University Degree: Gender Studies
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This essay will be discussing how the issues of gender and sexuality are represented in advertising.
A 2007 advert for the fashion brand Dolce and Gabbana, that was later on banned in both Italy and Spain, showed a scantily clad woman being pinned to the ground by a man with four other men standing around and watching, considered to be a portrayal of a gang rape. Some advertising for products aimed at women in recent years has trended more towards men looking foolish for example the Maltesers adverts often show women pulling pranks on men to make them appear foolish. Lynx adverts (male cosmetics brand that specializes in body sprays, hair care products and shower gels)
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Summers states that The actual experience of far too many women in Australia today suggests that the promise of equality has not been met. Sadly, we are actually going in the opposite direction (Summers 2003). This essay will thus assess the trut
It also allowed woman the opportunity to pursue their social roles without being hampered professionally (Edgar 1974: p.p 227-236). The 1975 Family Act was instrumental in decreasing the inequality within the nucleus of the family. This is due to the implementation of the 'no fault' divorce and it enabled woman to gain access to 50% of the marital property (Holmes, Hughes, Julian 2012: p.p 105-127). The act has therefore increased the value of woman's unpaid labor and power woman posses within the nucleus of the family.
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Sex Script Theory. This understanding of sexuality is best explained though a newly developed theory of human sexuality called the sex-script theory. This theory enunciates that we as humans, have all been embossed with explicit collections of fantasies,
Furthermore, these sex-scripts are not acquired in resemblance to learning how to ride a bike. We somehow enigmatically assimilate, through a specialized method, how we are to perform sexually. Even so, such edification does not give justification to our sexual responses themselves. Thus, the innumerable social conjectures of human sexuality are inchoate (Park, 2008). Nonetheless, sex-scripts eloquently convey the perception, that although we are genealogies of faunas, our sexuality is incapable of being regulated by genes and hormones. We still exhibit identical impulsion that animals employ, but we differentiate in the sense that we are "awakened" by nonfigurative phantasmagorias, narratives and objects that juxtapose the hereditarily-ceded sexual responses of numerous animals.
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Sex Script Theory. The sexual script theory proposes that sexual encounters between two sexually attracted parties are imprinted through the influence of mass media outlets-such as: books (e.g., karma sutra), TV shows (e.g., Sex and the City) and Website
Messages that define what sex is, how to recognize sexual situations and how to behave in such circumstances. Additionally, sexual scripts are progressively learned throughout life and are ever changing with the influences of social construct. Namely, sexual scripts similarly resemble how language is developed and stored within us as we mature with time. Just like language, even though we are unable to recall specific phases of development, we can still infer that we have repeatedly received sexual input throughout our lives.
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highlight a discourse within political understanding which holds that Men ( people socialised as Masculine) engage in tough conflict with little cooperation as a characterised strategy of masculine leadership, yet contrast this idea with their understanding, 'the social construct of these opposing characteristics deny the commonality of what it means to be ''human'': each of us can be rational and emotional, competitive and cooperative', making the former seem simplistic and essentialist. Their analysis of the social constructions of gender differences suggests it may not account for all behavioural differences as there are wide crossovers between masculine traits and feminine traits which we all experience as humans.
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With reference to femininity, discuss the ways in which gender norms intersect with ideas about race and ethnicity.
Adewumni (2011), addresses the influence of the history of slavery to the construction of racist attitudes and hierarchy of dark skin tones within black identities which can be traced back to attitudes from the times of Slavery. The separation of black people as slaves from white people as their owners, or later on in history as their employers, constructed a gap between social groups, categorizing values and cultural identity of black people as socially inferior and powerless and white people as superior in power, more sophisticated, more deserving of a privilege created for themselves.
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In pornography, sexualized domination is enacted via explicit scenes of rape, bondage, abuse, and torture. In everyday porn, these same behaviors are suggested with varying degree of subtlety. Sharon Marcus (1992) argues that a "rape script" is coded into the ways that our culture habitually represents men's bodies as penetrating, powerful forces and women's bodies as inner spaces that can be invaded and owned, without will or capacity for violence, including defensive violence. In the February 2009 issue of Details, a photograph illustrating a story about dating during the economic recession showed a white woman turned upside down and dumped in a garbage can.
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However, advancements in the 1980s and 1990s slowed even further when the gay community was forced to turn its attention to a larger problem, the onset and rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. AIDS in the gay community had a widespread effect on all aspects of life, including the goal of same-sex marriage. Many young gay people had been estranged by their families due to their sexuality and the onset of AIDS raised the question of what constituted a family. Stories emerged of devoted same-sex couples suffering tragically when one became ill and the other had no legal right to hospital visits, medical decisions, or to property after a partner's death.
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Construct a comprehensive argument for constructionist and essentialist beliefs about homosexual identity development. State each position and defend each theory,
Philosophically, the concept of essentialism originated in the work of Plato, in the 4th century B.C. He argued that universal truths formed the basis of human life, and that the phenomena of the natural world were simply a finite number of fixed, unchanging forms, or essences. The crucial properties of essences were constancy and discontinuity. "That is, an essence does not change and is categorically different from other essences"1. In social sciences today, essentialism implies a belief that certain behaviors are natural, inevitable and biologically determined, and it usually refers to a biological basis of sexual behaviors.
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than on separate individuals. Regime promotes a politics of status maintenance for already existing status groups, as Esping-Anderson (1990) puts it - 'for those who already have'. Men are treated as normal wage earners, highly skilled, continuously employed, husbands and the head of the household while women are perceived to be wives and mothers. Despite more then a hundred years of reform, social insurance has remained the 'core institutional principle of the German welfare state' (Alber, 1988). This represents the 'third way' of providing social security between the liberal, market orientated, residual type of income maintenance and the egalitarian, universal, redistributive, citizenship orientated system Schmidt (1988).
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Music has constantly been used as a medium in the spread of gender stereotypes through misogynistic lyrics, sexism as well as the objectification of women. Despite the active involvement of females in American music since its early commercial years, they
The development of a patriarch in structuring the economic, social and political systems of America allows the white supremacy to racially and sexually oppress women in a legitimate way at the same time (Adams & Fuller, 2006, p.942). Music has always been used as a vehicle of human expression as society evolves. The Sapphire and Jezebel images which evolve into the concept of "bitch" and "ho" are embedded into the lyrics of music (Adams & Fuller, 2006, p.945). A large proportion of youths listen to the hip hop and the rock genre due to existence of popular artistes like Pitbull, whose song "I know you want me" which peaked the U.S.
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Postponed parenthood: A modern phenomenon. Childbearing later in life is a growing phenomenon in modern society. 25-35 years of age is considered the optimal age of women to begin childbearing (Canadian Institute for Health Information, 201
This translates to a better life for the mother, children, and family. It is clear that delayed parenthood brings both significant advantages and disadvantages. In this report, I will be discussing the following: I. Physical health risks and/or benefits to the A. Mother, B. Father, and C. Child (from infancy to adulthood). II. Changes due to a shift in normative events' timing, including A. Psychological impact on the mother, father, child, and family; B. Implications for the family; and, subsequently, C.
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Freud and de Beauvoir on gender difference. Freud (albeit indirectly) and de Beauvoirs works show that it is not so much the biological framework of our bodies as the power of society itself that is inescapable.
When detailing the development of girls, Freud initially seems to be suggesting that girls are inferior not merely because of their biological makeup but because of society. He tells us to be wary "of underestimating the influence of social customs, which similarly force women into passive situations" (Freud, 144). However, as his argument proceeds, this is a claim that becomes shrouded in ambivalence as Freud's claims seem to leave little room for societal explanation for the development of femininity. For Freud, passivity and aggressivity are the defining traits of each gender.
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The sex differences can be referred to as the feelings that as child is born with, this is often referred to as the child's nature. It is common nowadays to hear a parent saying "it's in my child's nature", meaning that they were born a certain way. The opposite of this therefore, is gender. This is the experiences that a child goes through in their lives, such as their upbringing and is known as the child's nurture. It is possible to nurture a child, for example, with their self esteem.
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Problematic Discourses: Sexual Violence and Women Press Correspondents. First, the pervasiveness of patriarchy within journalism will be identified before assessing its dual implications for newsroom culture and the medias representation of women. This
This will be followed by a brief explanation and justification of the methods used, before the teasing out of the frames, representations and discourses within the respective articles. To claim the existence of patriarchy within journalism is to open a metaphorical can of worms about whether the perception of male hegemony is merely the result of scholars a priori establishing that 'gender matters' (Steiner 2005, p.42). While there has been a dramatic increase in the number of women securing jobs in journalism, the fact remains however, that white Western men dominate global newsrooms as producers, owners and subjects (Crouteau and Hoynes 1992).
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Consider the medias preoccupation with disciplining the way in which women and men perform gender through a discussion of any of the following themes: size 0; obesity; 6-pack; cosmetic surgery.
But these examples are nothing compared to the aesthetic world which we have become obsessed with. Magazines, celebrities and television seem to be dictating how we should look - what should we wear, how we should have our hair, what weight should we be aiming for - which is nothing new, but surprisingly more effective. The intention of this essay is to examine the media's preoccupation with weight gain (Obesity) and loss (Size 0) - while being two very different contemporary problems both dealing with body mass - have shocked and changed people (specifically women) the world over.
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Variation in one culture over time- the key discipline involved here is history and in particular both social and economic history. The central Marxist tenent that in a sense 'gender' as a hierarchy of social value is a product of capitalism. It is concerned with the changes brought about by capitalism in the economic and social role of women and men. Variation in one culture at one point in time-The idea that there is sharp biological demarcation of males from females with an associated and automatic segregation of the behaviour patterns has come into question.
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In the latest WB report (2010) the chart on poverty and inequality revealed that gender inequality (MDG3) and poverty alleviation (MDG 5) are still below the target line. Although, a reduction in poverty was recorded in China and some other parts of Asia but in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia poverty is still below the target line. In the area of universal primary education (MDG 2) the report stated that target is being met, with over 90 percent of primary age children enrolled with increase among girls; this is said to be a step into shrinking the gender gap in education.
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I used to play sports with girls and boys because during school days we used to have mini class on sports where all girls and boys should play together any kind of sports assigned by the teacher. The sports sometimes became exclusive to one gender for example basketball. None of the girls could defeat the boys since they go so wild and crazy about wining and taking the ball from us. There were few girls who were tall and we all girls could depend on those few of them.
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To what extent are gender differences socially constructed? To what extent are gender differences socially constructed
this means individuals are taught the behaviour that is expected of males and females within their society. "These processes create systems of ideas and practises about gender that vary across time and space. They also create gender divisions of labour, allocating women and men to different activities and responsibilities." Bilton, Bonnett, Jones, Lawson, Skinner, Stanworth and Webster (2002) Pg 132. Many studies have shown that gender roles can differ considerably due to the culture of that society. This illustrates "whatever the biological differences between males and females, it is the culture of the society which exerts most influence in the creation of masculine and feminine behaviour."
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Social sciences have been researching this subject for years now. A lot of them agree that we live a life that is structured by the social world. They feel that gender roles are forces by us and the challenge us to think about anything without relating it to gender (Connell, 2009). Of course you cannot deny that there are biological differences between men and women, but, according to the sciences, that does not automatically explain the differences in gender roles and the inequalities that we are dealing with nowadays. We are creating those roles ourselves and they are just an illusion.
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Media culture studies: looking at the affects of advertising aimed at men and masculinity - identity products. The adverts for Chanel and Dolce & Gabbana are both ultimately appealing to a male audience.
What we are faced with here is a signification process whereby a certain commodity is made the expression of a certain content (the lifestyle and values)." (1985, 73). Man has found himself trapped in the glorified position he has placed himself in, having the need to follow the life style built by a system of values developed by advertising. This is a man made from which he consumes, not which he is naturally but superficially. A lot of pressure is caused by the consumer ideals on both men and women.
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And second, feminist Christology must provide images for the liberation of women by way of the liberation of Jesus from oppressive and distorted interpretations."4 It is these two objectives which will be used in this essay to assess the success of Feminist Christology in achieving its stated aims. The first objective of Feminist Christology, articulating that traditional male orientated Christology essentially subjugates women, will now be assessed. The fundamental question which frames this issue is whether a male saviour can redeem women, Rosemary Radford Ruether asks "Can a Male Saviour Save Women?"5 While Ruether acknowledges that women have never been
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A person's gender role encloses many different elements including the way of clothing, styling etc. and the differences in these roles have always continued over time (Christie-Mizell, 2006). The division of the roles has been, historically, based on males and females but different gender roles have emerged overtime as well. Changing of gender roles has been a quite continuous process. Males and females trying to avoid their personal strengths of being a specific sex have changed. Research followed in Western countries have shown that the females have become lot more vulnerable and hollow in their approach towards their main role of bearing child and work domestically.
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Phyllis Schlafly is clearly someone who rejects the idea that American women are oppressed and mistreated. Most people will have the opposite opinion but the essays in her book Feminist Fantasies explains clearly why she feels the way she does.
However, the ERA proved to be a controversial topic concerning women's rights. Some feminists such as the National Consumers League's Florence Kelly felt that this amendment will undermine legislations protecting female workers. They believed that it will threaten the minimum hours and other protective legislations that were fought for previously in the late 19th century and early 20th century. (Tobias: 134) The amendment, however, was gaining momentum after the 1940 Republican platform endorsed the ERA and the Democratic Party endorsed it four years later. Phyllis Schlafly's remarkable anti-ERA campaign, many years later, managed to expostulate many of the supporters and helped rid of the ERA.
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