school enrolment doubled in numbers (Dinello and Squire, 2005:xv). However, those who are "anti-Globalisation" equate the process as having negative impacts such as inequality by only creating economic growth in selected countries as well as increasing the rate of vulnerability in countries and people. Used as an example is China, which has had a remarkable success since entry into the 'global economy'', however, this success has been accompanied by an "unparalleled rise in the country's within-country inequality" (Dinello and Squire, 2005:xvi)
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Consider critically the arguments for and against the value of relative as opposed to absolute income as a key determinant of health
In this essay I will explore the factors for and against each theory and how each influences individual health. Evidence has always led to the fact that a low level of health is often attributed to low levels of income. As argued by Kathryn Neckerman (2004; 524) evidence "predicts that if the increase in inequality has led to a decrease in the income of those at the bottom end of the income distribution, then we would expect some decline in their health and hence an increase in inequality in health".
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The emergence in London(TM)s Labour market of occupational as well as income polarisation, and of a migrant division of labour
(Susan. Fainstein, pg 112). If anything evidence provided implies that such cities are prone to extremes in inequality (Friedmann 1986) with the argument that cities of Global-City status tend to have huge levels of polarization. As stated by Friedmann, "class polarization has three principal facets: huge income gaps between transnational elites and low-skilled workers, large-scale immigration from rural areas or from abroad and structural trends in evolution of jobs" . Sassen (2001) also defines occupational polarization as the increase in the number of highly paid and low-paid workers and to the decline in the number of middle-income workers, both of which result from the shift from manufacturing to financial and business services which is seen as particularly marked in Global cities.
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It is also essential to remember that a great deal of study can take longer than expected. As a student I need to allow time for unforeseen circumstances. Everybody needs to relax and have some leisure time, being a student is no exception and I need to schedule time for this (Cottrell, 2008). Since becoming a student I have improved my time management skills. The main reason for this is that if I didn't then I would not be able to succeed in my studies and everyday life. I have not only had to keep to a schedule for my time at college but also for my work placement, childcare arrangements, study time, and my volunteer youth work.
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Child B chose to sit at the back of the group of children. The teacher explained that the class were going to learn about distance and asked the class to put their hands up if they knew what distance was measured in. Child B shouted out "Miles!" The teacher told him that he needed to put his hand up and asked a child with their hand up. Child B looked disappointed. Child Bs attention then seemed to be focused on the tree outside the classroom which was knocking on the window a little due to the wind.
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Does the post-1989 development of post-socialist spaces in transition support the contention that the (post-) Washington Consensus is the correct model for development?
The disengagement of socialist ideology and central planning, something that had reached far past the Soviet spheres of influence in Eastern Europe, fashioned the need to create an alternative set of ideas on how to organise economic and political life in favour of Western countries. The term WC was originally coined by the economist John Williamson in 1989 for a list of ten policy recommendations for post-socialist countries to reform their economic policies (see table 1). This list was fabricated by leading Washington institutes such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and the U.S Treasury Department.
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How a child is raised by their family can influence how a child develops. Family's beliefs and morals will create certain opportunities for a child but may remove or restrict others. However, which of these factors can shape the development of children in their first ten years, and how severe or long lasting may they be. With this in mind, two factors that can be considered are bereavement and sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse has no universal definition. However, a fundamental characteristic of child sexual abuse is the central position of an adult that allows him or her to force or coerce a child into sexual activity.
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To a marked extent they have had the opprobrium of this labelling reflected on their profession. ........ In spite of opprobrium related to poverty in the United Kingdom, the growing usage of the concept of social exclusion within the European Union has (somewhat reluctantly) pushed both academics and policy formulators to undertake a shift in thinking. Almost all of the social policy initiatives of the Union in the 1990's have included a dimension that is related to social exclusion and social integration. Debates regarding the nature and extent of poverty in the United Kingdom have now to acknowledge that the condition and process of social exclusion are a necessary part of the dialogue.
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While this increasing scholarly interest is welcome, its primary focus on disabled individuals obscures the reality that families also live with disability. There is considerable evidence that families with a disabled child also face stigmatising attitudes and inadequate services, as well as exclusion from informal social networks (Seligman & Darling, 1997, Gartner, Lipsky & Turnbull, 1991). Those studies that do examine family impact foc us more on child or family characteristics than on community attitudes and supports. In addition, this literature often uses gender-neutral terms, which hide women's primary role in caring for family members with disabilities (Baines, Evans & Neysmith, 1991).
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Although the idea behind the Community Care Act 1990 was to maintain people at home, during my time as a carer with the local authorities, only once have I seen anyone with Dementia (living at home alone) with 24 hour care (she was self funding). I have noticed through personal involvement that, not all service users with dementia are sixty and above, dementia can strike at almost any age. My aim therefore is to locate the gap in accommodation when caring for dementia service users to enable them to live life in specialised accommodation as a family.
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Case study - discuss a case assigned to myself whilst on placement and use an analytic stance to discuss the interaction and interventions used with the service user.
However a meeting held with Mr J without his relatives had a more positive outcome. Mr J has had previous input with social services. His case notes state that he cancelled all support after six weeks. The initial six weeks support through the DMBC is not charged for. However after six weeks the care provided is mean tested. Mr J was due to leave GP respite within the next few days. His need for support would be prioritised as critical. However, this presented a problem, as the resources needed were not available. Mr J refused to stay in GP respite any longer and stated that he wished to return home.
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The Wall Street Journal's article, "The Devil in Darfur," focused on the superior role that America and the Bush Administration played in the progress of the peace agreement over the roles nations' such as France and Sweden played. In regards to the future outlook of the peace deal, it was reported that, "It sounds promising, and if it sticks it will be a diplomatic triumph for the Bush Administration, which has so far provided $1 billion in humanitarian aid to the deal" ("The Devil in Darfur"). This statement highlights America's innate sense of self-importance in regards to policing international crises.
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In the last half of the 19th century, an increasing number of single women worked in manufacturing and a significant number were teachers (Wilson). Factory work was preferable to domestic service because it gave women more freedom. Later, as clerical sales opportunities expanded, single women moved into these jobs as well (Women in the). Otherwise employment opportunities for women were very narrow (Wilson). Low salaries were justified because women worked in unskilled jobs and because their employment was a short-term interlude before marriage (Women in the).
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This is called a horizontal corporate structure. * TNCs like Adidas have their headquarters in a certain country (or countries in certain cases) that "manage production establishment to produce products that serve as input to its production establishments in other countries." This is called a vertical corporate structure. * Some TNCs have neither vertical nor horizontal structure, such as Microsoft, and have establishments in different countries that are neither horizontally nor vertically aligned, most often computer TNCs or Engineering TNCs.
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1999: 28) denoting that some levels of pollution were permitted and acceptable. For example, two tons of pollution was deemed as acceptable, whereas two point one tons of pollution did not comply with BPM. (Lbbe, 2001: 31) Global scientific knowledge was rapidly increasing; these fundamental principles still applied one hundred and fifty years later, the concepts and contents remained static. In April 1956, Sir Anthony Eden's conservative government steered the Clean Air Bill through the commons. Although not the first piece of legislation to undertake the growing issues of urban air pollution, the 1956 Clean Air Act contained two poignant characters, firstly, it aimed to control domestic as well as industrial smoke production, and secondly, the act enforced compliance.
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(Young 1998). Young (1998) separates the work of environmental governance into three distinct (yet chronologically overlapping) phases of action: agenda formation, negotiation (described as international policy formulation by Haas et al (1993)), and operationalization (or national policy development (Haas et al 1993)). As well as agenda setting and rule making, governance also has the key functions of framing, monitoring, verifying, enforcing and financing, and building capacity (Haas 2004). To evaluate whether the current structures of governance are unfit for purpose, it is imperative to define what that purpose should be.
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The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) in 1966 made the right to food more explicit, declaring both the 'right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food' (article 11 paragraph 1), and also the 'right of everyone to be free from hunger' (article 11 paragraph 2) (in Alston 1984). The Covenant affirms that states must devote 'the maximum available resources' to realizing these rights, although this is not clearly defined, and is open to contestation (Robertson 1996).
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It is impossible to think about identity without also thinking about difference.(TM) Consider this statement in relation to the Buddha Of Suburbia(TM) by H
The heroine struggles with her homosexual feelings and conflicting emotions with the extremeness of the teachings from her evangelical mother, who is a constant reminder of her religious deviance, a living demonstration of Jeanette's own strongly held beliefs which have been taught since birth and reinforced continually through her life. Her mother "had never heard of mixed feelings. There were friends and there were enemies."(3) Seeing only in black and white with no shade of gray in-between, you were either an upstanding Christian, or a heathen, there could be no such thing as a homosexual Christian.
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