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University Degree: Political Systems

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Has Neofunctionalism Been Superseded By A New 'Liberal Intergovernmentalism" As Currently The Most Convincing Theoretical Explanation of European Political Integration?

    5 star(s)

    Following from this, a discussion of Liberal Intergovernmentalism (LI) will be made. It will be seen that Moravcsik's theory stresses the importance of national governments at the expense of supranational institutions. According to LI, states are rational actors in international affairs, bargaining with other states and establishing institutions only when in their national interests. Supranational Institutions are seen to be agents of the states, which remain in firm control of both the pace and direction of the integration process. The second part of this essay concerns the Single European Act (SEA).

    • Word count: 5436
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Is Pluralism Faithful to the Idea of Democracy?

    4 star(s)

    However, each of these groups concentrates on its own area (for example education, medical care) so no single ´┐Żlite dominates all sectors. New groups can emerge easily, bringing further competition to the political marketplace (Hague & Harrop, 2001, p.159). We will return to this description of classic pluralism and its implications later. First, a brief word about the other term in the question: democracy. The main difficulty we have with this question is the meaning we ascribe to 'democracy'. For the meaning we do ascribe will fundamentally affect the answer we give.

    • Word count: 1824
  3. This paper aims to convince its reader that the Philippines would benefit from abandoning its presidential system and adopting instead the parliamentary system

    The head of government in a parliamentary system is called a variety of names, the most common being prime minister (Britain and the Commonwealth), and the others include premier (China), chancellor (Germany), and Taoiseach (Ireland). For the purpose of consistency, the term prime minister or PM will be used. According to the book Parliament Versus Presidential Government, there are three fundamental distinctions between the two systems. The first would be that the prime minister and his or her cabinet, which consists of other ministers responsible for government policy, depend on the continuous support of the legislature, as shown by a majority vote of confidence.

    • Word count: 2971
  4. How helpful do you find the theories of Almond (on political culture and cleavages) and Sartori (on party systems) for explaining the political instability experienced by pre-Fifth Republic France during the Third and Fourth Republics, by Weimar Ge

    By integrating many aspects of social science such as sociology, psychology and anthropology he created a classified political system by means of a clear conceptual schema. His reflections that 'We are led to extend our discipline and intensify it simultaneously' and that 'Every political system is embedded in a particular pattern of orientations to political action' shed light on the suggestion of interdependence in comparative politics and how, despite the separate nature of governments and political atmosphere of the individual countries, the causes of stability and instability are fundamental.2 The term "political culture" encapsulates these sentiments.

    • Word count: 2593
  5. How has France Europeanised?

    The paradox discussed in this essay reveals how the SGCI are a significant resource with which to view the main struggle with 'Europeanization' over the last two decades. To analyse the SGCI the views of two integral scholars will be used; that of Guyomarch, who outlines the role of the body and how it is mirrored to the French political model. The paradox of the French political system is examined by Smith, who downgrades 'Europeanisation' in the domestic term by stating that 'the EU seems likely to be one of the reasons why they still find it so difficult to

    • Word count: 1289

    Ideology is merely known to have a positive and negative aspect regarding the people who stand behind the ideas - 'the former depicting ideology as "a system of thought that animates social or political action"' (Omotola, 2009: 616) and the latter was regarded as misleading and illusionary. Following through the development of party ideology in Nigeria, political parties in the First and Second Republics abide by the same ideologies. The Northern People Congress (NPC) was a predecessor of the National Party of Nigeria (NPN), the western Action Group (AG)

    • Word count: 2350
  7. Under what conditions are parliamentary forms of government more appropriate than presidential forms?

    This ensures that change is gradual and that the executive branch cannot dominate the legislature which the parliamentary system may be prone to. As Linz (1996, p.128) correctly emphasises, "the basic differences between presidential and parliamentary systems is to say that while parliamentarianism imparts flexibility to the political process, presidentialism makes it rather rigid". However, this rigidity should not be seen as giving a state more stability, rather it seems that it can theoretically make it more fragile. The reason behind this is that in the presidential system once an individual is elected it is very difficult for them to then by voted out until the next election.

    • Word count: 2333
  8. Today, there are still certain Native American tribes that are sovereign nations within the United States. The state of being a sovereign nation and political entity within the United States has advantages such as the freedom to choose on how to use the r

    However, such kind of sovereignty challenges the war on transnational terrorism, formulation of sound economic policies and human rights laws that are in line with the international standards. The following illustrates some of the benefits and weaknesses that Native American tribes, which are sovereign nations within the United States, receive from their sovereignty status. Sovereignty provides the Native American tribes with the benefits of sovereign powers, the ability to determine freely the ways to use their land, resources and manpower as well as the ability to exist without outside exploitation or intervention.

    • Word count: 1316
  9. Research Project - Efficiency of the parliament as a legislative branch in Russia.

    Citizens rule the country through Parliament; this is compulsory principle of democracy. But I cannot say that now in Russia this principle works in full strength, of course political parties represent people, they have their programs and their own bills, and parliament is changing in better way all the time, step by step. But still there are some issues that reduce efficiency of work of Parliament that I want to discuss. In my point of view, personnel (staff) issues are really important and their solvation is obligatory, because if deputies will work for their own benefits or will not work at all, than parliament will not be democratic.

    • Word count: 2100
  10. The significance of minor parties in Australian Politics.

    Sartori's Rules Giovanni Sartori presented a relatively diverse framework from which the relevancy of minor parties could be established. This included the creation of two broad ranging rules or criteria. Firstly, Sartori states that minor parties can be considered irrelevant when it remains during a period where it is essentially not needed or put to any legitimate reason. Conversely, a minor party must be counted if it is in a position to dictate the formation of government (Sartori 1976). The Australian National Party (ANP) are a prime example of this. The coalition established between the Liberal Party of Australia (LPA)

    • Word count: 2564
  11. Critically appraise the Irish political party system. Is it unique or does it contain elements of the wider European exercise?

    Prior to the Civil War the majority of Ireland's political figures had been united in the Sinn Fein party. They were only interested in achieving independence for Ireland. When the Treaty was offered by Great Britain in 1921 it divided opinion amongst the men who had fought together to achieve independence. Almost splitting down the middle, the members of Sinn Fein quickly aligned into two camps; those were in favour of the treaty, and those who were opposed to it. Following the Civil War, the pro-treaty supporters founded Cumman na nGaedheal which would later become Fine Gael, while the anti-treaty side founded Fianna Fail in 1932.

    • Word count: 1391
  12. Regionalism in China and India. In India regionalism is accommodated through the federal system and the formation of states along linguistic and ethnic lines. In contrast China adopts a unitary system which rests authority solely on a centralized power,

    In this essay, I will discuss how regionalism has affected economic development, and education in both India and China. I will also illustrate how regionalism has affected the political parties and the dynamics of local autonomy. Overall, the way China has handled the differences within their states has contributed to their effectiveness in implementing policy changes and economic reforms. Even though India is diverse in every aspect, some scholars suggest that Regionalism has been a success through the countries cultural and linguistic differences in creating unity, however, it has produced problems in the implementation of policies and economic reform.

    • Word count: 4618
  13. Which is more democratic, the American or the British Constitution?

    My third point will be to consider whether the entrenchment of a constitution makes it more or less democratic. I will then conclude by looking at a constitution's capacity to protect human rights and civil liberties in our context of the "war against terror". A democratic constitution should most of all aim at maintaining political stability and limiting the power of different institutions. The separation of the three powers ; judicial, executive and legislative ; is common to most contemporary liberal democracies.

    • Word count: 1653
  14. Does the focus upon Biblical thought, Republicanism, and Liberalism present a convincing case for the concept of American Exceptionalism?

    however, there are also key contradictions within them that weaken and discourage the idea, as well as the argument that Exceptionalism itself is a dying concept in a modern world. American Biblical thought can be interpreted in many different ways. Stemming from the initial steps of the first settlers, the puritan movement that occupied the new territory can be seen as being intrinsically linked to many elements of Biblical thought in the modern day nation, as Tocqueville said: "I think I can see the whole destiny of America contained in the first Puritan who landed on those shores" (Gandziarowski, 2005: 3).

    • Word count: 2574
  15. The title question of this paper asks that we evaluate the degrees to which the main US political institutions are democratic. However it would be amiss to not begin here by saying that to best understand the institutions of the US, we must look at the do

    and the ways in which they interact with one another and thus can be said to contribute to the upholding of the principles of democracy. The precise meaning of democracy however, will not be delved into deeply, as to do this would elongate this work far beyond its prescribed word limits. It will be sufficient here, to say that democracy must be seen as a journey and not as the ultimate destination and that the foundational, Aristotelian values which underpin democracy are liberty, equality and therefore the right to equal political representation.4 At the end of this work, we shall then come to some conclusion as to whether the United States of America is worthy of being called a democracy.

    • Word count: 3723
  16. Canadian Health Care System

    Furthermore, there has been a developing trend towards moderate levels of privatization throughout Canada. Ontario has been allowed to operate over 900 private surgical, treatment and diagnostic clinics to work for-profit once they have satisfied the Provinces weekly requirement of public hours[4]. At the turn of the century, the Federal government recognized the many problems plaguing the Canadian health care system and attempted to fix the problem by creating the Health Council of Canada. Canadian health care was at a gridlock, where the system, something Canadians felt as a ?defining aspect of their citizenship?, could have either degraded to the

    • Word count: 3758
  17. Obama West Point Speech (Afghanistan)

    (Baylis, 168) This is probably due to the fact that constructivism is mainly a social theory instead of a substantive one. A Dash of Realism: The parts of the West Point speech that stood out the most in terms of IR theory pertained most of all to the aspects of liberal and realist ideologies. Although liberalism shone through much more than realism, both can be seen when one looks closely at the transcript of the speech. Realism, which has a strong focus on security, survival, and self-help, is echoed when Obama states that "as Commander-in-Chief, I have determined that it is in our vital national interest to send an additional 30 000 U.S.

    • Word count: 1192
  18. Is Britain part of the old or new EU

    Upon recent enlargement Western Europe benefited from the highly skilled, cheap workforces of Eastern Europe. Nevertheless, recent accession states benefit as well which means that analysis is challenged. For the formerly socialist east European countries that joined in the 21st Century, its felt that 'benefits of EU integration are strongest in economic development' (Gallup. 2003. p.3). Therefore looking at which states receive the greatest benefits doesn't provide too distinct categories. However, can the line between old and new Europe be drawn by deciding which states lead the European project?

    • Word count: 3980
  19. Legislatures are central to the legitimacy of any political system

    The question of political legitimacy, like many other areas of political thought, can be subdivided into normative and behavioural debates i.e. why should people obey the state and why do people obey a particular system of rule? Modern political debate has tended to focus on the latter2, which represents a shift from the abstract political philosophy to behavioural political sociology. Hence the work of Max Weber and Michael Rush become important contributions to the debate. I will follow suit by focussing on the behavioural aspects of legitimacy at the expense of the normative arguments.

    • Word count: 1731
  20. Distinguish between and give brief examples of, the exercise of Power, Authority and Legitimacy.

    Therefore this first dimension of power is the ability to make and implement decisions. The second face of power is underlined as the result of Bachrach and Baratz critique of Dahl's concept of power as decision-making. This face as suggested by Bachrach and Baratz is the ability to prevent decisions being made. This involves the ability to set or control the political agenda, thereby preventing issues or proposals from being aired in the first place. (Heywood, 2002:11). Lukes comments that in order to grasp this second dimension of power, "it is crucially important to identify potential issues which non decision-making prevents from being actual" (Lukes, 1974:28).

    • Word count: 1044
  21. How culture and values, in particular religion, have shaped American contemporary politics

    Europe had also cast its eye elsewhere. They therefore 'had to make meaning out of their own experience, contrive New World explanations of themselves, work out a peculiar American destiny.'6 Nevertheless, the Protestant Ethic still ran deep and indeed still does to this day - most Americans see themselves as a hard-working people. They also have very strict laws concerning alcohol consumption and gambling.7 McGiffert summarises this Protestant Ethic, 'as [befitting] a religion of a rising middle class... [inculcating] the code of economic virtues - industry, probity, sobriety, charity, and the like.'8 Sardonically, George Haskins writes that, 'the early social

    • Word count: 3281
  22. Discuss ways in the modern political institutions (President, Congress and Supreme Court) are different from those described within the US Constitution.

    Most of the real power of the modern day institution of the presidency comes from the powers laid out in the US Constitution and the laws made by Congress. In addition, the most beneficial factor in the President's power, Lowi et al. state is "mass public opinion" (Lowi et al., 2006:124). There are very little differences in the modern day institution of the presidency, and what is outlined in the Constitution. Section 1 of Article II of the US constitution which covers the executive branch has not changed over time.

    • Word count: 1657
  23. Is it accurate to say that it is the media which now determines the outcome of UK parliamentary elections?

    He also goes on to say that "When a major policy initiative is to be launched, it will invariably have been leaked/previewed in that morning's newspaper" (Seaton, ed, 1998:9). It is the media especially through newspapers informing the public about which candidates are standing for election, their policies and party manifestos. King states that In 2001 "New Labour had the editorial support of an even larger majority of the national daily and Sunday newspapers at the 2001 general election than in 1997" (King, 2002:chpt 5).

    • Word count: 1555

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Evaluate the reasons for and against the use of primary elections in the selection of presidential candidates

    "Primary Elections are caused by the public need for the devolution of political participation, which is more so prominent in America, a country proud of its constitutional requirement for the decentralization and separation of power. Whether Primaries fulfil this aim is debatable. If the argument for primaries says that they are a demonstration of democracy we must also recognise that they are restrictive in both open and closed form. Only blanket primaries offer choice to all citizens. So if the argument for primaries is that they give choice to more people then only blanket primaries can accomplish this principle. The consequences of Primary elections vary. In some states such as Michigan election results saw a rise in turnout from 1996 to 2000 due to the use of primaries. It would appear that this is a positive consequence. However, the basic principle behind the 'American Dream' is that anyone can make a success of himself or herself if they are willing to strive for their goal, and the consequences of primary elections do support the implications that undermine that constitutional liberty. Victoria Neale 08/03/03"

  • To what extent is liberalism compatible with democracy?

    "In conclusion liberalism is not entirely compatible with democracy - some important liberal ideas, in particular the principle that every individual opinion should be taken into account, directly conflict with the system of democracy. However, in many other ways democracy does correspond with liberal values - it provides political equality for example, and protects the rights of the people against overly strong governments. In general, I feel that liberalism has been able to adapt and fit in with democracy, despite the problem of trying to balance popular participation against the protection of individual rights. Meghan Rimmer February 2006 1 Politics - Liberalism"

  • Assess the reasons that lead to the appointment of Hitler as a chancellor in January 1933.

    "In conclusion, it was the vulnerability of Weimar republic which hidden deeply within the democratic system that helped Hitler rises into the power, and eventually conduct to the result of appointment of Hitler as a chancellor. Secondly, the appointment was also largely caused by the conspiracy by conservative rights, which are collaboration between DNVP and Nazis, and personal rivalry between Papen and Schleicher. Meanwhile, the own effort of Nazis itself was also inevitably important to the appointment which made them strong enough to collaborate with DNVP and take the chancellorship."

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