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University Degree: Religion in Society

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  • Peer Reviewed essays 1
  1. Assess the future relevance of liberal Protestant theological traditions in the context of World Christianity.

    Many denominations who would not identify with liberal protestant theology cultivate this image of God, either as a result of, or at least placing their adherents in a position to appreciate and be influenced by, liberal protestant theology. Indeed, writing more than a century ago, Henry Drummond wrote that "The idea of an immanent God, which is the God of evolution, is infinitely grander than the occasional wonder-worker who is the God of an old theology."4 While this attitude contributed to opening liberal Protestantism to attacks as a new religion, distinct from Christianity, based upon Naturalism, the ease with which such a position bridged the gap between the natural and the supernatural is vital to modern Christianity.

    • Word count: 3138
  2. Free essay

    Elucidate the methods by which Christendom became World Christianity

    The second is that it was a form of cultural hegemony. Christendom did contain non-Christians. This will become pertinent when discussing modern ideas of Christendom. The concept of Christendom still exists today (see conclusion). The Christendom model of conceptualizing the international scope of the Christian faith is rooted in geopolitical and economic power. They trace this practice back to the seventeenth-century principle of cuius regio, eius religio, literally, "whose the region, his the religion."5 Henry VIII, making himself the first absoloute monarch, freeing himself of Rome's influence is a singular example of this.

    • Word count: 3462
  3. Quebec imigration analysis

    Nous terminerons notre tour d'horizon de la probl�matique avec le nouveau projet de loi propos� par la Parti Qu�b�cois. 1. L'immigration au Qu�bec 1.1 Historique de l'immigration au Qu�bec Depuis les d�buts de la colonisation, le Canada a continuellement ouvert ses portes aux nombreux immigrants. Les fluctuations migratoires, quant � elles, ont subi de constants changements au fil des ans. Suite aux premi�res vagues migratoires (provenant essentiellement d'Europe) qu'a connues le Qu�bec au courant du XIXe si�cle et au tournant du XXe si�cle, un nouveau mouvement vers l'Am�rique s'est engendr� apr�s la Seconde Guerre mondiale.

    • Word count: 4574
  4. Ethical and Legal Aspects of Health and Social Care.

    Involuntary euthanasia is when the person who dies chooses life and is killed anyway. This is usually classed as murder, it could be said the killing was for the benefit of the person. Indirect euthanasia: this means providing treatment that has a side effect of speeding up the patients death this is usually used to reduce pain. As the intention is not to kill but to reduce pain this is seen as morally right. (-Principle of double effect) Assisted suicide: this usually refers to cases where the person who is going to die needs help to kill themselves, this can be as easy as putting drugs in the persons reach.

    • Word count: 3325
  5. To what extent are individual soldiers morally responsible for the protection of civilians during wartime?

    These two cases also bring up another question, that of whether soldiers should have the same obligations towards foreign civilians as towards their own. I will argue that they should do, as morality cannot distinguish between people based on arbitrary characteristics such as race or nationality. I will then argue that it is not enough for a soldier to simply not aim at civilian deaths, they must also make some effort to lessen the foreseeable effects of their actions. Soldiers, like everybody else, have a moral responsibility not just to deal with the intended consequences of their actions, but also the foreseeable ones.

    • Word count: 5055
  6. The essay will attempt to evaluate and assess how the various theoretical perspectives within sociology have contributed to our understanding of the deviant, individual act of 'suicide'. This will be achieved by defining and evaluating 'functionalism',

    Various methodological approaches have been used to critically examine the phenomenon of 'suicide'. From a 'classical' approach, Functionalism, a structural consensus perspective, emerged from the works of Emile Durkheim (1897), a French sociologist who viewed society as existing independently of individuals. Although functionalism views individuals as naturally selfish, social integration is achieved by making individuals aware of their social bonds to others. Social cohesion is obtained through facilitation of institutions such as family, religion and law and order, which are based on common goals, shared values and beliefs.

    • Word count: 3262
  7. Explain why it is central to Kant's moral philosophy that we treat people, including ourselves, never as means but always as ends?

    The contribution of the second formulation to decisions about moral actions will be considered as well as contradictions within the imperative. Kant's first formulation of the Categorical Imperative sets out that moral actions are those which can be equally applied to all rational beings, as he illustrates in the following way: 'act only on those maxims that you can at the same time will as universal laws'. The second formulation, or the Formula of Humanity, has greater implications in terms of the question posed.

    • Word count: 3602
  8. Should we strive to save a foetus's life once the carrying mother is brain-dead? Justify your answer.

    Switching off the ventilator would be perfectly acceptable since a person cannot be killed twice. What we must further discuss is whether it would be right to switch off the ventilator, allowing the foetus inside Sarah to die. The main problem is the geographical location and environment. If the foetus was located a few inches away having emptied its lungs of fluid and severed the connection with its mother, there would be a legal (and moral) obligation to treat it in the hope of actively prolonging its life, rather than ending it. Wasserstorm describes four possible viewpoints people will regard foetuses by.4 The first example is that the foetus has its own unique moral category, which is close, but not identical to that of a typical adult.

    • Word count: 4515
  9. Adolescent Suicide and What Everyone Should Know.

    I'm sure that his parents, teachers and friends had no idea because it never would have crossed their mind. This shows that they did not know enough about the situation because they were not looking for it, because they thought that it would never even be a possibility. The main focus of this paper will be to alert awareness in its readers and to show them that this can, and may happen at some point in their lives, and to be aware of the potentials of suicide because knowing may help save lives. Some basic facts about adolescent and teen suicide is necessary to see how severe the problem is.

    • Word count: 3744
  10. Samuel Taylor Coleridge - Critically evaluate the 'life approach' in regards to moral status.

    Some individuals have argued that organs can have moral status when you recognize that they have a good of their own. However when you harm an individual organ of an organism you would not say the organ has been wronged but that the individual as a whole has been. Also no one would sensibly doubt that it is right to remove an organ to benefit the whole organism, for example removing the tonsils to improve the overall health. We can ask the question here, what does it mean to be and take to be an organism?

    • Word count: 3157
  11. To what extent, if any, do feminist ethics improve upon traditional ethical theories?

    'abstractions are beyond a women's grasp'5 and 'the fundamental fault of the female character is that it has no sense of justice'.6 Traditional moral theories variously require rational, autonomous agents, the universalisation of principles with the aim of ensuring their applicability to any individual faced with a similar choice or an analysis of absolute utilities. Rawls' 'veil of ignorance' demands that individuals abstract themselves from their own circumstances and act on the basis of impartial justice alone. The influence of 'female' emotion was not appropriate for such action.

    • Word count: 3341
  12. Ethnography - A Christian Youth Group

    Every weekend she also makes time to regularly attend "youth group" (Christian Youth Organization or CYO). Here she has the opportunity to "hang out" for hours and share in different activities with her peers. Amanda has been taking part in "youth group" for over three years. Her participation began out of curiosity and somewhat influenced by her parents will to keep her in a structured and safe environment during off-school hours. However, her continued involvement throughout the years has been of her own decision. Amanda Q. lives in a lovely house, in a white middle-class suburban neighborhood with her mother, father and brother.

    • Word count: 7622
  13. The entry sets out five individually necessary conditions for anyone to be a candidate for legalised voluntary euthanasia (or, in some usages, physician-assisted suicide), outlines the moral case advanced by those in favour

    -- in the context of considering the claim that permitting voluntary euthanasia will lead via a slippery slope to permitting non-voluntary euthanasia. Nothing will be said here about involuntary euthanasia, where a competent person's life is brought to an end despite an explicit expression of opposition to euthanasia, beyond saying that, no matter how honourable the perpetrator's motive, such a death is, and ought to be, unlawful. Debate about the morality and legality of voluntary euthanasia is, for the most part, a phenomenon of the second half of the twentieth century.

    • Word count: 6940
  14. The Political Implications of Polygamy in the Utah Territory and the Secular Reasons the Mormon Church Abandoned Plural Marriage

    The Latter-day Saint movement originated with the founder and beloved prophet of the Mormons, Joseph Smith, Jr. He was born on December 23, 1805 in Sharon, Vermont but soon moved with his family to Palmyra, New York. Smith grew up during the Second Great Awakening, a period of intense religious fervor in the United States (?Joseph Smith? n.pag.). According to Smith in the History of the Church, in the spring of 1820 he went into the woods near his home in New York to pray.

    • Word count: 3014

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Examine the definition of moral panic and then go on to discuss an example in order to demonstrate its cycle and characteristics.

    "In conclusion, moral panics are not a new phenomenon; they tend to arise in periods of social upheaval and change. The path of a panic can take one of two directions; it can quickly die down and is more or less forgotten to a great degree or can have more serious and lasting implications such as new legislation and changes in social policy. Society plays their part, encouraged by the press - people who are in the midst of a moral panic clamour for any available news and basically believe anything they are told. Moral panics feed off guilt that is spread by contagion to make people feel more comfortable by blaming another group for their deviances."

  • Evaluate Durkheim's claim that interpersonal forces control human behaviour. Illustrate your answer with reference to either his study of suicide or religion.

    "Durkheim's theory has some advantages over other theories on the role of interpersonal forces controlling human behaviour, as Suicide was the first systematic application of the sociological method to a social phenomenon. While attacked by interpretists for the unreliability of official statistics on suicide, few have substantially attacked his theoretical conclusions. Hence, Durkheim's work provides a valuable tool to the better understanding of the mechanisms, both personal and societal, behind human behaviour."

  • Assess the future relevance of liberal Protestant theological traditions in the context of World Christianity.

    "In conclusion, liberal Protestantism has probably reached the extent of its influence in the West as discrete denomination. It is beset by neo-orthodox critics and floundering under its automatic connection to liberal politics. However, many of its beliefs remain attractive to modern Christians and have been absorbed into other denominations of Christianity. As the politics and socioeconomic conditions in Africa and Asia continue to improve, it is possible, even likely that the social/cultural factor examined previously will make liberal Christianity in some form more attractive in these areas. To answer the title question, the future relevance of liberal Christianity will be significant if subtle, if it manages to remake itself into a cohesive theological entity and divide itself from politics. Otherwise it will play an increasingly insignificant role on the world stage. Bibliogaphy Sanneh, Lamin., Whose religion is Christianity?: the gospel beyond the West (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, September 2003) page 22. McGrath, Alistair., Christian Theology (Blackwell Publishing 2007) Page 82"

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