The Definition of Public Administration.
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The Definition of Public Administration Public administration, developed in the early 1900s, is a special field of study within the academic discipline of political science. It emphasizes the structure and operation of bureaucracies and organizations, including budgeting, personnel, and formal and informal internal controls. Some public administration programs include study of the special management skills required in governmental (as distinct from private) organizations. It's always hard to make a simple, clear and precise definition to academic subjects, this also happens to public administration. Scholars have long been trying to use a simple phrase to define it, but yet after nearly half century of hard work, it still remains in vain. Although making progress, a perfect phrase length definition is still in process. So what is the problem of defining Public Administration? Some think that it's multidiscipline characteristics contribute to the absence of a common definition. The studies of Public Administration involve a wide range of function and operation. Public Administration is the whole process of human cooperation; one could definitely say that public administration is everywhere, as it overlaps a number of disciplines including sociology, business administration, economics and even risk management.
and trilingual (to speak fluent Cantonese, Putonghua and English). In September 1997, the government issued The Medium of Instruction Guidance for Secondary Schools requiring all local public sector secondary schools to adopt the medium of instruction according to the ability to their students. In most cases, Chinese has been adopted as the medium of instruction, starting with the Secondary 1 intake in the 1998-99 school year and progressing each year to a higher level of secondary education. Schools satisfying the requirements in terms of student ability, teacher capability and language learning support strategies and programmes may were allowed to teach in English, about 100 school falls into this category. However after appeal of some of the CMI School, it was increased to 113. In the 1998-99 school year, about 300 secondary schools use Chinese as medium of instruction for all academic subjects except English Language. This education reform is carried out through the support of the former Education Secretary LAW Fan Chiu-fan, Fanny. But in 2002, the new Secretary for Education and Manpower Arthur Li believes the issue is not to choose between Chinese or English teaching but to strengthen language education. Therefore he relax the guidance, and allows schools to choose Chinese or English as a medium of instruction.
They are just responsible to examine the reports made by other staff. Or the constructors who's belong to the lower level of the bureaucracy. The constructor having no knowledge in civil engineering are totally ignorant about the requirements of the depth of the pile, they just follow the instruction given by the seniors. Because of the complicated structure there are always shadows to hide officials from doing dishonest action, like corruption. It is very hard to take full control of all the officials and staff in the government. And for the same reason, it is hard to examine, where the problem lies. There may be small problems in the all linkage of hierarchy chain or just a big one in one of connection. The scandal also previews the communication problem between different departments. A slight mistake could become a big one through snowballing effects, when there is communication problem. Public Administration is an extremely complicated endeavour. When it is a discipline to be studied, it concerns on many other disciplines; in a situation it is concerned as the process of provisioning governmental function, it involves numerous of officials. It is complex and easy to make wrong judgement, however, no matter when considering it as a studies or process to provide service, mistakes should be avoided.
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