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My chosen policy is the code for best practice standards for the use of urinary catheters (2009). The research evidence underpinning this policy consists of many research articles.

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Introduction

My chosen policy is the code for best practice standards for the use of urinary catheters (2009). The research evidence underpinning this policy consists of many research articles. The three articles I intend to analyse in this paper are, Wilde, M. (2003) 'Life with an indwelling catheter: The dialectic of stigma and acceptance'. Godfrey, H (2007). 'Living with a long-term urinary catheter: older people's experiences' and McConville, A. (2002) 'Patients' experiences of clean intermittent catheterisation.' My analysis will attempt to scrutinize the trustworthiness, dependability, credibility, transferability and reflexivity of this research. To do so is imperative as authorities base their recommendations on this research and specific policies are implemented as a result. These same said policies can then, in theory, be used behind the implementation of further policies or laws. And, so, a re-enforcing cycle is established, whereby research lead to laws which lead to similar tax-funded research, which calls for more law. Arguably, this can lead to a self-sustaining cycle that can discourage contrary evidence and critical thinking about the data on which the laws rest. Fundamentally, these articles inform the delivery of care the service user receives. For that reason alone it is surely vital that all research articles be subject to thorough editorial process, relevant service user involvement and meticulous peer review. The professional rationale behind my chosen policy stems from an interest in elderly medicine and a recognition of the extensive use of catheterisation that this population is subject to. Statistics point to the need for policy improvement or stronger adherence to catheter guidelines. Certainly, the high rate of hospital-acquired infection caused by indwelling catheters raises the question of catheter misuse. Up to 25% of hospitalized patients have a urinary catheter placed during their stay and the use of indwelling urinary catheters accounts for 80% of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) (Godfrey & Evans, 2000). Saint et al (2008) state that in 2002 UTIs accounted for 36% of all nosocomial infections and 13,000 deaths were attributed to hospital-acquired UTIs. ...read more.

Middle

study is demonstrably flawed in terms of thoroughness of procedure. Yet she does paradoxically offers insightful and practical advice with regards to further education for healthcares and her emphasis on catheterisation education taking place in the community setting rather than hospital resolutely rings true. Her results can also be said to be generalisable and relevant to other areas of practice. Wilde (2003) and Godfrey's (2007) recommendations are certainly no less useful and are also generalisable, however, they are not the ground breaking recommendations one might expect considering the thorough and meticulous nature of research. Nevertheless, both Wilde (2003) and Godfrey's (2007) findings are undoubtedly more reliable and transferable as a result of their thoroughness, a claim McConville (2002) certainly cannot attempt to make. The Royal College of Nursing (RCN) believes that service users can bring a rich range of personal skill, knowledge, experience and ability to the research arena regarding health provision and this can compliment the expertise of the researcher (RCN, 2007). The Department of Health's (DofH) (2011a) White Paper, Liberating the NHS has carried through with this belief, stating that shared decision-making between service user and provider should become standard practice. The present maxim, 'no decision about me without me' is also in line with the emerging theory regarding the importance of service user involvement in research (DofH, 2011b, p.4). This theory goes beyond welcoming the service user's opinion, to advocating research, led by service users themselves. Current government strategy and legislation is certainly pushing the use of service user led research; Creating a Patient-led NHS (DofH, 2005) and the Empowerment White Paper - Communities in Control (2008) being two such examples. However, as with any developing method of research, controversy follows close behind. Currently this theory is having trouble negotiating a path between being seen as a tokenistic exercise on the one hand and the only acceptable form of research on the other (McLaughlin, 2010). ...read more.

Conclusion

(2010) 'Keeping Service User Involvement in Research Honest', British Journal of Social Work, 40, pp. 1591-1608. Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962) Phenomenology of perception. New York. Routledge. National Institute for Health Research (2011) Involve: Supporting public involvement in NHS, public health and social care research. Available at: http://www.invo.org.uk/About_Us.asp (Accessed: 23 May 2011) Rose, D. (2001) Users' Voices: The Perspectives of Mental Health Service Users on Community and Hospital Care. 1st edn. London: Sainsbury Centre. Royal College of Nursing (2007) 'User involvement in research by nurses. Available at: http://elp.northumbria.ac.uk/webapps/portal/frameset (Accessed: 16 June 2011) Saint S, et al., (2008) "Preventing Hospital-Acquired Urinary Tract Infection in the United States: A National Study." Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46, pp. 243-56. Scottish Consortium for Learning Disability (SCLD) (2009) Effective Engagement in social Work education - a good practice guide on involving people who use services and carers. Available at: http://www.Serviceusercarergoodpractice.org.uk (Accessed: 12 June 2011). Smith, E. & Ross, F. Donovan, S. Manthorpe, J. Brearley, S. Sitzia, J. & Beresford, P. (2008) 'Service user involvement in nursing, midwifery and health visiting research: a review of evidence and practice,' International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45 (2), pp.298-315 Stickley, T. (2006) 'Should service user involvement be consigned to history? A critical realist perspective'. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 13, pp.570-577. Streubert, H. & Carpenter, D. (2011) Qualitative research in nursing. 5th edn. China; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Tait L. & Lester, H. (2005) 'Encouraging user involvement in mental health services', Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 11, pp. 168-175. Tew, J..& Gell, C. (2004). 'Learning from Experience; involving service users and carers in mental health education and training', Mental Health in Higher Education, pp. 1-66. Thompson, C. Cullum, N. McCaughan, D. Sheldon, T.A. Mulhall, A. & Thompson, D.R. (2001) 'The accessibility of research-based knowledge for nurses in United Kingdom acute care settings', Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(1), pp.11-22. Wilde, M. (2003) 'Life with an indwelling catheter: The dialectic of stigma and acceptance', Quality Health Research, 13 (9), p. 1189-1204. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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