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Health Promotion and Policy This assignment will look at an 18 year old girl who is two months pregnant, and a smoker. It will be a reflection on a real life situation from practice,

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Introduction

2498 words Health Promotion and Policy This assignment will look at an 18 year old girl who is two months pregnant, and a smoker. It will be a reflection on a real life situation from practice, so all names and information that could identify the client, will be changed in accordance with the Nursing and Midwifery Council guidelines to protect patient confidentiality (2004). For the purpose of this assignment the client will be called Hannah. Hannah left school at age 15, she lives in a council flat with her parents in Devon, and currently works 16 hours a week in a supermarket. This paper will look at the issue of smoking and smoking during pregnancy, in terms of its epidemiology. The main focus will then be on Health Promotion, and certain models and approaches will be addressed to see what could be useful when trying to promote someone to make a lifestyle change to benefit of their own, and in this case, the health of an unborn child. I will then look at the Government Initiatives and policies surrounding this matter, and any ethical issues that arise from this situation. In 2006, Action on Smoking and Health (ASH), released a fact sheet stating that over ten million people in Great Britain smoke, which is almost a quarter of the population. This figure undoubtedly includes a number of pregnant women, and according to a survey carried out by The Information Centre for the NHS, 32 per cent of mothers in 2005 admitted to smoking in the twelve months prior to, or during their pregnancy, and 17 per cent of these mothers confessed to smoking through the full term (2007). ...read more.

Middle

Hannah's self-esteem is very low, due to her anxiety about her pregnancy and the smoking, so the advice given to help facilitate her giving up cigarettes needs to be tailored around this. By helping to empower Hannah, and raise her self esteem, she will be more likely to decide upon taking healthy action, and with self belief it is probable that she will continue not to smoke (Naidoo and Wills 2002). There is a strong belief that a high level of self esteem is linked to motivation (Ewles and Simnett 2003), and that quitting depends on motivation as treatments to assist people giving up are not likely to work without it (West 2004). This implies that someone who is highly motivated to make a change is more likely to action and sustain it. This concept is reflected in the Health Action Model, which looks at boosting self confidence, and helping to build life skills in order to resist outside pressures and influences (Ajzen and Fishbein 1980, cited Ewles and Simnett 2003). In her home, working and social life, Hannah is surrounded by smoking, so it is important that she feels she can be assertive and confident, resisting the temptation and possible pressure she may be under to smoke. This means as well as helping to empower Hannah, it is also very important to inform her of aids to help the quitting process and, to help her establish an environment which helps to assist her healthy choice. ...read more.

Conclusion

Beneficence is also given to Hannah by promoting the services available to her if she decides to take beneficial action (Naidoo and Wills 2002). By continuing to smoke Hannah is not avoiding the causation of harm, so in terms of non-maleficence, we as health professionals must then look at the possibility of harm minimisation (Naidoo and Wills 2002). In Hannah's situation this may be promoting her to steadily cut down on cigarettes over a period of perhaps a month, with the intent to switch to NRT after this. In this paper I have looked at the issue of smoking during pregnancy, using Hannah as an example. Firstly I discussed this matter in terms of its epidemiology, looking at statistics and figures for the south west, which is Hannah's area. I also looked at the epidemiology of smoking more broadly throughout the UK, which highlighted just how many women find themselves in Hannah's situation, and the possible factors that may count towards this occurring. I discussed health promotion models which may be suitable to aid education, and help to facilitate Hannah and other pregnant smokers towards taking a healthy path. I touched upon the Governments policies and actions which have been adopted to help people like Hannah choose to make a lifestyle change, and the push towards creating a healthy environment in which to sustain this. The ethical issues that arise from women smoking during pregnancy have been talked about, and possible ways to over come these examined. ...read more.

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