• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In the Australian Criminal Justice System Women are Treated Differently than Men

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Women throughout history have been viewed in a different sphere to men, and because of this throughout history; they have been treated differently to men in many diverse aspects of society. In the study of criminology, this can be seen with the way the female offender was viewed by society and in the ways, treatment for female offenders was administered. This issue will be explored in more detail to help understand the social constructs formed in female criminality that shape the female corrections today. Examples studied from historical and modern times will be looked at to see if women in prison are punished differently to men or if they are punished as men. Aspects of prison life will be discussed which will include the work and educational programs on offer in male and female penal institutions and differences that may occur and rules regulations and the handing out of discipline by custodial staff and wether or not it is harsher in a female institution. Differences in the general architecture and design of the male and female prisons themselves will also be looked at and sought to see if there are any major architectural differences. A major factor contributing to the way female corrections are shaped today is how the female offender and female criminality has been viewed in the past. Women offenders were traditionally seen "as more mad, than bad" and when they offended, they were perceived as being in need of care, protection and psychiatric help rather than punitive measures. ...read more.

Middle

It was found in the study that women prisoners were much more likely to receive many more citations than men were and for drastically different sorts of offences. Most commonly women were cited for violation of rules, as well as this, women were more likely to receive the most severe sanctions including solitary confinement. (Chesney-Lind & Pasko 163:2004). The women in the study were cited for breaking rules that including having "too many photographs on display", "failing to eat all the food on their plates" and "talking in the pill line" (Chesney-Lind & Pasko 163:2004). Women in the study were also known to be disciplined for possession of contraband, which could include such things as an extra bra or pillowcase peppermint sticks or a borrowed comb or hat. Trafficking and trading instances of sharing shampoo in a shower and lighting another inmate's cigarette were also met with citations and punishment (163:2004 Chesney-Lind Pasko). The author of the study concluded that there existed two very different forms of surveillance and control operating in the male and female prisons the female being the much stricter of the two. Research such as this shows clear evidence than women in prison are over policed and over controlled in institutional settings and if men were controlled to the extent that women were, they would probably riot. (Chesney-Lind & Pasko 164:2004). Braithwaite, Treadwell & Arriola (2005:1678) offer supporting opinions and state that in comparison to prisons for men, rules within women's prisons tend to be greater in number and pettier in nature. ...read more.

Conclusion

This again can be brought back to the traditional views of domesticity instilled from times past in the reformation process of female offenders. In the prisons of the United States and Australia, women are punished differently to men. In most regards, women are not punished as if they were men they are in fact punished as if they are women. This is a result of the social constructs evident in the early nineteenth century about the female offender's deviancy and the need to be protected and cured by being brought back into domesticity not punished. It can be seen that women are punished differently to men through the availability and validity of educational programs in men and women's prisons. Men have a greater variety and relevancy of programs available to them whilst in prison. Women on the other hand have inadequate access to programs that instil them in gender roles and have the potential to be irrelevant to their rehabilitation once released. It can also be seen that women are punished differently to men through a scrutiny of their disciplinary procedures. Unlike men, women are more likely to be incited more times and for pettier infractions than men are. You can even go as far to say that if the same disciplinary procedures were applied to men they would surely riot. Lastly, it can be seen that women are punished as women not men in regards to prison architecture. There are noticeable differences in a way a women's prison is constructed and set out most of the time opting for self-sustaining cottages over cellblocks, which are a normative feature of the male penitentiary. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Criminology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Criminology essays

  1. Nature/nurture and the causes of criminality

    criminal behaviour established that although genetic background may have a substantial influence on whether an individual will engage in criminal behaviour, the influence of environmental factors is even stronger. For example, Cadoret et al. (1995), studied children adopted at birth, and found that adoptees that had 'genetic risk' of committing

  2. Domestic violence. The following essay will concentrate on patriarchal-terrorism (Gilchrist et al. 2004) meaning ...

    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Archer, J. and Brown, K.D. (1989). 'Concepts and approaches to the study of aggression,' in J. Archer and K.D. Browne (Eds.). Human Aggression: Naturalistic Approaches, pp. 3-24. London: Routledge. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis. New York: Prentice Hall. Bandura, A. (1976). Social Learning Analysis of Aggression. In Ribes-Inesta, E.

  1. Victimology and Restorative Justice

    campaigning, for the law to take the crime much more seriously, especially, within the care and protection for young children to be taken much more seriously. This gave much more emphasises within restorative justice for this approach to become more of a 'just response' to crime by reinforcing concerning factors

  2. What are the aims of the Youth Justice System in England and Wales. How ...

    Sheffield University investigated the effectiveness of reprimands and Final Warnings. They concluded that these new police disposals are particularly effective in preventing re-offending. In addition, the Youth Justice Board's Annual Statistics (2005/06, p.39) indicate that the required target for Final Warning performance is being met, and those which used intervention

  1. Is the British penal system effective? Most of the evidence points to prison not ...

    A successful imprisonment would stop offenders re-offending after they have been released. However, based on the re-offending statistics provided by the Home Office, imprisonment is not always successful. The overall re-offending rate in 2000 was 57.6 per cent and three years later in 2003, the overall re-offending rate was again 57.6 per cent.

  2. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the accuracy of the difference between ...

    The parents of the child not longer have any say or rights associated with the child, unless the order is revoked by the court. (Slapper, G. p 23) A supervision order is where social services make regular visits to the child to make sure they are being looked after properly.

  1. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of youth justice policies in England and Wales since ...

    This was against what the UN had recommended for The UK which they had made in 1995 then 2002 to come in line with the rest of Europe but the government went totally in the other direction. They gave no direction to the courts and to the youth offending teams that overall child welfare is the main consideration.

  2. Perceptions of wrongful convictions amongst Americans working in the criminal justice system.

    92-106 f. Poor, Black, and Victimized ? The Case of James Richardson g. Prosecutorial Error and Wrongful Conviction 1. Plea Bargaining h. Prosecutorial Misconduct and Wrongful Conviction 1. Suppression of Exculpatory Evidence 2. Knowingly Using False Testimony 3. Making False or Improper Statements to a Jury 4. Coercing Witnesses 5.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work