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University Degree: UK Government & Parliamentary Studies

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  1. Finance & Public Expenditure - A case study

    (Scotland Office, online.) Using the public expenditure framework controlled by the UK Government, the HM Treasury allocates budget for the public expenditure of the UK, Scottish Executive, and Northern Ireland. The devolved Scotland administration normally receives a block grant. There are legally two components under a block grant known as the: (a) redistributed national non-domestic rates (NNDR); and (b) the Revenue Support Grant (Adam, Emmerson & Kenley, 2007) which will be spent on: health and personal social services; education; and law, order and protective services which are three of the major services in Scotland (McLean, 2003).

    • Word count: 4435
  2. Book Review on Sabine Wichert's "Northern Ireland since 1945"

    It clearly comes out that the main reason for the disagreement was about the fact that people were unsettled about who should reign the state. Moreover people did less care about how they wanted to be ruled, although this was another issue influencing the disparity. Wichert's book is divided into three parts, dependent on a chronological order. It starts with an explanation of the origins of Northern Ireland's problem, getting to modernisation boundaries and finally to the uncovered problem. The main topic areas are also subdivided into eight chapters.

    • Word count: 1285
  3. Free essay

    Should religious groups receive state funding for their schools?

    After the Reformation these became independent, but often kept their Church connections and funding. This established a clear link in the English tradition of faith education, although it was seldom available to many and indeed the practice of free education of poor but able boys (for few places admitted girls) often disappeared as these schools became fee-paying. A small number of schools were also founded by philanthropic individuals who set up establishments for poor pupils or left money to found schools. A local example is one, Hugh Sexey who died in 1619, left money in his will to found a school in Somerset, for poor boys and girls to learn basic literacy, numeracy and a trade.

    • Word count: 2127
  4. PC Debate

    The term is used as an insult, a joke and in sincerity by people who believe in its importance.' (2004 p36 3.3.2) The term 'Political Correctness' is therefore ideologically weighted, as opposed to being a simple description or discourse of a system or belief. The term has differing connotation dependent on a person's viewpoint. It is also used in an ironic sense to mock language or behaviour, which is actually intended to guarantee a minimum of offence as regards race, colour, religion and other groups when being described.

    • Word count: 2460
  5. A written constitution means 'rule by the dead'. Examine this with reference to Bunreacht na hEireann.

    When Bunreacht na hEireann was written in 1937, it was a constitution which reflected the society of that time and their beliefs. For example, it placed a special emphasis on the role of the Catholic Church in the state, even granting it a 'special position' within the constitution. The national territory of the island, according to Article 2 was said to consist of "the whole island of Ireland, its islands and its territorial seas." It is now obvious to us that these Articles are not acceptable in today's society.

    • Word count: 1102
  6. Prevelance of smoking and the social approach to health

    of 1 area of the group, which was the semi routine occupations group and again the remaining two sub categories both showed decreases. The group which shows the highest percentage of cigarette smokers throughout both time periods and both sexes and therefore stands out substantially is the routine and manual group. To exemplify this point further, for the period 2004/05, 97% of men and 89% of women were cigarette smokers as oppose to 57% men and 44% of women in the managerial and professional classification, and 51% of men and 42% of women in the intermediate classification.

    • Word count: 1865
  7. Free essay

    How democratis is britain?

    An elected assembly in the House of Commons, which through the party system produces a prime minister. The parties range more than one giving citizens a choice3. Who are fee to air their views, in return, periodically the electorate can hold them to account. The press is free from state control and so are pressure and interest groups. Citizens have the right to protest, as well as to free speech will minimal constraints. Further recent reforms under Labour have strengthened her democratic zeal: such as the incorporation of the Human Rights Act into British law4, the abolishment of most hereditary peerages5, a de-centralisation of power through devolved assemblies where a proportional electoral system has been introduced, as well as inroads into a more deliberative democratic process6.

    • Word count: 1712
  8. Welfare and the state

    To Chadwick's logical mind the solution was clear: simply reverse the syllogism.' (D. Fraser, 1984, p44) thus accruing the need for change. The 1834 Victorian poor law saw a change to which a vast majority of moral expectations disappear and the relief of poverty was regulated by law. Earl Grey was the prime minister in1883 and it was in this period that he set up the poor law commission in order for him to carefully study the working of the poor law system in Britain.

    • Word count: 1334
  9. Liberalism Position Paper

    Nevertheless it wasn't until the 19th century that conservatism truly developed, mainly because of the French Revolution. These early conservatives believed in a strong centralized government, tradition, and stability. I am in favor of these conservatives because of my strong viewpoints regarding Human Nature, Tradition and Reform, and Authority and Individual Freedom. I generally have a pessimistic opinion of human nature. I strongly agree with most conservatives' views that we should expect less of people, because they have been corrupted and flawed by sin.

    • Word count: 634
  10. Parliament - HRA, length of parliaments and treaties

    Finally, the above legislation, practically, cannot be an entrenchment since it is not unchangeable. As mentioned no Parliament can bind its successors thus the Human Rights Act cannot be entrenched for ever. Furthermore, since the U.K has not a written constitution, it is impossible to entrench any Act. (b) In 1716, Parliament passed the Septelinian Act extending its own life from 3 to 7 years to avoid the effects of an election. Under the Parliament Act 1911, Parliament is to be elected for only five years and no Parliament can lawfully extend its life.

    • Word count: 1083
  11. Book Review on "Darfur: a Short History of a Long War"

    The second thing that grabed my attention about this book is its writers. First, Alex De Waal is, as mentioned in the book, a writer and activists on African issues, and a fellow of the Global Equity Initiative at Harvard, as well as the director of Justice Africa in London. These are the activities which he was engaged in during writing this book; however I became more interested in the book when I knew that De Waal had been appointed as a consultant to the African Union mediation team in Darfur during the years 2005-2006.

    • Word count: 3218
  12. Essay House of Lords

    For example, the legislative passage of 150 conservative bills which successfully passed through the Commons on the basis of Thatcher's strong government majority where held up by the Lords. In fact, Thatcher called the Lords the 'real opposition'. This shows that the Lords can act as a powerful check on government, particularly in cases where the government have strong majorities and the Commons are unable to effectively scrutinise legislation due to party restraints on ministerial independence. In this sense the House of Lords has an important scrutinising role to play, particularly in an era where the executive is becoming more dominant.

    • Word count: 1033
  13. How valid is the view that "the reign of achieved nothing of significance for Russia"

    This was impractical because many could not support themselves and their families on what they cultivated, let alone pay the government taxes. Ironically many were far worse off after emancipation than they had been before. Emancipation not only failed the peasants, it angered the nobility as it took their power away, leading to bitter criticism of the Tsar concerning injustice in land allocation and compensation for land owners. Further, it led to hostility towards the government on the part of intellectuals and philosophers.

    • Word count: 1343
  14. "Delegated Legislation is a necessary source of Law"

    There is often a duty to consult various named organizations. And then one of two procedures will be followed. The normal procedure is the negative resolution procedure. The statutory instrument is laid before parliament for a period of 40 days. If an MP objects to the contents of the statutory instruments either House or a standing committee, will debate the issue and may pass a negative resolution, which voids the statutory instrument. The statutory instrument becomes law from the date which it is laid before parliament, so it is in fact possible for a statutory instrument to be a law for some time before it is annulled.

    • Word count: 1584
  15. public sector

    He eventually persuaded the House of Commons to pass the Metropolitan Police Act in 1829. The first Metropolitan Police patrols went on to the streets on 29th September 1829 three months after the Metropolitan Police Act. Other forces were soon to follow; we officially gained Cheshire constabulary in 1857 on the 3rd of April. Royal Irish constabulary The royal Irish constabulary was the first organised police force in Ireland, it was established because of the Peace Preservation Act of 1814, and it wasn't until the Irish Constabulary Act of 1822 the Ireland saw the true Irish Constabulary.

    • Word count: 3882
  16. Is Britain ready for a major 'flu epidemic'?

    There is a threat of outbreak globally including Britain.

    • Word count: 1129
  17. Free essay

    Not for Profit Organisations in the New Zealand Public Health Sector

    I shall focus on NFPO's that provide avenues for the advancement of public health and within that those that see themselves as advocates and service providers. In doing so I do not seek to detract from the contribution to wellness, social capital and community cohesiveness contributed by sporting clubs, women's groups and others, nor from the tremendous contribution Housing New Zealand Corporation, Accident Compensation Corporation and other NFP Corporations make to this country, but rather to acknowledge my own limitations in seeking to understand the entirety of this massive sector.

    • Word count: 5156

    The government realised that in order to implement more cost effective and radical changes, they had to look at the methods used within the private sector as an example and be the driving force behind the changes. One such change was to reduce the size of the public sector as a whole and of public spending. The knock on effect of a reduction in public spending was a reduction in the Public Sector Borrowing Requirement. The inherent practices of the public sector had to be overhauled and a new approach was necessary to become more efficient, competitive, budget focused and overall more effective.

    • Word count: 2496
  19. Edwin Chadwick and his success in public health

    The reports confirmed what had previously been found about the connections between health and living conditions but more importantly, they suggested how improvements could be instigated. Chadwick's work here was significant as these reports were published in the annual report of the Poor Law Commission and received official sanction, bringing their conclusions to the attention of parliament, hence leading to the Home Secretary asking for a further report to be completed. The report was the Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Laboring Population of Great Britain 1842, which Chadwick had published under his own name and expense after the Poor Law commissioners refused to allow it to be published.

    • Word count: 2149
  20. How far did William Pitt achieve a National Revival between 1783 and 1793?

    Pitts task was to achieve stability within the country. He had to try and balance immediate revenue needs for debt reduction against overtaxing commercially important activities. Pitt imposed new taxes to wipe out the deficit while cutting expenditure drastically to increase the government annual income. He also reduced frauds in the revenue by establishing an improved system of auditing. He wanted to make sure that income due actually reached the exchequer. Smuggling became his first target. It was estimated that smuggling exceeded 20% of imports and accounted for half all tea in Britain, creating an obvious loss of revenue.

    • Word count: 905
  21. Judges and the Constitution this essay, the scope, limitations and applicability of the concepts of Parliamentary Sovereignty and its 'sovereign' legislative powers will be examined in light of the influence of the judiciary

    The resulting judgment was a unanimous decision that the Acts was valid primary legislation having full legal force and was without implied exceptions. It was decided that both Acts satisfied the rules in place at the time of their enactment, namely the 'enrolled Act' rule for the 1911 Act and the rules stated in the 1911 Act for the 1949 amendments. Using the Parliament Acts to Abolish the House of Lords A significant conclusion from Jackson is that as long as a legislative document satisfied the relevant rules, the courts will give effect to it regardless of what internal procedures were followed.

    • Word count: 1467
  22. Bill procedure Government Bills Public bills can be introduced in either one of the houses.

    Second Reading (House of Commons) After its first reading, the bill will have its second reading within the next two weeks. This is where the bill will have its general principles debated upon. A more detailed discussion will follow on the committee stage. Committee Stage (House of Commons) After a bill has passed its second reading, it is usually referred to as standing committee, whereby it goes through a very detailed clause by clause examination.

    • Word count: 555
  23. should the alcohol laws be repealed

    2003 that needs to be applied for shows it is a combined license, a one rounded application, whether it is a nightclub, Theatre, pub, restaurant, with this is mind it is said to cut down on "red" tape. In reality it is found "They are not simple things and take time to process" Shadow Culture secretary May. Theresa. BBC.co.uk September 20 2006. Additionally pub licensees have resulted in they have been given unrealistic time scales, recent surveys indicate only 0.5 percent of licensed premises have applied for twenty-four hour drinking www.bbc.co.uk September 21.2006 and suggests that those applied are merely

    • Word count: 1267
  24. The Tobacco Problem in Canadian Society

    Smoking is associated with a host of other risky behaviors, such as fighting and engaging in unprotected sex. A recent study indicates that 34% of all Canadians smoke this translates into nearly 8 million smokers. The most import thing that could decrease the use of tobacco especially in teens is to change some of the tobacco and drug policies of the government and to increase public awareness of all the risks of smoking such as the lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, eniphyserna and other types of cancer and awareness of the dangers of smoking during pregnancy or while taking birth control pills must also be increased.

    • Word count: 578
  25. Canada's Alcohol Problems Alcohol is one of the major issues in Canada that causes over 6,000 deaths each year

    Alcohol abuse can also lead to violence, accidents, social isolation, and difficulties at work and home. As we mentioned that it is the most commonly drug used by preteens and teenagers age 12 to 17 because they don't see the link between their actions today an d the consequences tomorrow. Thus, it is for the people and the government to take action against it and convey the massage to youth very clearly about the harmfulness of alcohol use and bring more restriction on selling the liquors, cigarettes and drugs to teenagers and that would be possible only by overemphasizing and forcing the government to bring some changes to its criminal justice system about teenagers and the

    • Word count: 703

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