• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Definition of Public Administration.

Extracts from this document...


The Definition of Public Administration Public administration, developed in the early 1900s, is a special field of study within the academic discipline of political science. It emphasizes the structure and operation of bureaucracies and organizations, including budgeting, personnel, and formal and informal internal controls. Some public administration programs include study of the special management skills required in governmental (as distinct from private) organizations. It's always hard to make a simple, clear and precise definition to academic subjects, this also happens to public administration. Scholars have long been trying to use a simple phrase to define it, but yet after nearly half century of hard work, it still remains in vain. Although making progress, a perfect phrase length definition is still in process. So what is the problem of defining Public Administration? Some think that it's multidiscipline characteristics contribute to the absence of a common definition. The studies of Public Administration involve a wide range of function and operation. Public Administration is the whole process of human cooperation; one could definitely say that public administration is everywhere, as it overlaps a number of disciplines including sociology, business administration, economics and even risk management. ...read more.


and trilingual (to speak fluent Cantonese, Putonghua and English). In September 1997, the government issued The Medium of Instruction Guidance for Secondary Schools requiring all local public sector secondary schools to adopt the medium of instruction according to the ability to their students. In most cases, Chinese has been adopted as the medium of instruction, starting with the Secondary 1 intake in the 1998-99 school year and progressing each year to a higher level of secondary education. Schools satisfying the requirements in terms of student ability, teacher capability and language learning support strategies and programmes may were allowed to teach in English, about 100 school falls into this category. However after appeal of some of the CMI School, it was increased to 113. In the 1998-99 school year, about 300 secondary schools use Chinese as medium of instruction for all academic subjects except English Language. This education reform is carried out through the support of the former Education Secretary LAW Fan Chiu-fan, Fanny. But in 2002, the new Secretary for Education and Manpower Arthur Li believes the issue is not to choose between Chinese or English teaching but to strengthen language education. Therefore he relax the guidance, and allows schools to choose Chinese or English as a medium of instruction. ...read more.


They are just responsible to examine the reports made by other staff. Or the constructors who's belong to the lower level of the bureaucracy. The constructor having no knowledge in civil engineering are totally ignorant about the requirements of the depth of the pile, they just follow the instruction given by the seniors. Because of the complicated structure there are always shadows to hide officials from doing dishonest action, like corruption. It is very hard to take full control of all the officials and staff in the government. And for the same reason, it is hard to examine, where the problem lies. There may be small problems in the all linkage of hierarchy chain or just a big one in one of connection. The scandal also previews the communication problem between different departments. A slight mistake could become a big one through snowballing effects, when there is communication problem. Public Administration is an extremely complicated endeavour. When it is a discipline to be studied, it concerns on many other disciplines; in a situation it is concerned as the process of provisioning governmental function, it involves numerous of officials. It is complex and easy to make wrong judgement, however, no matter when considering it as a studies or process to provide service, mistakes should be avoided. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree UK Government & Parliamentary Studies section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree UK Government & Parliamentary Studies essays

  1. Is there justification for government intervention in the uk housing market and how has ...

    To begin with, local authorities publicly designed and planned. The size of the sector has declined sharply since 1980, by 2002 only 3.4million dwellings were owned by local authority, nearly half of what was owned in 1981 (see appendix one.) A reduction caused by a result of a deliberate policy - the Housing Act 1980 gave tenants the right

  2. Discuss the rationale and the role of public enterprises in the Caribbean.

    The outputs from these enterprises are necessary inputs in the other sectors of the economy to enable sustainable growth and development. The rationale and growth of Public Enterprises in the Caribbean can be further examined by looking at their developments in particular regions.

  1. Modern Studies Dissertation

    It looked very possible that the party could overtake Labour after the 1983 and 1987 elections, but nothing ever came of this belief. Also, now in more recent times it is being evermore suggested that with the Conservatives in great decline, there is now the greatest chance ever for the

  2. Finance & Public Expenditure - A case study

    (Edmonds, 2001) With regard to the Scottish redistribution of grant funds, the local Department for Education, the Home Office for police services, as well as the healthcare division under the supervision of the NHS Executive and the Department of Health has practised a vertical redistribution of grants since 1990.

  1. The Deliberative Agency: Opportunities to Deepen Public Participation.

    The "focus on action" sometimes takes the form of a commitment by decision-makers to incorporate the results of deliberation into policy. In many deliberation efforts, citizens and their organizations-including businesses, nonprofits, associations, churches-take action themselves, in partnership with government or independently from it, to implement ideas that have been generated in the discussions.

  2. Outstanding Leader - Nelson Rolihlahala Mandela.

    Analysis Identify the actor (group, company, party) that the leader primarily represents and how he or she came to represent this actor. Nelson Mandela had been one of the most significant leaders of the African National Congress (ANC), in which he was elected as the president of the political group in 1991 soon after his liberation.

  1. public sector

    The second great fire of London caused a great deal of damage almost 12,000 homes and killed hundreds of people. It was decided that this destruction could never happen again. It was decided that an insurance premium would be charged amongst a large number of people.

  2. Free essay

    Not for Profit Organisations in the New Zealand Public Health Sector

    those who own or control them * are institutionally separate from government * are in control of their own destiny, and * are non-compulsory in both terms of membership and member's input (Statistics NZ 2005) The UN is an international organisation established in 1945.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work