• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Social Biases: Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Running head: SOCIAL BIASES Social Biases Doyle O. Welborn University of Phoenix Social Biases The concept of social bias is more pervasive in our society than most people realize. Research in the field of social psychology reveals that social bias prevents mutually beneficial interaction among people. This problem could be detrimental to ingroup cohesion, intergroup cooperation, and the success of society. This paper will define the concept of social bias, explain subtle and blatant biases, describe the impact of bias, and evaluate strategies to overcome social biases. Defining the Terminology Social bias occurs in at least three forms: stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination (Fiske, 2004). These forms of social bias are a category-based response which is correlated but not redundant (Fiske, 2004). Category-based responses are typically clearly defined, negative, and directed at members of an individual's outgroup. These responses can be separated into three aspects: cognitive, affective, and behavioral (Fiske, 2004). Stereotyping is Cognitive Stereotypes are cognitive structures which people use to organize the characteristics or attributes related to groups of people and the functioning interactions of those various characteristics (Fiske, 2004). People use stereotypes to apply the characteristics of a group to an individual in the group. ...read more.

Middle

Subliminal cues automatically categorize people into groups and influence contrived conclusions. These cues influence people's perceptions, cognitions, affect, and behaviors. Two methods demonstrating automatic bias are priming methods, which use group identifying words to prime participants for ingroup words that follow, and simultaneous associations, which associate positive words with a participant's ingroup. Having this type of automatic bias does not necessarily mean that someone agrees with it. An individual may be culturally aware of the bias but disagree with a personal belief in the bias. Ambiguous Subtle prejudice can be ambiguous, being hidden in responses that are abstract, unclear, vague and difficult to pinpoint (Fiske, 2004). Often the responses are ambiguous in terms of the speed of the response or the kinds of nonverbal cues that a participant displays. These items are difficult to interpret and lend themselves to ambiguity. The reason for the ambiguity could be because an individual is attempting to hide racist behaviors that are incongruous with stated beliefs. Ambivalent Social bias can also be manifested in racial ambivalence (Fiske, 2004). When an individual has both positive and negative feelings for a member of another group, the ambivalence causes the individual's beliefs to be dramatically unstable. ...read more.

Conclusion

Because prejudice is primarily an emotional response, forming emotional bonds through intergroup contact and cooperation can help overcome negative social bias. Authority Sanction Understanding that the powers in existence have authorized the equal status, common goals, intergroup contact, and cooperation of an intergroup collaboration, people can feel at ease in working together to overcoming obstacles. Feeling at ease helps people to learn more about one another's true characteristics, ignoring previous stereotypes while remaining open to change. The authority to work together is a powerful force in society. Working together, people can overcome seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Conclusion Social bias in the form of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination affects thoughts, feelings, and behaviors respectively. Those thoughts, feelings, and behaviors can be changed by understanding that subtle bias is cool, indirect, automatic, ambiguous, and ambivalent. Social bias directly impacts the lives of individuals by facilitating ingroup cohesion, creating a strong sense of belonging, and improving interaction through self-fulfilling prophecies. When subtle bias occurs, people struggle to overcome the internal conflict which, if not resolved, can impact an individual's psychological health and the health of society. Social bias can be overcome through positive intergroup contact. The process of overcoming social bias is a worthwhile endeavor which will require commitment to change on the part of social psychologists and individuals, open-minded intergroup contact, and cooperation throughout the world. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Applied Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Applied Sociology essays

  1. Critically evaluate the cognitive approach to psychology

    Computer models don't make new predictions and they often ignore the motivational and emotional influence in the cognitive processing. The cognitive neuroscience approach focuses on studying the precise area of the brain involved during a task (spatial resolution) and time scale for activation (temporal resolution).

  2. HOW MIGHT YOU EXPLAIN THE EXISTENCE OF INEQUALITIES IN HEALTH?

    (Abercrombie et al, 2000, p.481) This virtually shows no improvement in the female age and the extra years gained by elderly people are spent in disability or long-term illness. The gap between women and men life expectancy has continued to increase over the last 40 years.

  1. American Culture. It is evident that part of the definition of contemporary American ...

    Multiple media represent and participate in a continual recreation of American language and language practices. Hence, the phrase "Make my day" (from Clint Eastwood's hard-edged cop in Dirty Harry) was recycled by Ronald Reagan as president, while the advertising slogan "Where's the beef?"

  2. Critically evaluate explanations of 'theory of mind', drawing out contrasts between cognitive and social ...

    differences between appearance and reality.3 This evidence is backed up by research from Wimmer & Perner (1983) who suggests that children have problems with contradictory evidence and cannot deal with two different representations of the same thing.4 One of the most prominent tests to determine one's theory of mind development is the false-belief test.

  1. The Ethnic Groups of South Africa and their effects on its society.

    There are also many other languages spoken by some of the other South Africans. The minorities of South Africa also speak many languages and they are Portuguese, German, Greek, French, Chinese, Korean, Tamil, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu and Telugu (Kizilos, 1998).

  2. Key Words Glossary

    and that every child experiences these feelings of sexual desire towards their parent in first few stages of childhood. Many supporters of this theory believe that The Oedipus Complex is "essential to the constitution of selfhood" (Elliot: 2007; 66). According to Freud's idea of the self, he sees The Oedipus

  1. This evaluation study will thoroughly study factors that influence teen pregnancy and parenting on ...

    Other researches also showed statistics that confirmed that adolescents suffered from higher levels of panic attacks and hence they were more likely to have increased degrees of anxiety and lower self esteem (King, Gullone, Tonge, & Ollendick, 1993). The impact of self-developed coping-strategies on adolescent self-esteem         Collins (1991)

  2. Research - In this assignment, we are trying to find the factors and effects ...

    completed were taken as data collection with a problem statement of the factors and effects of online addiction. Data was entered into the computer so that more convenient for analyzing by using Microsoft word 2007 software. Results occur through statistics and descriptions.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work