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University Degree: UK Government & Parliamentary Studies

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  1. house of lords nee further reform?

    The Lords also has a judicial function. The judicial functions of the House of Lords are exercised not by the whole House, but by a committee of "Law Lords." The jurisdiction of the House of Lords extends, in civil and in criminal cases, to appeals from the courts of England and Wales, and of Northern Ireland. From Scotland, appeals are possible only in civil cases. The House of Lords is not the United Kingdom's only court of last resort; in some cases, the Privy Council performs such a function.

    • Word count: 583
  2. Liberalism Position Paper

    Nevertheless it wasn't until the 19th century that conservatism truly developed, mainly because of the French Revolution. These early conservatives believed in a strong centralized government, tradition, and stability. I am in favor of these conservatives because of my strong viewpoints regarding Human Nature, Tradition and Reform, and Authority and Individual Freedom. I generally have a pessimistic opinion of human nature. I strongly agree with most conservatives' views that we should expect less of people, because they have been corrupted and flawed by sin.

    • Word count: 634
  3. How far did William Pitt achieve a National Revival between 1783 and 1793?

    Pitts task was to achieve stability within the country. He had to try and balance immediate revenue needs for debt reduction against overtaxing commercially important activities. Pitt imposed new taxes to wipe out the deficit while cutting expenditure drastically to increase the government annual income. He also reduced frauds in the revenue by establishing an improved system of auditing. He wanted to make sure that income due actually reached the exchequer. Smuggling became his first target. It was estimated that smuggling exceeded 20% of imports and accounted for half all tea in Britain, creating an obvious loss of revenue.

    • Word count: 905
  4. Bill procedure Government Bills Public bills can be introduced in either one of the houses.

    Second Reading (House of Commons) After its first reading, the bill will have its second reading within the next two weeks. This is where the bill will have its general principles debated upon. A more detailed discussion will follow on the committee stage. Committee Stage (House of Commons) After a bill has passed its second reading, it is usually referred to as standing committee, whereby it goes through a very detailed clause by clause examination.

    • Word count: 555
  5. The Tobacco Problem in Canadian Society

    Smoking is associated with a host of other risky behaviors, such as fighting and engaging in unprotected sex. A recent study indicates that 34% of all Canadians smoke this translates into nearly 8 million smokers. The most import thing that could decrease the use of tobacco especially in teens is to change some of the tobacco and drug policies of the government and to increase public awareness of all the risks of smoking such as the lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, eniphyserna and other types of cancer and awareness of the dangers of smoking during pregnancy or while taking birth control pills must also be increased.

    • Word count: 578
  6. Canada's Alcohol Problems Alcohol is one of the major issues in Canada that causes over 6,000 deaths each year

    Alcohol abuse can also lead to violence, accidents, social isolation, and difficulties at work and home. As we mentioned that it is the most commonly drug used by preteens and teenagers age 12 to 17 because they don't see the link between their actions today an d the consequences tomorrow. Thus, it is for the people and the government to take action against it and convey the massage to youth very clearly about the harmfulness of alcohol use and bring more restriction on selling the liquors, cigarettes and drugs to teenagers and that would be possible only by overemphasizing and forcing the government to bring some changes to its criminal justice system about teenagers and the

    • Word count: 703
  7. "Bolivar believed that monarchic regimes would be the most appropriate form of government for the emancipated Spanish American nations". Discuss.

    In the 'Carta de Jamaica' he said that he '[did] not favour the federal system. It [was] overperfect'. He also discarded the concept of a monarchy with part aristocracy and part democracy. He extolled the virtues of the monarchy in England but believed that if the same governmental system was imposed on Spanish America that the country would face the threat of falling into 'demagogic anarchy or monocratic tyranny'. Bolivar anticipated and calculated the political product of these newly emancipated colonies. He supposed that the Mexicans intended to establish a representative republic where the executive had enormous powers.

    • Word count: 996
  8. Supremacy of Parliament and Cabinet-dominated government

    Cabinet-dominated government occurs when the executive branch has a lot of power over the happenings in government. This usually occurs when the Prime Minister and his/her party has a large majority, when there is a "knowledge" gap in the House of Commons or it depends on the availability to the prime minister of non-bureaucratic advice.

    • Word count: 521
  9. The Disproportionality of the United Kingdom's Electoral System undermines the British state's claim to have representative government"

    Much debate centres around which electoral system is best at producing a government that truly represents the public. There are two broad types of electoral system First Past The Post: The candidate with the most votes wins regardless of whether he or she has a majority of the total votes or not. (British system) Why is this seen to be unrepresentative?

    • Word count: 592
  10. Political Party. Parties are organizations which contest elections in order to control or influence the exercise of

    Functions of Political Parties) Parties are fairly easily identifiable actors (Blondel, J. & Cotta, M Party & Government) and as such have an important role in lowering the costs of democracy by providing an ideological shorthand for the electorate. After all political parties are functional responses to voting by a mass electorate (Epstein, L.

    • Word count: 373
  11. What Role did Jacques Delors play in the Relaunch of European Integration during the years between 1985 and 1990

    which held out so much promise 25 years ago changed into a feeble cardiac patient whose condition is so poor that he cannot even be disturbed by a birthday party?"3 However this dismal outlook on European integration was soon to change, coinciding with the appointment of Jacques Delors as President of the European Commission in 1985. At this time European integration picked up speed again, supported by the basic idea of European Monetary Union. This change in pace is noticeable, however to claim that there was a 'relaunch' during the years between 1985 and 1990 is inaccurate.

    • Word count: 766
  12. The government's ability to control domestic policy would be limited

    EU has primacy over national law (parliament and Westminster) meaning that British law can be overturned if it conflicts with EU law. The European Communities act 1972 gave EU law legal force in Britain and denied effectiveness to national legislation conflicting it. An example of this is the 1990 Factor Tame Case, the House of Lords overturned parts of the 1988 Merchant shipping act, which it found to be contrary to EU law(1). This therefore showing that Britain could lose more domestic power and give away more of her traditional values as well as her sovereignty to the EU.

    • Word count: 931
  13. One of the most pivotal events in the early history of the BBC was the general strike which began on the 3rd of May 1926.

    Britain experienced a number of bitter and protracted sectional struggles between 1921 and 1922 . Both engineers and the miners were locked out and forced to take pay cuts. The actual cause of the 1926 general strike was the report of a royal commission on the coal-mining industry (Samuel Report (1926)) which recommended a cut in wages. Mine owners were demanding longer hours of work paired with lower wages. A coal strike started in early May 1926 and the miners asked the TUC to bring all major industries out on strike in support of the action; eventually it included more than 2 million workers.

    • Word count: 884
  14. The role of the Media in Jamaican Politics

    Mainly because the media fraternity in Jamaica is quite small and it is the same crop of journalists, columnists, talk show hosts and announcers who move between the various media houses. Traditionally, the ruling political party enjoys majority support in the media. Many respected journalists are loyal to one political party or another but are not keen to publicly acknowledge that loyalty. 1It is no secret that during an election campaign, one of the groups of professionals that is targeted [by political parties] is the Journalism fraternity.

    • Word count: 534
  15. "A Prime Minister is only as powerful as his Cabinet allows Him to be" - discussed

    It is the ultimate arbiter of all Government policy." The number of cabinet members varies but there are usually 20-25 members selected from 100 government members with a tendency for the number to increase in normal times with the growth of governmental functions and to decrease in national emergencies when the executive power is concentrated in fewer hands. A Cabinet is selected by the Prime Minister from MPs who are serving in the current government. They are picked for reasons of expertise in their field, experience in a Government office, or for their loyalty to their party or Prime Minister.

    • Word count: 852
  16. Examine and discuss the role of bureaucracy in the political process.

    The essence of politics on the other hand is a struggle. To attain power, political leaders must be selected through the competitive struggle. This essay will examine and discuss the role of bureaucracy in the political process. This will take into account the politician / administration dichotomy, whereby the principles of administration are ensured regardless of who is in power, which maintains procedures. Principles are neutral and their purpose is to facilitate the implementation of policy of any government equally. Governments oversee the affairs of the nation assisted and advised by a number of individuals and groups.

    • Word count: 716
  17. ur Ruhe kam diese Streit nicht durch..

    The aristocratic-agrarian bloc at the War Ministry did not reckon on needing to deal with food blockades in the event of war with England as the interior ministry had anticipated a surplus in supply following the reforms. The tolls had no point but to silence the claims of those who saw the food crisis as a matter of national importance. The problem of the food problem was reraised in 1912, but again, it was "tackled" by an agency whose role was to allow people to forget it.

    • Word count: 449
  18. M. Gilbert, The Roots of Appeasement (1966), p. 187. In this extract Gilbert defends the policy of appeasement and breaks with the orthodox view of Cato.

    The notable exception to this rule being Suez, which helps to underline how any other policy would be misguided. Gilbert points out that it is wrong to blame the National Government, though mainly Chamberlain, for the policy of appeasement as it was merely the continuation of a long-term policy. It was an attempt to prevent the mistakes of the past, the First World War, being repeated again.

    • Word count: 363
  19. How far do these sources support the view that the solution to the Irish Question failed due to the obstruction of Irish Nationalists?

    The Irish issue became unsolvable, proceeding to have no bearing on the true social issues of the time. The division of the Fenians and Irish agitators blocked a resolution, as they were incapable of uniting under one strong leadership in a single direction, as many would never be ready to compromise with the government. John Mitchel, the founder of Fenianism set this negativity in motion as his writings in 1868 expressed a stubbornness to accept a British administration and a hatred of non-violent activity. It is obvious from writing, there was a divide between the diplomacy of many such as Parnell who believed in a "more christian and charitable way", and the aggression of Mitchel and others that followed, Parnell and Mitchel both presupposed nationalists had dissimilar aims and this in itself hindered a solution.

    • Word count: 672
  20. Why is it often difficult to pass legislation through congress?

    The fairly short tenure of members in the chambers, in particular those serving in the House often means that they attempt to 'make a name for themselves' during their elected time so that come next election, their constituents are aware of their achievements and in theory are more likely to vote for them. The members of congress generally have very close constituency links, and this encourages them to prove to their constituents that they are acting on their interests and working hard on their behalf.

    • Word count: 975
  21. Explain Briefly the unrest in Britain 1815-21

    Alongside the agricultural changes was an even bigger industrial development. Demand to ffed and clothe this rising population meant an inecitable change from domestic based industry to large scale urban industry. Urban growth and the Industial revolution went hand in hand for example population increases in towns like Manchester went along with industrial developments in the region to fed and clothe the population. The industrial revolution however, did not come without its consequences. Home based manufacture became factory based and new machines meant that not as many people were needed to produce the same amont of produce.

    • Word count: 887
  22. Congressman Michael G. Oxley was elected into the in the House of Representatives as a spokesperson on behalf of the fourth district of Ohio in 1992.

    Additionally, between the years of 1970 and 1980, Oxley held numerous elective positions. Oxley was a member of the Ohio state house of representatives, a delegate to Ohio state Republican conventions, and a delegate to Republican National Conventions (bioguide.congress.com) Now in his eleventh term as congressman, Oxley is also the head of the Committee on Financial Services. According to the government ran webpage of financial services, it states that "the Committee oversees the entire financial services industry, including the securities, insurance, banking, and housing industries.

    • Word count: 873
  23. Compare roles of US President and the U.K. Prime Minister.

    Important decisions are usually communicated by the Prime Minister to the general public as primary spokesperson of the government. The Prime Minister has ultimate responsibility for maintaining and coordinating the government. The Prime Minister has the power to call an election by advising the Governor General to dissolve the House of Representatives. He also has the power to appoint and dismiss the Minister. The US President does not have that power of the UK Prime Minister to dissolve the Senate or the Congress. A prime minister can, for instance, theoretically take Britain into war without either a vote in the House of Commons or a meeting of the Cabinet.

    • Word count: 679
  24. Colvin, The Chamberlain Cabinet (1971), p. 9. In this extract Colvin talks of the effect that the Public Records Act of 1967 will have on the view of the actions of the Chamberlain government, and Chamberlain himself, in the lead up to war.

    Colvin believes that these papers will be of particular interest to those who experienced these events, as it will give a fuller picture of the events to these people. Those who have the benefit of "human memory", Colvin believes, have an advantage over the later historians who will study these papers, as they could not have as good an understanding of the events as they have not experienced them first hand.

    • Word count: 351
  25. Assess the consequence of the Irish problem from 1906 to 1916.

    It had thereby laid the way for the further conflict later in the wartime, because a atmosphere of split had been created ever since. Propose of the home rule bill had just passed through House of Commons with Irish nationalists support in 1912. Meanwhile, the way the government dealt with Irish problem had also exposed the incompetence of the liberal government, while, a constant decreasing popularity had been seen since 1906, the year they won a biggest majority ever. The government under Asquith didn't manage to comfort that Irish as well as English electorate, because they did not take necessary action when it was required.

    • Word count: 976

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent should Somerset be blamed for the outbreak and the mishandling of the rebellion of 1549.

    "In conclusion it seems that Somerset is to blame for mishandling the situation in 1549, but it seems that Somerset can not be totally blamed for the rebellions. Somerset's responsibility has been widely exaggerated by historians like John Guy (source E) but in fact his role is far lesser than had been believed. The main responsibility falls upon the New Religion and The Gentry's lack of ability to suppress the rebellions before it required the Government and Kings (and Lord Protector's) intervention. All the sources apart from D imply that Somerset was not responsible of 1549, as pointed out by Guy (source E) there were too many other problems, "agrarian, fiscal, religious and social grievances fused" causing the rebellion. The over view of the sources and my personal belief is that Somerset is to blame for mishandling the rebellions of 1549, as is implied by Guy (Source E) that Somerset was to bothered waging war in Scotland and by Paget (Source D) criticises Somerset motives and procedures."

  • Compare and contrast pluralist and ruling elite accounts of political power in the UK and US.

    "In conclusion it can be seen that the UK and US share many characteristics, which can be seen as being both pluralist and elitist. However the US is essentially more pluralist with dispersed points of access with fragmented state power. The government has sub-ordinates and sub-governments, which are very different to the UK where power is more concentrated with one person, the Prime Minister. There are many differences between the two theories; however, some similarities can be seen, linking the two. Dahl argued that most people are not interested in participating much in politics, thus only a small group of individuals is involved who have to compete to win elections by appealing for popular support. Schumpter and Dahl renamed the theory as pluralist elitism, in which politics in countries like the UK and US is polyarchy, rule by many elites (a plurality of elites)."

  • Outline and Critically Assess ‘Rhodes’ Argument About ‘Hollowing Out of the State’

    "The conclusion of this paper is that bearing in mind, the significance of an ideological origin to the process, there is strong evidence that the hollowing out of the state has and is continuing to take place. However it is doing so in conjunction with the restructuring of parliamentary structure and continuous adjustment of the actors and responses within the policy network. Only in this fuller sense can the hollowing out of the state be applied to the evolution of the policy process in Britain. What has remained constant or grown in strength throughout this process are the executors of power in the core of government. Although lines of accountability remain, the likelihood of recrimination for wrongdoing has become more unlikely and this is a cause for concern for the future. Both the hollowing out of the state and the strengthening of the core executive remain a matter of ongoing process."

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