• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Summary of the rural planning and sustainable rural development

Extracts from this document...


Summary of the rural planning and sustainable rural development The book tried to analyse the policies and approaches used by southeast Asian countries in response to the changing rural-urban relation, it suggested that rural and urban problems cannot be treated separately because urban problems are usually rooted in unsatisfactory rural plannings. Developing countries have experienced rapid urbanisation since 1950s, planners have tried to develop policies to enhance economic growth and development. During the process of transformation, traditional rural-urban relations are often be distorted. Besides, new technologies and urban-based industrialisation strategies brought out a polarised dichotomies between large cities and rural areas, in relation to demographic, economic and political characteristics, for examples difference in salaries, functions and infrastructures. Although urban expansion facilitated urban industrialisation and rural-to-urban migration, urban dominance and ever-increasing population pressure gived rise to the aggravation of landlessness, rural poverty and environmental degradation. In response to this situation, many Asian countries in the seventies have adopted a rural-based regional strategy to reduce regional growth disparities and promote subordinate rural development. Nevertheless, critics claimed for a more balanced approach thought that the rural-based strategies may have overreacted to the persistent problems of urban primacy, they think that the relative stagnation of rural area is resulted from false dichotomic opposition of rural versus urban and polarised development in the capital cities and national core areas due to the green revolution meant. ...read more.


It is because the employment opportunities generated by traditional modes of production would probably be eliminated by the protected modern industries with higher productivity and more advanced technologies. Consequently, much work in the informal sector becomes 'involuted' with productivity and real income declining over time. The third form of interaction between these sectors identified in the macro-spatial framework is the peasant economy within the rural sector. The peasant economy is relatively isolated from the rapid-expanding ones in the metropolis, its technology remains 'traditional' and production critically depends on landlord-peasant relationships and land-ownership pattern. The third characteristic of peasant economy is the low level of urbanization due to the nature of the subsistence economy and lack of cash income in these rural areas. The writers believed this economy is essentially village oriented and the linkage between the poorly developed village and more distance region are based on the extraction of primary products, whereas the import of manufactured goods from the metropolis or aboard is often limited. The authors found out that Thailand is the only country which experienced expansion of cultivation area in the 1960s. At the same time, land/worker ratios are worsening, with the exception of Korea and Taiwan, land available per agricultural worker has been declining. The writers tried to relate the land/worker ratio to the Gini coefficient the Southeast Asian countries and discovered that those with the highest demographic pressure on their land resources such as Malaysia and Philippines not only do not show better asset distribution but are also the ones with highest inequality in land distribution. ...read more.


The writer finally studied the access of rural development to general incentives and suggested that social structural mediation are critical to the increasing access to these incentives. In conclusion, the writer believed that what is lacking in the above strategies is a much fuller understanding of poverty creating process at the local level and the implication of macro-functions for example the role of the States influencing it. It is also likely that poverty is due to the low technology and problems in farm managements. Therefore, governments serve a crucial role in the growth of developing countries, but there is always a problem that policies exhibited a so called urban bias in an effort to enhance the rate of industrialisation through the implementation of protectionist trade policies and import substitution. As agricultural prices were suppressed and the costs of inputs increased, so income and employment growth in agriculture suffered. This leads to a significant wage gap between the traditional and modern sectors, which served as a stimulus behind rural to urban migration. The rapidity of this migration, coupled with high population growth, resulted in the substantial growth of the informal sector of cities. The problems associated with the informal sector in terms of the development of large slum settlements has provided a new focus for urban based policies, looking to improve living conditions and create an environment conducive to increased private and municipal investment. The is what government have to face with during the process of rural-urban migration. Reference: 1. Lo, F-C. 1981. Rural-Urban Relations and Regional Development. Singapore: Maruzen Asia. Chapters 1, 2 and 5 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Human & Social Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Human & Social Geography essays

  1. Human Development. There are many aspects to take into consideration when discussing countries ...

    and use them to estimate that over 200 million children under 5 years are not fulfilling their developmental potential. Most of these children live in south Asia, Africa, and middle eastern countries. These disadvantaged children are likely to do poorly in school and subsequently have low incomes, high fertility, and

  2. The causes, conditions, and solutions of Underdevelopment: A case study of Brazil

    Since poor families are more likely to have many children they also must provide for them as well. In fact poorer workers not only receive a smaller share of the national income, but they must also support a larger number of consumers with that income (Inequalities and Economic Development in Brazil, 37).

  1. The discourse of the rural idyll masks poverty and social exclusion

    He believes the cottage is fine and will not spend any money on improvements. He certainly doesn't feel that he is deprived in any respect. Deprivation is slightly different from poverty and social exclusion, concentrating on the lack of core life aspects such as food, housing, mobility or services.

  2. Consider the role of child care professionals in promoting the holistic needs of looked ...

    were clinically diagnosed as having a mental disorder. The role of the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services promotes the mental well being of children through commissioning services via a four-tier strategic framework (level four being severe) following an assessment (Every Child Matters 2007). Most LAC receive services at level three or four.

  1. Critically evaluate an urban poverty programme you are familiar with. In particular discuss a) ...

    CENIT only accepts boys onto its programs if they have a sister already involved at the centre. In this way CENIT takes a pragmatic approach to the gendered discrimination against the educating of girls that is the reality in Ecuador.

  2. How has Piaget(TM)s stage theory of development been challenged by subsequent research?

    This suggests that children older than 6 years are at the concrete operations stage of cognitive development. Piaget also investigated the conservation in relation to volume, weight, area, length and number. McGarrigle and Donaldson (1974 ) Conversation of Number: The two lines of counters (Piaget and Inhelder, 1956)

  1. The process of globalization and its impact on agriculture in Africa.

    Every effort should be made to capitalise on these opportunities by promoting inward investment now that many tariff barriers to added-value products have been removed in the main consuming markets. [Kenya should seriously consider applying to be re-classified as a Least Developed Country for this reason.] Consideration should be given

  2. A critical appraisal of the impact on social injustice of the welfare state and ...

    If we look at the Austrian film âThe Edukatorsâ(2004) we can see the idea of the inequalities of wealth within a society starkly portrayed. The film portrays, those characters at the lower end of the financial scale taking drastic action against the elite rich members whose actions force them into further poverty illustrated in one scene where a car

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work