• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Social Biases: Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Running head: SOCIAL BIASES Social Biases Doyle O. Welborn University of Phoenix Social Biases The concept of social bias is more pervasive in our society than most people realize. Research in the field of social psychology reveals that social bias prevents mutually beneficial interaction among people. This problem could be detrimental to ingroup cohesion, intergroup cooperation, and the success of society. This paper will define the concept of social bias, explain subtle and blatant biases, describe the impact of bias, and evaluate strategies to overcome social biases. Defining the Terminology Social bias occurs in at least three forms: stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination (Fiske, 2004). These forms of social bias are a category-based response which is correlated but not redundant (Fiske, 2004). Category-based responses are typically clearly defined, negative, and directed at members of an individual's outgroup. These responses can be separated into three aspects: cognitive, affective, and behavioral (Fiske, 2004). Stereotyping is Cognitive Stereotypes are cognitive structures which people use to organize the characteristics or attributes related to groups of people and the functioning interactions of those various characteristics (Fiske, 2004). People use stereotypes to apply the characteristics of a group to an individual in the group. ...read more.

Middle

Subliminal cues automatically categorize people into groups and influence contrived conclusions. These cues influence people's perceptions, cognitions, affect, and behaviors. Two methods demonstrating automatic bias are priming methods, which use group identifying words to prime participants for ingroup words that follow, and simultaneous associations, which associate positive words with a participant's ingroup. Having this type of automatic bias does not necessarily mean that someone agrees with it. An individual may be culturally aware of the bias but disagree with a personal belief in the bias. Ambiguous Subtle prejudice can be ambiguous, being hidden in responses that are abstract, unclear, vague and difficult to pinpoint (Fiske, 2004). Often the responses are ambiguous in terms of the speed of the response or the kinds of nonverbal cues that a participant displays. These items are difficult to interpret and lend themselves to ambiguity. The reason for the ambiguity could be because an individual is attempting to hide racist behaviors that are incongruous with stated beliefs. Ambivalent Social bias can also be manifested in racial ambivalence (Fiske, 2004). When an individual has both positive and negative feelings for a member of another group, the ambivalence causes the individual's beliefs to be dramatically unstable. ...read more.

Conclusion

Because prejudice is primarily an emotional response, forming emotional bonds through intergroup contact and cooperation can help overcome negative social bias. Authority Sanction Understanding that the powers in existence have authorized the equal status, common goals, intergroup contact, and cooperation of an intergroup collaboration, people can feel at ease in working together to overcoming obstacles. Feeling at ease helps people to learn more about one another's true characteristics, ignoring previous stereotypes while remaining open to change. The authority to work together is a powerful force in society. Working together, people can overcome seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Conclusion Social bias in the form of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination affects thoughts, feelings, and behaviors respectively. Those thoughts, feelings, and behaviors can be changed by understanding that subtle bias is cool, indirect, automatic, ambiguous, and ambivalent. Social bias directly impacts the lives of individuals by facilitating ingroup cohesion, creating a strong sense of belonging, and improving interaction through self-fulfilling prophecies. When subtle bias occurs, people struggle to overcome the internal conflict which, if not resolved, can impact an individual's psychological health and the health of society. Social bias can be overcome through positive intergroup contact. The process of overcoming social bias is a worthwhile endeavor which will require commitment to change on the part of social psychologists and individuals, open-minded intergroup contact, and cooperation throughout the world. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Applied Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Applied Sociology essays

  1. Critically evaluate the cognitive approach to psychology

    and time scale for activation (temporal resolution). Depending on how detailed the brain function needs to be measured, a high or low spatial or temporal resolution can be applied. Individual differences can become ignored and studies within this method have lacked clear theoretical foundation. In comparison to the cognitive approach is the physiological approach which investigates the biological processes, such as brain structure, genetics.

  2. Critically evaluate explanations of 'theory of mind', drawing out contrasts between cognitive and social ...

    Whilst Sally has gone, Anne moves the marble from Box to Box B and Sally enters the room shortly after that. The child is then asked 'Where will Sally look for the marble?' Results show that children of 4 and 5 yrs old say Box A but children under 3

  1. All Are Equal

    Some of the more horrific acts of segregation include murder and abuse: from the period of 1918 to 1927 416 African American people were gruesomely murdered by mobs3, this horrible act of segregation is called lynching. And as you can imagine black men and women were regularly verbally abused.

  2. Key Words Glossary

    Complex as an important reason for which people conflict, as it teaches children about the restraints of intimacy and identity. Elliot calls this the "masculinist model" of the self and implies that everything can be linked back to the oedipal battle between fathers and sons, for the prize of the mothers affections.

  1. The Ethnic Groups of South Africa and their effects on its society.

    They include but are not limited to the Zulu, Xhosa, Pedi, Sotho, Tswana, Tsonga, Swazi, Ndebele, and Venda. The two largest Black ethnic groups are those of the Zulu and the Xhosa (Kizilos, 1998). An Important Zulu chief is Mangosuthu Buthelezi, a cabinet member in the new South African government.

  2. This evaluation study will thoroughly study factors that influence teen pregnancy and parenting on ...

    Both Hill and Holmbeck (1987) and Hill et al. (1985) found that teenagers pressurize parents for freedom and parents in turn are apprehensive about the result of their changing sexuality. In these changing circumstances, mothers play a key role for adolescent girls and fathers play a key role for adolescent boys.

  1. Reasons for Working. How does paid employment affect your identity?

    However, Inglehart (1997) (cited Noon & Blyton, 2006) suggests that many people are opting for interesting and meaningful work, rather than high salaries. This reflects a 'post-materialist' orientation to work, emphasising quality of life. Findings from SCELI indicated that 26% of employees do not work for monetary reasons, but for ?expressive? ones like enjoyment, achievement and satisfaction.

  2. Compare and contrast Goffmans and Foucaults explanations of how social order is made and ...

    Foucault however, looked at discourse (a set of shared ideas used to view the functions of society) and how order is controlled by knowledge and power. Foucault looked at how the knowledge of order comes about (E. Silva, 2009, page 319).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work