• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Organizational Culture.

Extracts from this document...


1.0 INTRODUCTION: Culture, as Eldridge and Crombie (1974, cited in Burnes, 1996, p.112) stated, refers 'to the unique configuration of norms, values, beliefs, ways of behaving and so on, that characterize the manner in which groups and individuals combine to get things done'. Every organization has its own unique culture even though they may not have tried to change, manage or manipulate it. Rather it will have been probably changed, managed or manipulated , based on the values of the top management or core people who build and/or direct that organization. Over time individuals (particularly the organization's leaders) attempt to change, manage or manipulate the culture of their organizations to fit their own preferences or changing marketplace conditions.Then this culture influences the decision-making processes, it affects styles of management and what everyone determines as success. When an organization is created, it becomes its own world and its culture becomes the foundation on which the organization will exist in the world. In the past decade, more and more companies have attempted to make significant changes in the way that they manage their businesses. In a world where rapid change has become the norm, a variety of forces have driven organizations to undertake task of changing their culture (Heifetz & Hagberg, 2003). 1.1 Definition of Organizational Culture: There is no single definition for organizational culture. A variety of perspectives ranging from disciplines such as anthropology and sociology. Some of the definitions are listed below: * Organizational culture is a series of understandings about action that is organized, and find expression in language whose nuances are special to the group (Becker and Geer 1960, cited in Michelson, 1996, p.16 ). ...read more.


It can be conceived that they attempt to change culture. Cooper (1998) conclude three views relevant whether culture can be changed : i. Root Metaphor: If peoples believe that culture is a root metaphor, they believe that there is no instant means about changing a culture which will be developed and which is passed on from generation to generation of the workforce. Cultural change will happen only through the hundreds of forces acting between all the actors, but slowly. It cannot be pre-determined. ii. External and independent variable : If peoples believes that culture is an external and independent variable, they believe that there is little one can do to change a culture in the face of external social behaviours, values and beliefs that employees bring into the work place. iii. Internal variable: If peoples believe that culture is an internal variable, they believe that the culture can be directed and changed. However some focus on the more visible symbols and artifacts, many on people's behavioral patterns, and others on people's underlying behavior norms, values, and beliefs. 2.2 How to Change Culture: There are many 'solutions' to changing culture, some prescriptive (directive) others more philosophical (enabling) (Cooper,1998). The need for a change in culture is invariably precipitated by some significant, even critical, external environmental change. 2.2.1 Management Directed : Culture change through the actions and behavior of leaders rather than a process they prescribe a set of actions to create an environment. Peters and Austin (1985,cited in Cooper,1998) equates business and leadership with "show business" and thus the need to create the right atmosphere. So they advocate "shaping values, symbolizing attention" even to the point of saying "it is the opposite of 'professional management' ". ...read more.


Organisational culture is primarily a set of values and beliefs that articulated by leaders to guide the organisation, translated by managers and employees into appropriate behaviours and reinforced through rewards and sanctions. 'Scientific rationalist' peoples thus tend to talk about culture as if it is a definable thing - the culture of the organisation; the organisation has a service culture - and their strategies for change focus on 'modular, design-and-build activity' often related to structures, procedures and rewards. 5.0 CONCLUSIONS: Organizational cultures are created or changed by people. In part, an organization's culture is also created and cahnged by the organization's leadership. Leaders at the executive level are the principle source for the generation and re-infusion of an organization's ideology. What constitutes organisational culture and its perceived role in organisational are argued, resting on perceptions of culture either as a historically-based, change-resistant, deep social system which underpins all organisational strategy and action, or as just one aspect of the total organisational system, manipulable though surface structures such as rewards. The model adopted will determine which of the key points of leverage are deemed most likely to achieve the desired outcome of cultural maintenance or change. The perspective adopted will determine the focus of cultural change, development or maintenance activities. There are no definitive answers to questions about whether culture can be changed, managed and manipulated or not. There are different views about this question. The view of yours based on your knowledge, experience about organizational culture. Although there are no definitive answer to question, you can conclude a answer which fit your view through analyzing of this paper. 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Anthropology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Anthropology essays

  1. Organizational Culture: A Force driving IS design & use in organizations considering Skandiabanken case ...

    importance of enablers such as leadership, learning organizations and core competencies in the evolution of the corporate culture. [3] It is essential that the shared norms, values, beliefs, and expectations held by employees be in balance with the external environment.

  2. "What is Organizational Culture? Critically analyse the extent to which it is related to ...

    The power culture is usually found in small entrepreneurial organizations and it depends on a central power source, with rays of power and influence spreading out from that central figure. The internal organization of a power culture is highly dependant on trust, empathy and personal communication for its effectiveness.

  1. Does globalization enrich culture or destroy culture?

    Some experts figure that 90 percent languages of world will disappear during the twenty-first century. World Population World's language 96 % 4 % 50 % Less than 10000 speakers 6 % ~ 11 % 1 or 2 speakers The report (UNESCO)

  2. Knowledge Management.

    Organisational culture can be thought of as a relatively rigid structure that can shape not only our behaviour but also our perception of an organisation. It establishes a set of guidelines by which members of an organisation work and how those organisations are structured.

  1. The organisation - what makes it 'tick'?

    An increasing number of people asserted this because the businesses were making a profit from using our county's resources, and now owed it to help improve society. The recent changes to culture of companies have been influenced by ethics with a need to show a good image to the public,

  2. To a large degree, culture determines behaviour. How far do you agree with this ...

    satisfy you - in other words this action of not eating everything given to you is a Japanese norm. At the same time, the corresponding norm in the UK would be to finish everything, so as not to insult your host's culinary skills.

  1. Day-to-day, there are a number of issues that could impact a person's development, cause ...

    Allport (1954) wanted to look at a factor able to reduce prejudice is close, pleasant interpersonal contact between people from different groups. He found that the more interaction between the groups the lower the prejudice outbursts. Pettigrew (1958) showed that racial prejudice in South Africa and the United States is strongly influenced by socio-cultural factors.

  2. Discuss the extent to which tourism is a neo colonialist activity supported by cultural ...

    The issues of power is one that arises time and again when discussing colonialism or neo colonialism, where the tourist (or colonist) is in the position of power and wealth and therefore possibly feels that they are morally superior or has the right to do what they like to the host (colonised party)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work