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Internal and External factors of Motivation

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Introduction

IPSY -SS 10 Pippa McFall-167 021 Assessment 2 Submitted:02/03/2010 Word count: 1810 The purpose of this essay is to critically evaluate the role of internal and external factors in relation to motivation. Within this essay several explanations of the definition of motivation will be provided. A description of the biological basis of motivation and it influences will be put forward. Also a portrayal of the sociocultural and psychological influences of motivational will be given. A link will be provided showing the relationship between optimal arousal, drives and motivation. The factors that contribute to help motivate, and affect behaviour will be provided. Differing approaches to motivation and factors that influence it, will be demonstrated. Primarily this essay will critically analyse intrinsic and external factors relating to motivation and will offer clarification of these terms. There will also be a discussion about the prosed negative effects of extrinsic motivators on intrinsic motivation. Towards the end some practical examples of proper use of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation will be provided. Several theories and examples will be provided and relevant references will be included to back up, support and strengthen all arguments presented. Motivation is often described as being the thing that provides the necessary drives to induce an individual to meet a specific need or goal, or to resolve a situation that threatens a need or goal. ...read more.

Middle

The key here is often balance. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation needs balance too, to create the most powerful long lasting motivation. Intrinsic motivation comes from an inner desire to achieve, the only reward is from the inside there are no tangible rewards or incentives. Conversley, extrinsic motivation often has an element of tangible reward. This usually comes in the form of a pay rise, trophy or simply the approval of another. An example of the difference here would be a circumstance where an individual is playing in a sporting team to achieve a scholarship for a university, this would be extrinsic motivation. Comparatively if an individual was playing a sport because they love that sport its intrinsic motivation, even if this individual achieves a scholarship as well. Another point to make in this circumstance is that the individual who was extrinsically motivated may not continue to play their sport once their study is finished as with the intrinsically motivated individual would more than likely continue until their loves for the sport dwindled, which may never actually happen as long as there is intrinsic motivation to continue. Conversley, if after many years of playing their loved sport, their doctors tells them to stop for medical reasons then they would be extrinsically motivated to stop. Bourne & Russo (1998) explain that ...incentives pull from without while drives push from within" (p. ...read more.

Conclusion

If an individual wanted to add extra incentive to another persons motivation at any time they may want to use a positive extrinsic motivator, the only time when it may not be appropriate would be when the person is positively intrinsically motivated already. Although depending on the level of arousal there could still be room for a further incentive. Throughout this essay a critical analysis of internal and external factors relating to motivation has been performed. Within this essay several explanations of the definition of motivation have been provided. A description of the biological basis of motivation and its influences were put forward. A brief portrayal of the sociocultural and deeper look psychological influences of motivational was given. A link was provided showing the relationship between optimal arousal, drives and motivation. Some factors that can contribute to help motivate, and affect behaviour was discussed. Some examples of when and how different types of internal and external, positive and negative motivation can and should be used were provided. Primarily this essay analysed intrinsic and external factors relating to motivation. The essay clarified these terms and looked at some grey areas of research to do with external motivations and their effect on internal motivation. Towards the end some practical uses of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation will be provided. Several theories and examples will included and relevant references were used to back up, support and strengthen all arguments. ...read more.

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