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In this lab report I am going to investigate the neutralising behaviour of six different antacids on hydrochloric acid. Antacids are available in a variety of different formulations and are mainly available as over-the-counter (OTC) preparations.

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Introduction

Pharmaceutics Antacids Lab Report Introduction 'Antacid' is a common term used to describe substances, mainly bases, that are used to counteract excess stomach acid and relieve heartburn. In this lab report I am going to investigate the neutralising behaviour of six different antacids on hydrochloric acid. Antacids are available in a variety of different formulations and are mainly available as over-the-counter (OTC) preparations. Antacids work by neutralising excess stomach acid and by doing so they raise the pH of the stomach. The pain felt by the sufferer is commonly caused by peptic ulcers. The gastrointestinal mucosa houses nerves. When these nerves are exposed (for example those in ulcers) and hydrochloric acid reaches them, the nerves signal pain to the central nervous system. The effect of aluminium ions can also contribute to indigestion. The ions can inhibit the smooth muscle cells and delay the emptying of the stomach causing. This is turn means that there is a build up in stomach acid. In this lab report I am going to investigate the neutralising behaviour of six different antacids on hydrochloric acid. Antacids are available in a variety of different formulations The pH range of the stomach falls in the range between 1 and 4, depending on food intake and digestion. ...read more.

Middle

Time (1 minute) The antacids used the experiment were as followed: Antacid 1 - Magnesium Thiosulphate Antacid 2 - Rennie Antacid 3 - Gaviscon (tablets) Antacid 4 - Gaviscon (liquid) Antacid 5 - Neucogel Antacid 6 - Milpar Discussion Table Two - overall change in pH caused by the addition of the antacids. Antacids Overall change in pH Antacid 1 0.5 Antacid 2 4.9 Antacid 3 0.8 Antacid 4 3.4 Antacid 5 3.0 Antacid 6 7.4 The figures shown above were calculated by using the following equation: Overall Change in pH = (final pH of solution) - (initial pH of solution) Table Three: Fastest Speed of Neutralisation Antacids Fastest speed of neutralisation Antacid 1 0.1 pH units/min Antacid 2 3.9 pH units/min Antacid 3 0.6 pH units/min Antacid 4 2.1 pH units/min Antacid 5 0.8 pH units/min Antacid 6 6.8 pH units/min The figures shown above were calculated using the following equation: Speed = (Change in pH) Time From the raw data above I can see that all of the antacids tested had a neutralising effect on the hydrochloric acid. The speed of the change in pH can be calculated by using the formula stated above and the raw data collected whilst performing the experiment. Table Three shows the greatest speed of change, in pH, produced by each antacid. ...read more.

Conclusion

From this I could gain an idea on how well the antacids would work in different conditions. Conclusion From this experiment I can conclude that all the antacids that were tested worked to neutralise the sample acid. Also that they all work in different ways. The mechanisms of action vary from one antacid to another, as their active ingredients differ. I can see from my results that some mechanisms of action have a greater effect than others. Furthermore I can say the majority of antacids action occurs in the first 2 minutes of use, making most of them fast acting. However the effectiveness of the antacid depends on how quickly it can return the stomach back to its normal conditions. Some performed poorly and over performed. The antacids that can cause a change in pH by 2 - 3 are the most ideal. Reference 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antacids - accessed on 14th February 2007 2. http://familydoctor.org/854.xml - accessed on 14th February 2007 3. http://www.nlm.nih.gov.medlineplus/druginfo/uspdi/202047 - accessed on 14th February 2007 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stomach - accessed on 21st February 2007 5. BNF 52 September 2006 - pages 38 - 41 6. http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/100002247.html - accessed on 21st February 2007 7. http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/100001145.html - accessed on 21st February 2007 8. http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases /facts/gastrooesophagealreflux.html - accessed on 21st February 2007 9. Frederic H. Martini, Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology (Seventh Edition) - Chapter 24, pages 880 -881 ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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