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- Marked by Teachers essays 22
MRSA. About 1 in 3 of us carries SA on the surface of our skin, or in our nose without developing an infection. This is known as being colonised by the bacteria4 star(s)
Today it is no longer used except as a means of identifying this particular type of antibiotic resistance. (Hernan, M, D & Chang, R 2006) MRSA is no more infectious than other types of SA bacteria. However, MRSA infections are more difficult to treat due to the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria, Antibiotics can still be used to treat the MRSA- the infection may simply require a much higher dose over a much longer period, or use of an antibiotic to which the bacteria is not resistant. MRSA is viewed today as a current topic and is often associated with patients in hospitals as they often have an entry point for the bacteria to get in such as a surgical wound or intravenous tubing, but it can also be found in patients not in hospital.
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The Beveridge report reflected these desires and set out proposals for a welfare state. (Busfield, 2000:132) It was Aneurin Bevan health secretary for labour at this time who opened Park Hospital in Manchester and started the ambitious plan to bring healthcare for all. This healthcare for all is to be funded by taxation. (NHS, 2008:1) So, funded mainly by taxation the NHS was a tripartite structure which covered 3 main areas of health care. The hospital services, The general practitioner services and The local authority health and social services. It was thought originally that this available to all service would improve the health of the population and then the costs would gradually reduce.
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The reasons for increased interest and use of complementary therapies are not well understand ,though many opinions have been offered .Some have suggested that the move towards complementary therapies represents a '' flight from science3 star(s)
There is growing recognition of the interplay between mind and body upon the state of an individual's health and wellbeing. Discussion: The reasons for increased interest and use of complementary therapies are not well understand ,though many opinions have been offered .Some have suggested that the move towards complementary therapies represents a '' flight from science ''(Smith ,1983).In all studies ,patients using complementary therapies tend to be those will relatively more education and higher incomes (Sharma ,1992).These results are 'not compatible with a picture of a patient unable to understand the medical possibilities or to make discriminating choices'(Fulder and Munro ,1985).
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The purpose of this assignment is to discuss the psychological, sociological and social policy perspective of a case study and discuss the impact which it has on public health. The key aspects which are crucial to this assignment are Jasons confusion a
This could be due to confusion of sexuality or the difficulty surrounding "coming out" as a gay man or woman in society. The fears of "coming out" surround the ideation that they would be criticized and ridiculed by the community and their peers. Within regards to Jason's sexuality, confusion is a common thing surrounding people of this age, but can stem from early childhood and as early as infancy, as children are often pressured into gender roles, such as blue vs.
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This essay will critically examine the cultural and behavioural explanations of class differences in relationship to heath issues.
Cultural explanation suggests that different social classes behave in different distinct ways; the poorer health of the lower social classes, is caused by their behaving in ways that are detrimental to health. Poverty is having more bad things in life and "less of the goods things including health" (Cockerham: 2007 p79) Poverty and health are definitely linked and not only are the 'poor more likely to suffer from ill health and premature death, but poor health and disability are themselves recognised as causes of poverty' (Blackburn 1991, p7).
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A number of studies have determined that people who eat a plant-based diet are more at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, which could result in many neurological problems such as issues with memory loss (Goldstein, p. 221). Although the vitamin B12 exists in eggs and dairy products - which vegetarians do consume - it is not a sufficient amount from just those two sources whereas almost every source of meat contains vitamin B12 (Bender, p. 14). This is mainly why a meat diet is thought of to be more healthful than a vegetarian diet.
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Hypnotherapy and Counselling Skills. In this essay I will look at the origins of hypnosis; brain wave activity; myths that surround hypnosis; some positive aspects and also relate my own personal experiences. I will also consider how hypnosis is portrayed
In my conclusion I will reflect on how hypnotherapy may be used to help myself with any personal problems. Origins of Hypnosis The art and science of hypnosis is both old and new. Old, because it was used in ancient time and has a pedigree that stretches back to the beginning of mankind's conscious development. New, because only over the past 100 years has it been subject to the full force of scientific scrutiny. This was after the discovery that the unconscious mind, emotions and personal history directly affect a person's state of mental, emotional and physical health. Every culture has used hypnosis in one form or another.
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The conscious is the part that is dealing with experiences that are occurring in the present. This is the mind that you actively and deliberately think with. It is the internal voice that you think of as me. But while the conscious mind has its uses, it is extremely limited in what it can accomplish on its own. That's why our conscious mind is assisted by the power and capacity of our other, larger mind - the unconscious mind. The subconscious mind is the database where we hold all of our learning and experience; it also contains the key to all of our automatic reflexes and safety circuits in our bodily functions.
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Hypnotherapy and Counselling Skills. In this essay I will be looking at the methods and techniques that are used to personalise screeds to suit working with different clients. In doing this I will explore the reasoning behind personalisation and in my con
the client has invariably got their eyes closed and therefore 55% of our communication ceases to be effective. Also, to make the PMR effective, an exuberant tone or volume may not always be wanted. Thus, we have to deliver our messages and suggestions in words alone. If the best possible results are to be obtained there is a need to work closely with individuals in order to identify their likes and dislikes as well as their personality. In this way we can gain their trust and assist them in reaching a suitable state of hypnosis.
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It immediately became clear that there is more than just skill and knowledge associated with the profession but deep engagement and effective communication with others. This particular experience had never occurred to me. I was always under the impression that the profession dealt with woman and baby. My Midwife introduced herself and myself to the woman. I remained silent as I could not use my usual conversational tactics which mainly focused on the well-being of the baby. The midwife sat on the bed beside the woman and held her hand.
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Is Homeopathy Really Effective? Homeopathy has no scientific prove that it truly works. Besides, homeopathy does not really work in state hospitals and there is a little interaction between doctors and homeopaths.
For example, when you peel an onion, you will feel burn in your eyes or feel itch and may be feeling crying and you might also have a runny nose and begin to sneeze. Therefore, if you had similar symptoms during a cold or allergy attack, such as a runny nose, watery eyes and sneezing, "a homeopathic micro-dose of the remedy red onion would help your body heal itself" (What is Homeopathy?, 2009). Basically, homeopaths believe that symptoms are the body's way of fighting diseases or the body's healing power (INTRODUCTION: What is homoeopathy?, 2009).
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Physiotherapy Case Study. A patients prognosis may be greatly enhanced if serious or life threatening conditions may be diagnosed early (Greenhalgh & Selfe 2006). This is particularly true of a Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), which involves a clot or thro
Observation is a major tool in the physiotherapists armour (Petty 2006) not only in terms of posture, symmetry and muscle form but also of more localised physiological changes (Hengeveld & Banks 2005). I observed and recognised these changes, and although the exact diagnosis eluded me I intuitively felt something was wrong. Thus as a student I felt it best to consult my clinical educator, where it was decided to 2 refer the patient to the Accident and emergency department on the suspicion of a DVT, which was subsequently diagnosed.
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Orthotic management of common forefoot deformities: a clinical practice guideline for hallux valgus.
The review will conclude with a clinical practice guidelines outline on hallux valgus. Sources and selection criteria Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials evaluating orthotic treatment of forefoot deformities were included. Excluded were studies comparing areas of surgery solely. This review was prepared by searching the following databases: Medline 1966-present; AMED; CINAHL via Clinicians Health Channel; Cochrane library; Pubmed and Google Scholar. Key words used were "forefoot deformities", hallux valgus", "metatarsalgia", "Morton's neuroma", "orthotics" and "foot orthoses". The electronic search was complemented by checking of reference lists of relevant articles for additional studies reported.
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Falling in Parkinsons disease: the impact on informal caregivers. Citing previous research Davey et al (2004) purport that the emotional consequences of falling in Parkinsons may impact greater upon the caregivers than the faller, they go on to
The authors attempt to extrapolate caregiver's views and experiences regarding repeated fallers with Parkinson's disease with the objective of identifying received education and solutions to manage the problem more efficiently in the future (Davey et al 2004). The researchers interviewed fourteen caregivers employing in-depth semi-structured interviews to produce the raw data. This data was then analysed using a grounded theory approach to illicit six major themes and led the researchers to conclude that managing falls impacted significantly on the caregivers physical, psychological and social well-being, concluding that more education, advice and support from health professionals was needed for caregivers with reference to managing falls.
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The literature was then structured keeping in mind with the hierarchical levels of evidence. (2) The focus of this review was on randomized controlled trials as they have a strong level of evidence (2). Optimum level of evidence comes from a systematic review based on a meta-analysis of a variety of randomized controlled trials (1) however, since there is only one current study by Rome et al. (1) which is still in progress and so cannot be included in this review.
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Comparisons will be drawn with other advanced imaging equipment to compare their main differences. Cardiovascular fluoroscopy combines real time imaging (fluoroscopy) with diagnostic and interventional procedures involving the cardiovascular system, the components of which include circulation within the heart (cardio), and the blood vessels (vascular). The two other types of fluoroscopy are standard and mobile, which will be looked at in comparison with cardiovascular fluoroscopy within this essay. The advantages of angiographic procedures compared to surgery to perform similar examinations is that it is non evasive, as access is gained percutaneously.
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Diathermy; a two pronged attack. In this assignment, the responsibilities of the operating department practitioner when dealing with diathermy will be analysed and reflected upon, as well as how this relates to aspects of best practice in patient care. I
For this reason, it is seen as the safer of the two methods. Bipolar diathermy is generally used when coagulation only is required, or where a patient has a pacemaker in situ. Marsh (2008) discusses that although most pacemaker manufacturers strongly warn against the use of monopolar diathermy, sometimes it cannot be avoided (e.g. an emergency situation where the benefits outweigh the risks). This is specified in the Health professions council (HPC 2008) section 2b.3 which promotes the need to adapt practice to meet different physical needs.
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DiMatteo et al., 1986; Larsen & Smith, 1981). Other early research found that doctors interrupted patients only a few seconds into describing their symptoms and did not allow them to say everything they wanted to (Beckman & Frankel, 1984). This was surprising, as this experiment incorporated videotaping the interactions, which may have been an incentive for doctors to seem like they were doing a better job, so the real situation may be even worse. The finding that doctors tend to interrupt patients may help to explain findings from Barry et al.
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Role and impact of national and international organisations in patient safety and the role of the pharmacist in advancing patient safety recommendations
In the US, Institute of Medicine (IOM) estimated that errors have caused 44 000 to 98 000 deaths in the US each year. The rate of medication errors varies between 2 and 14% of patients admitted to hospital, with 1-2% of patients being harmed. Medication error itself has been estimated to kill 7000 patients per annum and accounts for nearly one in 20 hospital admissions in the US. (IOM, 2000) According to Vincent, 2006, definitions of safety may vary, but usually encompass the avoidance, prevention, and amelioration of adverse outcomes or injury from the process of health care.
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This then induces increase in heart rate, blood pressure and blood glucose levels, dilates the bronchioles and reduces digestive activity. In the longer term the adrenal glands release corticoids which maintain salt and water retention, increase blood volume, increase the catabolism of fat and protein and reduces the inflammatory and immune responses. (Waugh & Grant, 2001:224) Traumatic or catastrophic events are normally sudden, unexpected and threatening. The body automatically prepares to fight or flight after such an event but it is not always possible to do so. Other responses then often come into place such as freezing, numbing, and/or dissociating.
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The Blood vessels 5. The Conducting mechanism of the heart 6. Circulation 6.1 Systematic circulation 6.2 Pulmonary circulation 6.3 Portal circulation 6.4 Coronary circulation 7. Coronary Heart Disease 8. References List of Tables & Illustrations Figure 1 Normal heart Figure 2 Circulation 1. Introduction The Cardio Vascular System consists of the blood, the blood vessels, the heart, and the circulation systems. In this report the anatomy and physiology of all these components will be explained. Coronary heart disease is a malfunction of the cardiovascular system; this report will explore the causes, symptoms and treatments of this disease.
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Left- how anti-HIV drugs work: 1. Entry inhibitors stop HIV entering the cell 2. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors disrupt the gene-copying process 3. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors block the gene-copying enzyme 4. Protease inhibitors block the formation of the new virus www.news.bbc.co.uk/.../html/anti_hiv_drugs.stm To see just how effective these drugs were, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the antiretroviral zidovudine was conducted (http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu.). Zidovudine, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, disrupts the process where the viral DNA combined with the host DNA is transcribed to produce RNA.
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Still others believe that the rise can be traced to the lack of competition in the health care marketplace and have proposed new approaches for health plans to compete on price and outcomes. Economists thinking about rising health care spending note that there are only two approaches for slowing its growth: reduce spending on high-cost medical care that produces no benefits, and reduce spending on high-cost care that yields some health benefits but at even higher costs. Along these lines, some have proposed that we need to "ration rationally" to slow spending growth.
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It discourages victims of mental illness to seek the help they need, this leads to problems escalating due to lack of medical input, and in worst case scenarios, suicides. According to the Department of Health (1999) on average, two people with mental health problems commit suicide every day. In a study on student suicide by researchers from the University of Central Lancashire with King's College London, Stanley et al found (of twenty case studies of student suicides which occurred between May 2000 and June 2005)
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Aetiology A diverticulum is a single sac-like pouch of mucous membrane which projects through the colon wall. The protrusion occurs in weak areas of the bowel wall through which blood vessels can penetrate. There are normally multiple diverticula present. They can vary in size with a typical diameter of 5-10mm but they may reach a larger 20mm. (World Gastroenterology Organisation 2007) Diverticula occur when an area of weakness exists in the colon wall and is accompanied by increased pressure in the lumen (Crawford 1999). Dietary fibre intake can have an impact on lumen pressure, if there are low amounts of fibre in the diet this increases peristalsis which increases lumen pressure and results in herniation in the colon wall.
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