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1.0 INTRODUCTION: Culture, as Eldridge and Crombie (1974, cited in Burnes, 1996, p.112) stated, refers 'to the unique configuration of norms, values, beliefs, ways of behaving and so on, that characterize the manner in which groups and individuals combine to get things done'. Every organization has its own unique culture even though they may not have tried to change, manage or manipulate it. Rather it will have been probably changed, managed or manipulated , based on the values of the top management or core people who build and/or direct that organization. Over time individuals (particularly the organization's leaders) attempt to change, manage or manipulate the culture of their organizations to fit their own preferences or changing marketplace conditions.Then this culture influences the decision-making processes, it affects styles of management and what everyone determines as success. When an organization is created, it becomes its own world and its culture becomes the foundation on which the organization will exist in the world. In the past decade, more and more companies have attempted to make significant changes in the way that they manage their businesses. In a world where rapid change has become the norm, a variety of forces have driven organizations to undertake task of changing their culture (Heifetz & Hagberg, 2003). 1.1 Definition of Organizational Culture: There is no single definition for organizational culture. A variety of perspectives ranging from disciplines such as anthropology and sociology. Some of the definitions are listed below: * Organizational culture is a series of understandings about action that is organized, and find expression in language whose nuances are special to the group (Becker and Geer 1960, cited in Michelson, 1996, p.16 ).
It can be conceived that they attempt to change culture. Cooper (1998) conclude three views relevant whether culture can be changed : i. Root Metaphor: If peoples believe that culture is a root metaphor, they believe that there is no instant means about changing a culture which will be developed and which is passed on from generation to generation of the workforce. Cultural change will happen only through the hundreds of forces acting between all the actors, but slowly. It cannot be pre-determined. ii. External and independent variable : If peoples believes that culture is an external and independent variable, they believe that there is little one can do to change a culture in the face of external social behaviours, values and beliefs that employees bring into the work place. iii. Internal variable: If peoples believe that culture is an internal variable, they believe that the culture can be directed and changed. However some focus on the more visible symbols and artifacts, many on people's behavioral patterns, and others on people's underlying behavior norms, values, and beliefs. 2.2 How to Change Culture: There are many 'solutions' to changing culture, some prescriptive (directive) others more philosophical (enabling) (Cooper,1998). The need for a change in culture is invariably precipitated by some significant, even critical, external environmental change. 2.2.1 Management Directed : Culture change through the actions and behavior of leaders rather than a process they prescribe a set of actions to create an environment. Peters and Austin (1985,cited in Cooper,1998) equates business and leadership with "show business" and thus the need to create the right atmosphere. So they advocate "shaping values, symbolizing attention" even to the point of saying "it is the opposite of 'professional management' ".
Organisational culture is primarily a set of values and beliefs that articulated by leaders to guide the organisation, translated by managers and employees into appropriate behaviours and reinforced through rewards and sanctions. 'Scientific rationalist' peoples thus tend to talk about culture as if it is a definable thing - the culture of the organisation; the organisation has a service culture - and their strategies for change focus on 'modular, design-and-build activity' often related to structures, procedures and rewards. 5.0 CONCLUSIONS: Organizational cultures are created or changed by people. In part, an organization's culture is also created and cahnged by the organization's leadership. Leaders at the executive level are the principle source for the generation and re-infusion of an organization's ideology. What constitutes organisational culture and its perceived role in organisational are argued, resting on perceptions of culture either as a historically-based, change-resistant, deep social system which underpins all organisational strategy and action, or as just one aspect of the total organisational system, manipulable though surface structures such as rewards. The model adopted will determine which of the key points of leverage are deemed most likely to achieve the desired outcome of cultural maintenance or change. The perspective adopted will determine the focus of cultural change, development or maintenance activities. There are no definitive answers to questions about whether culture can be changed, managed and manipulated or not. There are different views about this question. The view of yours based on your knowledge, experience about organizational culture. Although there are no definitive answer to question, you can conclude a answer which fit your view through analyzing of this paper. 1
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