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University Degree: Religion in Society

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  1. Rastafarianism is a religious and social movement that was created in Jamaica in 1930. For the Jamaicans who live in poverty and struggle for human rights and freedom from oppression, the movement of Rastafarianism is both a religion and a way of life.

    Johnson-Hill in his 1995 sociological study of the movement2. Fundamentally, the movement began with the teachings of Jamaican Black nationalist, and founder of the religion, Marcus Mosiah Garvey, born in 1887, who had said in the 1920s, ""Look to Africa when a black king shall be crowned, for the day of deliverance is at hand"3, which Rastafarians then took as an insight about the crowing of, Haile Selassie. In the 1930's, Garvey then spoke of a message of Black self-empowerment and started the, "Back to Africa" movement. He had conveyed the philosophical ideologies that eventually grew into the Rastafarian movement.

    • Word count: 2010
  2. Can we Predict Moral Behaviour? It is Kohlberg's stage theory of moral development which is most It is Kohlberg's stage theory of moral development which is most

    Later research seemed to confirm this conclusion (Deutscher, 1966, Festinger, 1964). Only recently has there been a trend toward a more optimistic outlook about the relevance of attitude research for behaviour in general and for moral behaviour in particular. It has been suggested that moral behaviour does not always match the level of moral reasoning assessed by the stages of moral development. Kohlbergs scale is concerned with moral thinking, not moral action. Consequently, we would not expect perfect correlations between moral judgement and moral action.

    • Word count: 2411
  3. "A Dignified Death"

    This is also perhaps reflected in the subjects of the story itself, two GP's, I feel that this story is particularly suited to the readership of the Guardian as it's high concentration of professional readers will no doubt include a great deal of medical staff, this ensures that the readers can relate to the story and place themselves easily in the position of the writer, this I feel will have a greater effect on the readers of the guardian than it would with perhaps a tabloid newspaper.

    • Word count: 1203
  4. What exactly is 'cultural relativism' in metaethics? Is cultural relativism true? Can cultural relativists uphold the principles of cultural tolerance? Cultural relativism is a view in metaethics regarding the moral codes

    Metaethics theorises about normative ethical questions which focus on what is morally correct and how we should act. Metaethical theory, therefore, is "concerned with the nature of moral concepts and judgments" . Cultural relativism is one of a number of prominent theories within metaethics and deals with the idea that "moral utterances are truth-apt " and that the truth of each statement or social assertion is decided upon by the traditions, practices and beliefs held by a society. To further understand this concept consider this; the statement that 'rape is not wrong' would be true if a majority of a community significantly approved of rape, which can be examined empirically.

    • Word count: 2106
  5. In The Dead Poet's Society, Neil Perry commits suicide and there are two people who may be responsible for it. The pain or ideas that this one person put into Neil's head drove him to commit suicide

    Perry had Neil's life completely planned out for him. He did not let Neil make up his own mind on what he wanted to do with his future. He would not even listen to what his son had to say. He completely ignored him, yet expected him to be the perfect son, neglecting to see that he was making Neil miserable. Mr. Perry did not take the time to talk to his son, to learn about him and to encourage him to follow his dream like any parent should do.

    • Word count: 600
  6. Synoptic. When posed with a question about life, we must first ask ourselves what life is.

    We undertake an act with a lower aim in order to fulfil a higher aim. And in saying that, all things we under take are done in order to achieve the aim above all others that is "happiness". Aquinas's development on this theory led to the belief that every human being wanted what is good, since every person has a human nature, created by God. This is an "ideal" human nature to which each person can be true or of which they can fall short. All our moral acts are central in relation to this human nature.

    • Word count: 2732
  7. Ethical and Legal Aspects of Health and Social Care.

    Involuntary euthanasia is when the person who dies chooses life and is killed anyway. This is usually classed as murder, it could be said the killing was for the benefit of the person. Indirect euthanasia: this means providing treatment that has a side effect of speeding up the patients death this is usually used to reduce pain. As the intention is not to kill but to reduce pain this is seen as morally right. (-Principle of double effect) Assisted suicide: this usually refers to cases where the person who is going to die needs help to kill themselves, this can be as easy as putting drugs in the persons reach.

    • Word count: 3325
  8. "Ethical theories are of no help when discussing matters of sex and relationships." Discuss

    Sex has the ability to be damaging, not only in personal matters but also to society. With acceptance boundaries altering our perception of sex has changed. There are new issues that need to be considered with sexuality becoming more diverse. We need to explore cohabitation, contraception, casual sex, abortion, cyber-sex, rape, marriage, divorce, homosexuality and masturbation, in order to understand which direction we need to take with sexual ethics. Ethical theories can be used to direct sexuality on the right course.

    • Word count: 2096
  9. Make some brief notes on what social scientists mean by the term moral panic

    Newspapers daily warn us of 'threats'. Sensationalism leading to hysteria among the public. (Word count 157) Question Part (b) Describe in your own words how the deviancy amplifications spiral operates to produce a 'moral panic'. Illustrate with two examples. According to Cohen, society is regularly subjected to moral panics. Moral panics are seen as an occurrence incited by a person or a group of people which can/has been presented to society in a stereotypical manner by the media. We witness moral panics almost every time we pickup a newspaper or turn on the TV. How do these occurrences turn into moral panic?

    • Word count: 997
  10. Church Growth and Evangelism in a Postmodern Context

    We must become creative in our evangelism if we wish to reach this culture. It is essential to be up to date technologically and even socially. A pastor who falls behind in the social atmosphere around him will lose touch with his or her people. If we are to reach these people as individuals, the pastor cannot be expected to "do all the work." "A clerical ministry will not penetrate this age, but the priesthood of all believers can" (Maddix, lecture).

    • Word count: 2441
  11. The good sides of patriotism.

    Also he thinks that patriotism is the exclusive desire for the well being of one's own people (103). It breaks down the moral principles by requiring special duties toward our own citizens. Moreover, Tolstoy argues that patriotism is incompatible with the fundamental nature of morality and so it must be condemned by any person who aspires to live a moral life (104). Secondly, today leaders and rulers use it to attain their ambitions. Tolstoy implies that patriotism is produced by the public relation efforts of the government and those who benefit from it (104).

    • Word count: 1285
  12. To what extent are individual soldiers morally responsible for the protection of civilians during wartime?

    These two cases also bring up another question, that of whether soldiers should have the same obligations towards foreign civilians as towards their own. I will argue that they should do, as morality cannot distinguish between people based on arbitrary characteristics such as race or nationality. I will then argue that it is not enough for a soldier to simply not aim at civilian deaths, they must also make some effort to lessen the foreseeable effects of their actions. Soldiers, like everybody else, have a moral responsibility not just to deal with the intended consequences of their actions, but also the foreseeable ones.

    • Word count: 5055
  13. Bioethics - Euthanasia

    Voluntary euthanasia is said to occur when a patient's life is ended at his or her request. Non-voluntary euthanasia refers to terminating a patient's life that is not able to give consent, for example a patient with severe life threatening brain damage. If a patient's life is terminated against his or her will, then it is said to be involuntary euthanasia, which also refers to murder (Kerridge, Lowe and McPhee, 1998). The terms active and passive euthanasia are somehow controversial. Active euthanasia is brought about when a patient receives a lethal treatment, which leads directly to his or her death.

    • Word count: 2493
  14. Describe some of the issues that are debated in meta-ethics

    Philosophers have tried to define what our moral language actually means. They discussed whether when we talk about 'right' or 'wrong', are we using these words in the same way? The reason behind this problem is that we use these words frequently in daily life and therefore you cannot always decipher whether you are using such words in the right context. There are non-moral uses of words (finding the 'right' pair of shoes for a party) and moral uses (it is 'wrong' to murder someone).

    • Word count: 971
  15. What is morality, and within morality what can be considered fact or merely an opinion.

    Morality can be described in two ways; either to label Morality using a 'descriptive definition', or using a 'normative definition'. The argument over which description should be considered the intellectual paradigm is as yet unresolved, and gives us an indication of the arguments that will put forward on the same basis' to question whether there are moral facts. 'Descriptive Morality' refers to the different interpretations of what morality is by each society. In this case morality is a changing concept; i.e.

    • Word count: 1708
  16. Could moral relativism be true?

    Using language such as "heresy", "vulgar" and "unregenerate" in the first paragraph of his commentary (p34), seems to set this scornful tone beyond all doubt. So why then should moral relativism arouse such passionate opposition, based as it is on an attempt to prevent elitist and discriminatory interference in foreign cultures? Interference which led, for example, to the cultural re-education of North American Indian children after the massacre of the "battle" of Wounded Knee, or indeed to Aid to African nations, to combat the modern scourge of aids, being based upon Christian moral values such as sexual abstinence.

    • Word count: 2255
  17. The essay will attempt to evaluate and assess how the various theoretical perspectives within sociology have contributed to our understanding of the deviant, individual act of 'suicide'. This will be achieved by defining and evaluating 'functionalism',

    Various methodological approaches have been used to critically examine the phenomenon of 'suicide'. From a 'classical' approach, Functionalism, a structural consensus perspective, emerged from the works of Emile Durkheim (1897), a French sociologist who viewed society as existing independently of individuals. Although functionalism views individuals as naturally selfish, social integration is achieved by making individuals aware of their social bonds to others. Social cohesion is obtained through facilitation of institutions such as family, religion and law and order, which are based on common goals, shared values and beliefs.

    • Word count: 3262
  18. Write an essay on the moral defensibility of voluntary euthanasia for an autonomous adult.

    In cases where assisted suicide is possible, it should be attempted before voluntary euthanasia. The wishes of the patient should be more obvious in these cases, and there can be little or no confusion over the fact that the patient did want to die (Glover, 1977:184). Debate over the morality and legality of voluntary euthanasia has raged mostly in recent times, however, this essay will only be concerned with the moral defensibility of voluntary euthanasia. There are several conditions or criteria which supporters of voluntary euthanasia believe should be satisfied by any person who wishes their life to end in this manner.

    • Word count: 2082
  19. Do questions like Why should I be moral? or Why shouldnt I be selfish? have definitive answers as do some questions in other Areas of Knowledge? Does having a definitive answer make a question more or less important?

    It is impossible to find a definitive answer because many different reasons are legitimate. There is no difference in significance between the two questions; the difference is merely what areas of knowledge the question is centered upon. The answer to questions such as "Why should I be moral?" or "Why shouldn't I be selfish?" comes from perception and emotion. Perception can differ vastly from continent to continent and is also different between people. The concept of beating children for example is not commonly accepted in North America, North Americans believe that beating children is a form of child abuse, can cause traumatic childhood experiences, and is immoral.

    • Word count: 1620
  20. I would like to begin my evaluation of moral relativism by further exploring the concept. The primary ideas of moral relativism are that moral differences between societies around the world should be accepted

    The approach to determining a method of comparison can be divided into two large schools of thoughts: moral relativism, and moral absolutism (Hinman, 2005). I would like to begin my evaluation of moral relativism by further exploring the concept. The primary ideas of moral relativism are that moral differences between societies around the world should be accepted and tolerated as being unique onto their own (Hinman, 2005). Moral relativism is the stance that judgement between different morals cannot be made.

    • Word count: 1708
  21. Euthanasia: The Right to Die

    Euthanasia should be legalized in Canada because it relieves the unnecessary pain and suffering of patients and their families. Within the last twenty years, euthanasia and assisted suicide has been prominent in the headlines (Guy, 1993). This has given rise to discussions between family members having to make difficult decisions, to professionals making life and death decisions, and leaders giving opinions and guidance on the moral, ethical, and religious aspects of euthanasia. Due to advances in medical treatment, people are now able to live longer.

    • Word count: 1290
  22. People cannot cope with a moral problem just by using moral reasoning"

    There are many ideas of moral philosophy including: - * The Divine command theory, which is where someone believes that they should live life according to the rules laid down in a religious work. Often this includes a clause stating that killing of any kind is wrong. * Natural law theory argues that people are all linked by a common humanity and it is part of human nature to live according to moral principles. To have ideas about natural justice and rights is a natural product of being human.

    • Word count: 764
  23. What is meant by euthanasia?

    When it is a doctor who helps another person to kill themselves it is called "physician assisted suicide." * Euthanasia by Action: Intentionally causing a person's death by performing an action such as by giving a lethal injection. * Euthanasia By Omission: Intentionally causing death by not providing necessary and ordinary care Indirect euthanasia means the involvement of a clinician (e.g. physician, clinical nurse practitioner, and pharmacist) as an agent who participates only by providing the means for a patient to induce his/her own death. This could mean writing or filling a prescription for medications in a quantity large enough to cause death when taken by the patient.

    • Word count: 1383
  24. Why Did Durkheim argue that suicide was inversely related to the degree of integration in society? Durkheim believed that the reason things like suicide happens is because of his famous phrase

    Another part of Egotistic suicide is that single people have a higher rate of suicide than those in families. Altrustic suicide The example Durkheim uses for this type of suicide is the societies that stress the responsibility of the individual to society. He talks about the Hindu widow of a deceased man who killed herself according to customs in her religion. Anomic suicide This type of suicide deals with how the suicide rates rose in times of prosperity and in times of poverty.

    • Word count: 1729
  25. Outline and critically discuss the main argument of Durkheim's Suicide. In what sense is this work distinctively sociological? Durkheim figured out and

    People are attached to think for the interests of society as a whole. They share similar values, similar thoughts, thus stronger conscience collective (Lukes, S. 1973). In contrast, organic solidarity refers to modern societies that based on the division of labour which are predominant in more advanced societies. These societies are relatively complex, highly differentiated with larger population. Societies are much more interdependent, the social bonds are relatively strong and with higher material and moral density. The law using to rule these societies, restitutive law, is really helping in the restoration of relationship.

    • Word count: 1745

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