- Join over 1.2 million students every month
- Accelerate your learning by 29%
- Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
University Degree: Gender Studies
Meet our team of inspirational teachers
DD100. TMA01. What can social sciences tell us about the formation of identities? How do race(TM) and ethnicity(TM) impact on the formation of identities?
or masculinity through their choice of toys (cars and trucks for boys, dollies and prams for girls; home economic classes for girls and manual craft technology classes for boys) but this is influenced by the parents and or institutions making that choice available to be offered. Our identity may change with time and circumstances as we grow older we begin to understand the complexities of who we are. We use our identity to communicate how we see ourselves to others.
- Word count: 1517
Define the following concepts: race, ethnicity and racism. Explain why it is still important to study these concepts in the sociology of sport
Ian MacDonald (2002) tells of how many authors, put 'race' in inverted commas to alert the reader that they are referring to the 'idea of race', rather than claiming that the term has any objective biological validity. 'Race' is made meaningful within society via the ways in which we imagine it to exist, and subsequently organize our lives and identities around it Cambridge (2003) defines ethnicity as "of a national or racial group of people "whilst Giddens (2006) definition "refers to the cultural practices and outlooks of a given community of people that set them apart from others.
- Word count: 978
Examine the ways in which gender has an impact upon developing a sense of identity. Children learn about gender-specific behaviors from adults in the family
There are many environmental influences that can help understand a person's identity, it usually starts at a young age and then is changed as we get older. Family and friends perception of masculinity and femininity may affect the child at a young age and eventually have an effect on the child's opinions and views in the future. For example the male figure in the family usually the father will speak differently to his mixed gender children for example a father with his son will be more aggressive and assertive then he is with his daughters because he sees his son as tough and in control and his daughter gentle and passive.
- Word count: 1634
These stereotypes that decide how each gender should behave and look are passed on mainly through the influence of the child's parents. These parents will reinforce the child for the 'normal behaviour', stopping them from participating in an activity that doesn't fit their category. These categories and aspects of stereotypes are reinforced by society, in order to make people conform a certain way. Common stereotypes for the male insist on them being tough, unemotional and masculine. They must be interested in typical 'lad' activities, such as football, as well as dressing in a certain way - they are expected to support women and children when they get older.
- Word count: 2088
Female authors have often expressed despair over their fates at the hands of society. Kate Chopin, in particular, wrote of the imprisoned feelings that can result from being born the fairer gender. There is a resonant theme in many of Chopin's stories that delve into this issue. She approaches this topic without judgment, and was often the subject of criticism for this. Her works were not even fully appreciated until after her death, at which time they were revisited with more of an open mind. She is known for her unconventional and unabashed female characters.
- Word count: 3034
Personal ads, as a source material, were been first used in the late 70s when Cameron, Oskamp and Sparks made a research for their article "Courtship American style: Newspaper ads. (Cameron et al., 1977). In 1998, Hatala, Baak and Parmenter provided a rationale for why personal ads can be used as research data. They suggested that researching personal ads has the following advantages. Firstly, they are high in external validity, meaning that participants are na�ve and they haven't placed themselves in the psychological state of taking part in a psychological study.
- Word count: 1866
Religion has been a major influence on civilization throughout history and has contributed to these traditional sex role stereotypes. Through the process of observation, imitation and reinforcement as described by Bandura's social learning theory, individuals internalise these societal norms through the influence of role models and persistent messages in religion, government legislation, media, pop culture and the education system. In order for the unhealthy habits and attitudes to discontinue, structural and ideological change must occur at each of these points so that the wellbeing of society can be improved and equity achieved. The inequitable social construction of sex roles and stereotypes affects the wellbeing of society as a whole as well as the individuals within it, making it a problem of extreme importance.
- Word count: 3855
How has identity been theorized as an effect of performance? Discuss with specific reference to gender.
Cooley used the term 'reflective self' because our identity is in a way a mirror image of what others think of us. Goffman states that individuals go one step further in acting out these traits in a way to portray themselves in a certain light to their audience. For Goffman 'performing' social roles was meant in the literal sense, we as human beings incorporate our everyday lives in to a huge on stage performance, switching out status' between front stage and back stage.
- Word count: 1276
1000 word analysis on contemporary representations of gender referring to two contrasting texts. The Full Monty and Bridget Jones
Both the Full Monty and Bridget Jones' Diary show how the perception of gender roles has changed over time. Both demonstrate how in today's modern society females are gaining attributes that were usually associated with the male gender and vice versa. For example the Full Monty explores the female gaze - while it is usually assumed that males lust after the female body. Typical working class labourers are required to perform a strip show and the main protagonists are a father and his son, whereas in the 20th century, fathers were not really promoted in films as the dominant parents to a child, nurturing being seen as more of a female attribute.
- Word count: 1152
Therefore the apparent issue in contention, would seem to be determinant upon one's sexual identity in relation to what constitutes acceptable parental role models, together with the institutional enforcement of traditional hegemonic norms and values. For gender theorist's homosexual and lesbian sexual identities are entrenched in essentialism (De Cecco and Parker, 1995), for essentialism is the belief that sexuality and/or gender are determined by features of an individual's biology or psychology. Whilst in the opposing corner social constructionists rejected these essentialist theories, on the grounds that the homo/hetero and male/female distinctions are themselves cultural constructs subject to constant changes, and that lesbians and homosexuals were the result of historical, cultural and political milieu (Kitzinger, 1987).
- Word count: 2512
First is infantile sexuality, and how as infants we gain our sexuality on our own. When we are babies we use thumb sucking to pleasure our self, replacing the nipple. Being young, we do not realize the right and wrong of public sexuality. In the second step, latency, we start learning right and wrong. Our mouth is no longer a place for pleasure, and we move on to other things like potty training. Sexuality is mainly constructed in our third and fourth year of our life. Finally, puberty reaches us and we acknowledge our sexuality.
- Word count: 1118
Prochaska originated the Transtheoretical model. His father died of alcoholism and depression and he also distrusted psychotherapy. At that time in 1975, there were over 130 different systems of psychotherapy. Dr. Prochaska analysed 18 of them and produced the Transtheoretical model. He conducted numerous case studies to produce processes of change and stages of change. (Prochaska & DiClemente 1983; Prochaska et al. 1992; Prochaska & Velicer 1997) The Stages of Change One of the key element of the Transtheoretical model is the stages of change.
- Word count: 2472
the Mannish Lesbian as a Figure The figure of the mannish lesbian, then, grew out of the context of passionate female "friendships" and Boston marriages. She was a new breed, a woman who not only had same-sex relationships but could also be typified in other ways. The concept of same-sex desire in women was now limited to women who looked, dressed, and acted in a specific manner. The defining characteristic of the mannish lesbian was a distinct distaste for and rejection of traditional female gender roles-especially marriage and motherhood-in exchange for an espousal of "masculine" features.
- Word count: 4763
While dim-sighted film historian Vito Russo, author of The Celluloid Closet (Harper & Row Publishers, New York, 1981), would have you believe that "Hollywood has packed the screen with limp-wristed victims, suicides, sad-sacks, bitchy queens, psychos, hairdressers, fey fashion designers, perverts and sex maniacs, stereotypes who all have nothing to do with real gay people"1 anyone who understands film history would appreciate and recognise the various stereotypes tenderly portrayed by Franklin Pangborn, Edward Everett Horton, Sidney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre and even Mercedes McCambridge or for even more positive representation of 'real' homosexuals one could look to Montgomery Clift in Red River (Howard Hawks 1948)
- Word count: 2341
How have gender roles in Japanese theatre influenced and affected societal view on homosexuality and masculinity?
He informs that "in the context of performance, the production of the same no play by an all-female cast as opposed to an all-male one, would not be significantly different or send out to the audiences significantly different messages" (Powell 2005). Then for the sake of argument can it be said that the views that Japanese society have held towards male masculinity, homosexuality and cross-dressing since the fourteenth century stemmed from the subversion of gender roles in their national forms of theatre? In the form of kabuki the male actor who specialises in female roles is known as the onnagata.
- Word count: 1791
Duncan et al. (1993) studied 126 newscasts from ESPN's SportsCenter and CNN's Sports Tonight (both American sport news programs) and it was shown that only 5% of airtime was allocated to women's sport. In addition to this they also found that the stories about women tended to concentrate on physically revealing shots of women. This is consistent with Tuggle (1997), whose analysis included the 1995 U.S. Open tennis tournament, yet it was also shown that the little airtime was usually pushed to the end of the program after the men's more detailed stories.
- Word count: 1469
Masculinity has now come to signify an adoption of a certain form of gender and sexual identity in a post modern society. Claims of a crisis of masculinity can affect different men in varying ways in today's contemporary society; one has to questions whether such assumptions are based solely on men's experiences as a group of social actors, in responses the structural changes occurring within social institutions or whether such notions of a crisis relates to the predicament that men find themselves in a more personal levels, are men experiencing a "crisis from without, or a crisis from within" (Edwards, 2006: 4).
- Word count: 2557
Edley and Wetherell (1995) argue that in most cultures in modern society there are characteristics that exemplify a set of themes which relate to men and masculinities. These images of masculinities represent below can be said to reinforce common ideals about what it is meant to be a 'real' man. I have decided to deconstruct two texts which provide different interpretations about the meaning of masculinities. One being the fictional characters of James Bond, assisted by an image of Daniel Craig and the other showing a man in a posture that shows him working.
- Word count: 1758
It follows that any such bias in language has direct implications for equal opportunities and treatment. This is not to say that Mills' view is that of all women. The dominant ideology of the English language, held by both males and females, is that male and maleness are the norm. As example we can consider the riddle, 'A doctor and his son were both in a car accident. The father was killed, and the son was rushed to the hospital, where he needed an emergency operation to save his life. The surgeon examined the boy before the operation and said, "I can't operate on this child.
- Word count: 2011
When we hear the word gender we automatically think male and female which is correct, but what does identity involve? Identity is "Who we are?" as individuals, it provides us with the link between individuals and society, its known that we form our own identities when we are young through relationships we encounter and how society involves us as a person. As we can form our own identities we can fix them or change them in later life, this can be done by either self preservation or psychological help.
- Word count: 1737
According to this theory, men are more promiscuous than women because nature has given them the opportunity to father countless offspring (millions of sperm). Therefore, their instincts drive them to have as many partners as possible, thereby ensuring that their genetic configuration will be successful in the following generation (Wilson, 1975a, p.314). Women, on the other hand, again because of biological imperatives (finite number of possible children), are more selective of partners. Although not monogamous, their biological imperative drives them to select the best possible mating partner.
- Word count: 1847
The National Curriculum The National Curriculum was introduced in 1988 by the Conservative Government as part of the Education Reform Act. The National Curriculum is a blueprint used by schools to ensure that teaching standards are universally consistent. The National Curriculum had three underlying principles, one of them being entitlement and equality. Entitlement and equality is to provide and ensure that every child between the ages of three and sixteen can be taught the contents of the National Curriculum and also ensure that every pupil experiences the different types of study that are included in the National Curriculum.
- Word count: 2377
SEXISM Sexism refers to prejudice and discrimination against a person because of their gender (Deaux, Dane & Wrightsman (1993). Sexism incorporates attitudes and actions that treat one group as subordinate to the other. In general sexism is more prominent by males with prejudices towards women. In the past there has been a widespread belief that men are more competent and independent than women, whilst women are often seen as warmer and more expressive compared to men. Certain occupations often become labelled as 'women's work' and as a result are valued less.
- Word count: 1690
Radical feminist Firestone (1970) held that it was the enormous pressure on a woman to gain fulfilment through motherhood, and only through motherhood in a strong traditional sense and setting, that placed women in a position where they were greatly dependent on a male to provide financial support. Thus effective under the control and subject to the man. They stated that the most basic and first form of oppression was that of the patriarchal society, that it was a given that man would have control over women.
- Word count: 1664
A number of managers saw that this line of questioning was indicative of a caring attitude towards their employees, but to the majority of managers it was a simple form of risk assessment to determine if the woman would be a reliable member of their workforce. The option of parenting being a joint responsibility, as opposed to solely the women's task, was not one that was taken into consideration by the managers surveyed. This attitude also explains why fewer women are promoted to a more senior position.
- Word count: 1681