• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Definition of Public Administration.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Definition of Public Administration Public administration, developed in the early 1900s, is a special field of study within the academic discipline of political science. It emphasizes the structure and operation of bureaucracies and organizations, including budgeting, personnel, and formal and informal internal controls. Some public administration programs include study of the special management skills required in governmental (as distinct from private) organizations. It's always hard to make a simple, clear and precise definition to academic subjects, this also happens to public administration. Scholars have long been trying to use a simple phrase to define it, but yet after nearly half century of hard work, it still remains in vain. Although making progress, a perfect phrase length definition is still in process. So what is the problem of defining Public Administration? Some think that it's multidiscipline characteristics contribute to the absence of a common definition. The studies of Public Administration involve a wide range of function and operation. Public Administration is the whole process of human cooperation; one could definitely say that public administration is everywhere, as it overlaps a number of disciplines including sociology, business administration, economics and even risk management. ...read more.

Middle

and trilingual (to speak fluent Cantonese, Putonghua and English). In September 1997, the government issued The Medium of Instruction Guidance for Secondary Schools requiring all local public sector secondary schools to adopt the medium of instruction according to the ability to their students. In most cases, Chinese has been adopted as the medium of instruction, starting with the Secondary 1 intake in the 1998-99 school year and progressing each year to a higher level of secondary education. Schools satisfying the requirements in terms of student ability, teacher capability and language learning support strategies and programmes may were allowed to teach in English, about 100 school falls into this category. However after appeal of some of the CMI School, it was increased to 113. In the 1998-99 school year, about 300 secondary schools use Chinese as medium of instruction for all academic subjects except English Language. This education reform is carried out through the support of the former Education Secretary LAW Fan Chiu-fan, Fanny. But in 2002, the new Secretary for Education and Manpower Arthur Li believes the issue is not to choose between Chinese or English teaching but to strengthen language education. Therefore he relax the guidance, and allows schools to choose Chinese or English as a medium of instruction. ...read more.

Conclusion

They are just responsible to examine the reports made by other staff. Or the constructors who's belong to the lower level of the bureaucracy. The constructor having no knowledge in civil engineering are totally ignorant about the requirements of the depth of the pile, they just follow the instruction given by the seniors. Because of the complicated structure there are always shadows to hide officials from doing dishonest action, like corruption. It is very hard to take full control of all the officials and staff in the government. And for the same reason, it is hard to examine, where the problem lies. There may be small problems in the all linkage of hierarchy chain or just a big one in one of connection. The scandal also previews the communication problem between different departments. A slight mistake could become a big one through snowballing effects, when there is communication problem. Public Administration is an extremely complicated endeavour. When it is a discipline to be studied, it concerns on many other disciplines; in a situation it is concerned as the process of provisioning governmental function, it involves numerous of officials. It is complex and easy to make wrong judgement, however, no matter when considering it as a studies or process to provide service, mistakes should be avoided. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree UK Government & Parliamentary Studies section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree UK Government & Parliamentary Studies essays

  1. Is there justification for government intervention in the uk housing market and how has ...

    Central government faced the problem of large cost variations between authorities which bore little relationship to relative value of properties owned. This led to the development of local authority housing subsidies since 1980 and has centred on attempts to equalise resources between such authorities.

  2. Discuss the rationale and the role of public enterprises in the Caribbean.

    The outputs from these enterprises are necessary inputs in the other sectors of the economy to enable sustainable growth and development. The rationale and growth of Public Enterprises in the Caribbean can be further examined by looking at their developments in particular regions.

  1. Modern Studies Dissertation

    The most common pro's of the system being portrayed as a system that creates stability. Also its creates strong government, but does it really? In-party squabbling in the Conservatives reign during the nineties restricted their abilities to put policies into place.

  2. Outstanding Leader - Nelson Rolihlahala Mandela.

    I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve.

  1. Describe the key features of Wolsey's administration of law and finance during his period ...

    The Amicable Grant of 1525 was a disaster, yet Henry approved of it going ahead. Wolsey did little for trade, as it was not one of his interests, but he did attack enclosure, prosecuting 260 landowners in Chancery, Scarisbrook has suggested that this was a more ruthless and successful operation

  2. Finance & Public Expenditure - A case study

    (HM Treasury, 2007: p.1 ) Eventually, the Scottish Assigned Budget will be subjected to the Scottish Parliament's final approval so as to ensure that they stick with closely with the UK Government priorities. Since 1980, the UK Treasury has been using the Barnett formula when allocating the funds throughout the devolved territories including Scotland.

  1. Outline the Institutional View of Public Policy Making. What Are Its Strenghts and Limitations?

    To be more precise, (John 1998, p.15) identifies them as Rational Choice, Ideas, Socio-economic, Group Networks and of course, Institutionalism. These are conceptual planes upon which the world of public policy is said to exist. The notion of maximisation of individual utility by actors within the system through negotiation, is attributed to Rational Choice theorists, as an explanation.

  2. The Deliberative Agency: Opportunities to Deepen Public Participation.

    Several general characteristics of ideal public deliberation make it useful to policy and decision-making bodies. 5 These include: - Focus on action, what is to be done in some situation by some agent, either an individual or a group of individuals.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work