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- Marked by Teachers essays 5
Critically assess Rhodes' (1997) argument that 'Policy networks of resource dependent organisations are a characteristic of the British policy process.'3 star(s)
The terms policy networks for political observers can summarise many feature of the current policy process. They are a way of bringing to life and analyzing the interactions between sections of government and pressure groups in the formation of policy. Marsh has stated that The network idea captures neatly the phenomenon of shared decision making and the way in which organisations exchange resources to achieve their goals. (Marsh 1998, p.132) The relationships formed between organisations and people are the basic idea of what a network is. Policy networks examine particular policy areas and do not have the same structure, actors and characteristics in every policy area.
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Domestic Effects Being involved in the war in Iraq and therefore being one of the forces fighting George Bush's so called "War on Terror"4 had several influences on the situation of the domestic policy of the UK. Having taken part in the attack, the country considered itself more exposed to the threat of terrorism as ever before. The fear should be justified. On July 7, 2005 London suffered from a series of suicide bombings in the heart of the city.
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If the political conflict in Northern Ireland from 1968 - 1998 was not a religious war, what factors explain the violence that took place?
The Anglican Protestant dominance over the Irish lasted as long as until the twentieth century. In 1801 the Act of Union was established integrating the Irish Parliament into the Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland. Later in the nineteenth century as a result of discrimination, a large part of the Irish Catholics emigrated, mainly to the United States. In 1916 a small group of republicans declared an Irish republic but they were defeated and executed by the British. The republican party, Sinn Fein, gained sympathy and won the election in 1918. In 1920 Ireland was partitioned from the United Kingdom.
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Britain and the Eurozone. Britains May 2005 parliamentary elections produced some very telling answers for the coming direction of EU policy in the United Kingdom.
The arguments for the UK staying out of the Eurozone are divided into three parts: 1. Political factors both internally in England and externally with the "special" Blair-Bush relationship exhibited post 9/11. 2. The economic factors of transatlantic cooperation between United States and United Kingdom countries and the integration of economies in the "Atlanticist" sphere. London's economic community being separate from the restrictive fiscal policies of the EMU, as well as the overregulation of EU economies helps US-UK companies, especially banking and oil companies. 3. Finally the well documented economic problems in Europe resulting from the Maastricht Treaty and the Stability and Growth Pact, which have produced lower growth rates and higher unemployment in the EU than in the US and UK.
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New Labour's pro-business policies.8 Geddes and Tonge charted the transition of papers from 1992-97, showing that no tabloid made the transition from Labour to Conservative between elections, whereas three made a shift across the Rubicon to declare support for Labour - The Sun's "Who Blairs wins"9; Star's "There's Tony one way to go"10; and News of the World's "We back Blair"11. All present unequivocal support for Blair, which became a consistent feature of the campaign - the Presidentialism of the British system led newspapers to support Labour on the weight of its leader, who emerged as a far stronger leader
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This interpretation is reflects the reality of UK politics in this era as the gravitas of the Commons was evident in the period 1832-67 when ten governments were brought down due to a lack of parliamentary confidence. One major weakness in the British constitution identified through this Classical Liberal view is in the unrepresentative nature of the Parliament. The House of the Lords, which consists of half of the Parliament, is not democratically elected. As of 1997, it housed hereditary peers, which is anachronistic and largely illegitimate.
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This first section will use a case study of Brixton to assess methods of drug policing. In this area there has always been tension between young black males and a white, sometimes racist, police force who have adopted a hard line approach. Through the 1970s and 1980s over zealous policing resulted in the alienation of much of the policed population. The report by Lord Scarman in 1981 raised some important questions about the policing of drugs in a modern Britain. A significant issue here is police discretion which amounts to using a degree of subjectivity in order to maintain the peace. Scarman argued that in Brixton police exercised their discretion in a way that was unjust.
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This form of representation forms an integral part of the democratic electoral system. 'Black legislators represent Black constituents, women legislators represent women constituents, and so on 3. If representation is divided collectively in these terms, does it make for a fair system? Are all groups and individuals then adequately and proportionately represented by a politician because they can more readily identify with the represented? History and current sociological factors tell us that ethnic minorities, women, lower socio economic groups and other marginalised groups are under represented in Parliament. Let's begin with women in politics.
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Does the Irish rejection of the Draft Constitutional Treaty signal that democracy is alive and well in the EU
Even though polls suggest that around 70% of Irish citizens approve of the EU1. This could be because it is said that Ireland has done particularly well from being a member of the European Union. This implies that the Irish referendum is displaying proper democratic attributes - helping the Irish to have an influence in the formation of crucial EU policy. This suggests that citizens are worried of the overall sovereignty and traditional values such as military neutrality and abortion will come under threat.
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(Scotland Office, online.) Using the public expenditure framework controlled by the UK Government, the HM Treasury allocates budget for the public expenditure of the UK, Scottish Executive, and Northern Ireland. The devolved Scotland administration normally receives a block grant. There are legally two components under a block grant known as the: (a) redistributed national non-domestic rates (NNDR); and (b) the Revenue Support Grant (Adam, Emmerson & Kenley, 2007) which will be spent on: health and personal social services; education; and law, order and protective services which are three of the major services in Scotland (McLean, 2003).
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The second thing that grabed my attention about this book is its writers. First, Alex De Waal is, as mentioned in the book, a writer and activists on African issues, and a fellow of the Global Equity Initiative at Harvard, as well as the director of Justice Africa in London. These are the activities which he was engaged in during writing this book; however I became more interested in the book when I knew that De Waal had been appointed as a consultant to the African Union mediation team in Darfur during the years 2005-2006.
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He eventually persuaded the House of Commons to pass the Metropolitan Police Act in 1829. The first Metropolitan Police patrols went on to the streets on 29th September 1829 three months after the Metropolitan Police Act. Other forces were soon to follow; we officially gained Cheshire constabulary in 1857 on the 3rd of April. Royal Irish constabulary The royal Irish constabulary was the first organised police force in Ireland, it was established because of the Peace Preservation Act of 1814, and it wasn't until the Irish Constabulary Act of 1822 the Ireland saw the true Irish Constabulary.
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I shall focus on NFPO's that provide avenues for the advancement of public health and within that those that see themselves as advocates and service providers. In doing so I do not seek to detract from the contribution to wellness, social capital and community cohesiveness contributed by sporting clubs, women's groups and others, nor from the tremendous contribution Housing New Zealand Corporation, Accident Compensation Corporation and other NFP Corporations make to this country, but rather to acknowledge my own limitations in seeking to understand the entirety of this massive sector.
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(Office of the Deputy Prime Minister e-publication) E-government focuses on the citizen. Approximately 40 percent of e-government endeavours are designed to serve the public. Service to students, information on food safety, virtual libraries, digital maps and the ability to pay taxes and fees online are some of the ways e-government is being utilised. E-government provides information with more than half (57 percent) doing just that. Over 85 percent of implemented e-government services are done through the Web. Government has become more sophisticated.
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However the long term implications highlighted what little forethought had been exercised and the disproportionate population today places a far more negative impact upon the economy. Babies born in the booms between 1948-50 and 1955-62 have all reached fifty with some men and women contemplating retirement and with figures showing that by 2031 twenty seven million people (nearly half the UK population) will be over 50. The older generations hold the potential to play a large political and social role (politics.org 2004).
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Mongolia is highland country, with an average altitude of 1,585 metres above sea level (Rupen 1978: 15). Following independence from China in the 1920s, Mongolia became the second country after Russia to adopt communism in 1924. Mongolia remained closely tied to the Soviet Union until the end of the 1980s. It received support from the Soviet Union economically and with its military, and generally followed Soviet guidance politically and culturally. Mongolia now practices a democratic government with multiple parties. It is currently attempting to rebuild national culture which it lost during the Soviet communist establishment.
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During the cold war, the Italian Communist Party (PCI) had been the strongest of its kind outside of Russia1 and electoral support had continued to grow up until the mid 1970s. It was from this point the electoral decline began and continued right to the elections in the mid 1980s it was at this point that support for the party was no larger than it had been as a protest vote in the 1950s. The French Communist party was experiencing a decline in voters at a time that coincided with its Italian political brother.
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Analyze the relationship between the Democratic Party (D.P.) and the Kabaka Yekka (K.Y) - 'King Alone' movement.
This personal change exemplified the transformation of the party from being Catholic oriented as a priority, to focusing more on achieving democracy in Buganda. During 1960 a popular neo-traditionalist organization calling Mwoyo gwa Gwanga (' Spirit of the people') had appeared, but by 1961 it had been overtaken by a new political movement in Buganda called Kabaka Yekka ('The Kabaka Only), which by November 1961 had become the main vehicle for political activity of the great bulk of Buganda's neo-traditionalists.
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Motions were passed by all three provinces legislatures in favour of the union. This Maritime Union however never had a chance to materialize. Fear of American Annexation Fear of American takeover during the American Civil war pushed the colonies towards unification. Historian F.H. Underhill has suggested that "somewhere on Parliament Hill in Ottawa...there should be erected a monument to this American ogre who has so often performed the function of saving us from drift and indecision."3 The fear of an annexation from the Americans made many fearful.
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It was not socialism but the continuation of a wartime consensus on the need for reform. Discuss this assessment of the 1945-51 Labour Governments.
Contrary to this was a commitment to achieve full employment and introduce national insurance to fund the proposed system. He also urged the need for a mixed economy consisting of both private and state run systems which included; the bank of England (1946); Coal mines (1947) and Electricity, Gas and Railways (1948). By taking these three pillars of the Atlee governments 1945-51, an assessment can be made which would indicate that there was a coherent continuation of a wartime consensus and that socialism as the 1945 Labour manifesto 'Let us face the future' said "The Labour Party is a Socialist Party, and proud of it"ii instead of adopted a continuity of wartime policy and consensus.
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"Too little and too late": To what extend is this statement an accurate reflection on successive UK governments policy to the tobacco industry
Furthermore in 2002 the British Medical association claims, "There is no safe level of environmental tobacco smoke". Fifty-five years after the first evidence of a link between cancer and smoking a big percentage of the population is still addicted to smoking. Is "too little and too late" done by successive UK governments that has lead to this? Which are all the stakeholders that are involved in the process? Is people's liberty infringed by not allowing them to smoke where they want?
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?nd this consider?tion contributed to influence the Government on the only occ?sion on which it m?y be thought to h?ve gone b?ck on its p?th-the equ?liz?tion of the sug?r duties in 1846. ?t the pe?ce of 1815, which opened the Continent to British prop?g?nd? ?g?inst the sl?ve tr?de, the decl?r?tion of this policy w?s received with ?n enthusi?sm--Wellington c?lled it ? frenzy--which h?s often been rec?lled; but the t?sk w?s to prove tedious, toilsome ?nd burdensome beyond ?ll expect?tion; ?nd one must not suppose th?t it w?s c?rried on, ye?r ?fter ye?r, ?mid the pl?udits of ?n ?dmiring public (C?rrrington, 1989).
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So to examine further, just exactly how long have these two parties - Labour and the Conservatives - been the two dominant parties? Reference: Information taken from "British Politics Today" by Bill Jones and Dennis Kavanagh Chapter 2 Identifying the two dominant parties in Britain The two dominant parties in Britain are the Labour Party and the Conservatives. It has been this way since 1918, before then there was no clear sign of two dominant parties. The Conservatives In comparative perspective, the Conservatives have been remarkably successful.
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Some constitutions believe that the powers of the legislature, executive and judiciary should be put into effect by different people or groups. The point of this is to make sure that power does not fall into the hands of a single group or person. The three divisions of government should be able to keep a watch over each other by having power over one another in certain conflicting situations. This can be achieved through the system of 'checks and balances'.
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Compare and Contrast the types of military Government experienced in Egypt, Spain and Brazil after 1945
In order to give a analytical comparison of these countries the following topics will be discussed. What conditions allowed the military to take power, what form did this new government take, what effect did the force of the military take over have on the politics of the country and what effect did the military have on political culture and civil society. In order to understand the underlying problems in the countries in which the military took over and formed a new government it is important to briefly outline the conditions that allowed them to take power and how they did this.
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