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University Degree: UK Government & Parliamentary Studies

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  1. How successful were the liberal the conflicts with the House of Lords in 1909?

    The old age pension act introduced a non-contributory scheme, providing 25p a week as rights to those over 70. In addition, the government used to be a type which promoting lassie-faire so that the government expenditure was relatively lower; income tax was subsequently lower, and individualism was encouraged. Consequently, the government deposit was virtually insufficient to enforce this large scaled program. They should, therefore, search for the new way of generating an enough amount of money constitutionally, which then primarily targeted on the riches.

    • Word count: 1377
  2. Explain Briefly the unrest in Britain 1815-21

    Alongside the agricultural changes was an even bigger industrial development. Demand to ffed and clothe this rising population meant an inecitable change from domestic based industry to large scale urban industry. Urban growth and the Industial revolution went hand in hand for example population increases in towns like Manchester went along with industrial developments in the region to fed and clothe the population. The industrial revolution however, did not come without its consequences. Home based manufacture became factory based and new machines meant that not as many people were needed to produce the same amont of produce.

    • Word count: 887
  3. The Parliamentary Roller coaster ride: Rise or Fall? Australia, as stated in our constitution, is a representative democracy.

    When journalists or academics refer 'the decline of Parliament thesis' today, it is a mere clich�. Despite the new decline, Parliament will remain a fixture of our democracy, but as time goes by, it will change and will bring with it new criticism and praise. Despite formulating, scrutinising, and implementing legislation, Parliament has a wider variety of responsibilities. First it determines which political party or group of parties will form government. The responsibility of whether a government stays in power remains with the Parliament throughout its life.

    • Word count: 2940
  4. To what extent was popular pressure an important factor in determining the progress of the campaign for parliamentary reformin the period 1780-1885?

    By 1782, the Conservative Pitt the Younger raised hopes of modest parliamentary reform. In 1785 Pitt proposed a modest reform bill, however it was defeated 248-174. The French Revolution of 1789 stimulated reformist sentiments and thus created more popular support for the movement, even prompting the creation of pamphlets, such as, Thomas Paine's 'The Rights of Man' in February 1791 and also the creation of political groups, for instance, the British Jacobins in 1791-3 and the Hampden clubs in 1815. Although pro-reform, each group contained only middle-class citizens and artisans but none of the lower classes.

    • Word count: 2069
  5. Congressman Michael G. Oxley was elected into the in the House of Representatives as a spokesperson on behalf of the fourth district of Ohio in 1992.

    Additionally, between the years of 1970 and 1980, Oxley held numerous elective positions. Oxley was a member of the Ohio state house of representatives, a delegate to Ohio state Republican conventions, and a delegate to Republican National Conventions (bioguide.congress.com) Now in his eleventh term as congressman, Oxley is also the head of the Committee on Financial Services. According to the government ran webpage of financial services, it states that "the Committee oversees the entire financial services industry, including the securities, insurance, banking, and housing industries.

    • Word count: 873
  6. Why did the Tsar fall?

    In 1905 in St Petersburg he was introduced to Tsar Nicholas' family. Soon Rasputin gained a hold over Nicholas and Alexandra. His power came from his ability to heal their son and heir, Alexis, who suffered from haemophilia (this meant his blood would not clot). If Alexis hurt himself, Rasputin could stop the boy bleeding to death From August 1915 Rasputin became Alexandra's chief adviser. Messages to Tsar Nicholas from Alexandra suggest how Rasputin helped choose ministers, and played a part in planning battles. (Polivanov was an outstanding military organiser, but he fell from power on 25th March 1916).

    • Word count: 1169
  7. Examine the Decision making process in Congress. How do you explain the results that emerge from this process?

    The clerk assigns a legislative number to the bill, with H.R. for bills introduced in the House of Representatives and S. for bills introduced in the Senate. The Government Printing Office (GPO) then prints the bill and distributes copies to each representative. Next, the bill is assigned to a committee (the House has 22 standing committees, each with jurisdiction over bills in certain areas) by the Speaker of the House so that it can be studied. The standing committee (or often a subcommittee)

    • Word count: 1932
  8. The State is an entity expected to provide its citizens with protection, order, and stability.

    The new legislation will force over 29 000 welfare recipients off government funding in April 2004 (Jones, 1). This vigorous action demonstrates the conventional belief that the only way to end citizens' reliance on the state is to coerce them off the system. Judith Lavoie reports the government's claim that all recipients, who will be forced off welfare, are able workers who will most likely find a job (Lavoie, 1). Unfortunately, the facts have proven the opposite. The article declares "that only two thirds of those who will [0]have their welfare benefits terminated will be both qualified and capable of finding work, the other one-third will remain vulnerable" ("30,000 lose welfare in April," 1).

    • Word count: 1430
  9. 'The devolution of power to the Scottish Parliament and the National Assembly for Waleshas removed both legal and political power from London.'Evaluate this statement.

    In 1989 the Scottish Constitutional Convention was established, consisting of representatives of civic Scotland and some of the political parties, to draw up a detailed blueprint for devolution including proposals for a directly elected Scottish Parliament with wide legislative powers. The SCC's Report in 1995 formed the basis of further proposals which were brought forward by the UK Government in 1997. These proposals received overwhelming support in a Referendum on September 11, 1997, with 74% voting in favour of a Scottish Parliament and 63% voting for the Parliament to have powers to vary the basic rate of income tax.

    • Word count: 2571
  10. Problems arising from the centrally commanded economy in soviet Union.

    Analysis Pizza Hut was used to working in much more stable environments in west. They had to adapt to the high volatile markets of Soviet Union. The main problems facing the Pizza Hut's executives here can be analyzed by using Hofstede's value dimension of Uncertainty avoidance ; "High uncertainty avoidance Vs low uncertainty Avoidance"1. In 1990 soviet Union was a centrally commanded economy and in those economies the welfare of people is much more important than the actual market realities and hence the market is not allowed to settle and the whole economy is all centrally planned.

    • Word count: 1112
  11. Look at the changes to the fire service and the police service since 1979.

    They also looked at liberating the forces of the market. Margaret Thatcher's intention was to make this country more privatised. By doing this we saw trade unions loosing power and we also saw a big decrease in state support. Thatcher did this by selling all companies i.e. British rail to the highest bidder, thus making this country more privatised. Thatcher cut all public services funding down apart from the police force; she gave them a 50% pay rise, as she wanted more order over the country. Thus many people wanted to join the police service.

    • Word count: 3014
  12. Votes For Women.

    All children were taught to read and write but in 1878, 'Domestic Economy', a new law was introduced which meant giving girls lessons in washing, ironing and various other housewife jobs. Middle class girls were going to schools and being taught science and mathematics by the 1880's, these qualifications would help them get a temporary job as a teacher or secretary until they would retire when they got married. A small amount of females went to university and rarely became doctors or architects but were paid much less than their male counterparts.

    • Word count: 2158
  13. Is Britain still a two party system?

    However, the effects of this shift have been limited as this support has been spread amongst many parties; although the Liberal Democrats benefited and were able to reinforce their position in parliament they still only received 18.3% of the vote in 2001 (1992 17.8%) and whilst small parties such as SNP trebled their vote it had little impact on the HC. Liberal Democrats: Between 1945 and 1980s the Lib Dems were an insignificant minority party that were in no way a challenge for either the Conservatives or Labour, yet they now hold 52 seats in HC, a record number in the post war years (1992 20 MPs).

    • Word count: 1219
  14. The Conservative Government from 1979 to 1997 started a revolution in the 'town hall' that continues under a Labour Government - Discuss.

    This depleted the housing stock and councils were left with the poorest and most expensive to maintain properties. Local authorities were also not allowed to use the income generated to build new homes either. Thus seriously depleting the council house stock for a short term electoral gain on the part of the Westminster Government and not for the benefit of local government. The 1982 Local Government Finance Act abolished the ability of local authorities to raise supplementary income through additional local rates and also made them more accountable through the requirement to publish expenditure details.

    • Word count: 1864
  15. Critically evaluate the relationship between the Chinese Communist Party and the state.

    The policy making of the government is based on the CCP political principal. This can be reflected from the holding of National people Congress and National Party Congress. The National People Congress usually held several months after the National Party Congress. The reason behind is the National People Congress waits for the National Party Congress to provide them with the party direction. During the National Party Congress, the party will discuss their future direction. Then the National People Congress will propose the national policy according to the result from the National Party Congress.

    • Word count: 1478
  16. To What Extent Was The British Establishment De-stabilised By Events Such As The Profumo Affair?

    The lead up to what became known as the Profumo affair was dotted with a series of security related scandals. William Vassall was an Admiralty clerk who had been blackmailed over his homosexuality to act as a spy for the Soviet Union. Vassall had been giving information to the Soviets for five or six years and had only been caught with the help of a Russian defector3. The saga continued with a whispering campaign linking the unfortunate Vassall with Thomas Galbraith, a former junior minister at the Admiralty who was currently Under Secretary of State for Scotland.

    • Word count: 1701
  17. Compare roles of US President and the U.K. Prime Minister.

    Important decisions are usually communicated by the Prime Minister to the general public as primary spokesperson of the government. The Prime Minister has ultimate responsibility for maintaining and coordinating the government. The Prime Minister has the power to call an election by advising the Governor General to dissolve the House of Representatives. He also has the power to appoint and dismiss the Minister. The US President does not have that power of the UK Prime Minister to dissolve the Senate or the Congress. A prime minister can, for instance, theoretically take Britain into war without either a vote in the House of Commons or a meeting of the Cabinet.

    • Word count: 679
  18. The US constitution is more pluralist than the UK constitution. Discuss.

    Due to the different factors, the US constitution is said to be more pluralist than the UK. Pluralism is described in Structures of Power as 'in a political system there should be a plurality of different centres of power, political and social...power should be diffused' (Schwarzmantel, J 1947,18). This is demonstrated in the US with for example the separation of institutions sharing power and the different points of entry. In comparison, the UK appears to be more elite with centralised and concentrated government power and parliamentary sovereignty. This issue of the US constitution being more pluralist than the UK will be discussed in the following essay.

    • Word count: 1585
  19. The principle of parliamentary sovereignty has been dramatically affected because of Britain's membership of the EU.

    It is not the case that the Court's rulings always go against the British. For example, it was following a ruling of the Court that Italy was obliged to reduce taxes imposed on luxury cars, taxes that were estimated to have been costing Britain some �80 million annually in lost exports. In theory, this peculiarity of the British constitution means that Parliamentary supremacy and the primacy of European law in the areas covered by the European Treaties are fundamentally incompatible.

    • Word count: 1037
  20. Summary on Accounting for Genocide: Canada's Bureaucratic Assault on Aboriginal People.

    over the practices of indigenous populations as they were seen to be inferior with a system of negotiations being set in place in order to administer the lives of the people. The role of violence was present but the theme of the time was placed on administration techniques linked to the theory of imperialism. Accounting was a persuasive mechanism of colonization insofar that complete domination over the land, natural resources and the native inhabitants was a 2 money-making opportunity for European settlers.

    • Word count: 1270
  21. Surmise how John Major could have won the last General Election

    and the stick, for it must not appear as if we are being held to ransom by a small group of backbenchers. They could be asked for their opinions about strategy for the election and the way that they think the party should be moving. The backbenchers should be made to feel important (and they are with the current small majority) and it should also be stressed that they are all members of the Conservative party and that they all have to unite now, whatever their differences, or risk a Labour government.

    • Word count: 2829
  22. Is there justification for government intervention in the uk housing market and how has recent policy overcome market failure.

    The case for justification by government essentially lies in the idea of equity and efficiency. 1.1- EFFICIENCY Efficiency will occur in a perfect market where it is not possible to make anyone better off without making someone else worse off, known as the 'Pareto Optimum.' In addition to this Barr shows how three main ideas make it possible for efficiency to occur in the housing market. 1. Tenure neutrality, an overriding concept that leaves individuals indifferent between buying and renting.

    • Word count: 7331
  23. Is the 'burden of ageing' a real problem now or in the future or has it been exaggerated?

    The problems that incur from an ageing population range the burden on the NHS to oppression and discrimination. It has been reported that 28% of pensioners are living on an income below the poverty line (around �81 a week after tax and housing costs).3 Children born within the post-war baby boom will soon be reaching retirement age and will pose a particular problem for the government in the future if nothing is done now. Young (2002) on the other hand argues that the ageing population does not pose a significant problem. He puts forward that ageing is a natural process undergone by all, instead it is the failure of society to recognise the needs of the elderly that causes problems for the elderly.

    • Word count: 2036
  24. Consider the fortunes of far right political parties in at least two European countries with reference to their political programmes, their electoral success, their influence on mainstream political parties and their support base.

    Firstly, the aim of a party is to exercise government power by winning office. Secondly, he argues that parties are organised bodies, with formal membership. He argues that "this distinguishes them from broader and more diffuse social movements" (pg 218). Thirdly, parties usually adopt a broad focus on issues and address each of the major issues of the government policies. Finally, he claims political parties can be distinguished from other groups because members are united by shared ideologies and political preferences (Heywood 2000). The term 'far right' is a blanket phrase used to describe all parties that incorporate fascist beliefs within their ideologies.

    • Word count: 1806
  25. 'The domestic power of a UK Prime Minister exceeds the domestic power of a US President.' Discuss

    government' as opposed to a Cabinet government, as Asquith stated "the office of Prime Minister is what the holder chooses and is able to make of it".2 The Prime Minister is not popularly elected as in the US system. Instead the leader of the party with the majority seats in the House of Commons becomes the executive. In theory the Prime Minister share powers with other cabinet ministers and is primus inter pares, however, in reality as Eden states, it could be argued that, "A Prime Minister is still nominally primus inter pares but in fact his authority is stronger

    • Word count: 1890

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