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University Degree: Nursing

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  1. Broncho Pulmonary Dysplasia. The following discussion will analyse issues related to babies who develop broncho pulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This will include a definition and identify risk factors, treatment and the eventual outcome of babies admitted to

    Also that BPD is the most common complication of preterm babies weighing <1kg. Cunha (2005) carried out a prospective cohort study using 86 newborns with a birth weight <1500 g, who received mechanical ventilation during their first week of life and survived 28 days. The findings demonstrated that the most important risk factors for BPD were prematurity, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), elevated levels of PIP and fluid volume. Oxygen toxicity, mechanical lung trauma, infections or pneumonia added to the risk of developing BPD. In contrast Mantkelow et al (2001) found that the administration of antenatal corticosteroids to the mother, the use of early surfactant therapy and also gentle modalities to the ventilation for the babies at birth minimised the incidence of BPD.

    • Word count: 2745

    They also suggest that the implementation of a pain assessment using a recognised pain assessment tool is necessary. In the past it was believed that neonates have an immature central nervous system with non myelinated pain fibres and was incapable of perceiving pain (Merenstein & Gardner 2011). However, according to more recent studies babies are capable of feeling pain neurologically from 20 weeks gestation and probably before (D Crawford and Whickson 2002). A study by Ahn (2006) observed a link between behavioural states and pain responses in premature infants, finding that relatively healthy premature infants in a state of quiet or active sleep could express pain related responses to NICU procedures.

    • Word count: 2659
  3. Nursing management of a chronic illness - diabtetes type II

    A gap currently exists between the promise and reality of diabetes care (Funnell, 2003). Current literature suggests that practice is the key to successful self management (Taylor & Bury, 2007). However, the reality is that many nurses fail to recognise this and subsequently fail to understand the sheer magnitude of the diabetes regime (Paterson, 2001). A lack of empathy with regards to the impracticalities of total adherence leads to goals that are prescriptive in nature. Consequently, a vast literature in non-compliance exists (Albright, 1994).

    • Word count: 2814
  4. My chosen policy is the code for best practice standards for the use of urinary catheters (2009). The research evidence underpinning this policy consists of many research articles.

    Catheter policies and their recommendations are therefore of paramount importance as they can affect the service user's experience immeasurably. From a personal perspective I have become increasingly aware of the emotional ramifications urinary catheterisation can have upon a patient. Catheterisation, examined as a clinical skill, requires a high level of technical precision and anatomical knowledge (Haberstitch, 2005). However, catheterisation; examined as an experience requires an even deeper level of understanding and empathy. This policy was based on approximately sixty research articles.

    • Word count: 4039
  5. Ulcerative colitis. The young gentleman I took part in his care had an underlying condition of ulcerative colitis but was admitted as suffering from acute nephritis. This is normally a condition that exhibits itself in the form of inflammation of the kid

    It is just but one of the many conditions lumped together as inflammatory bowel disease. In most cases, the ulcers form in places where cells lining the colon have died due to the inflammation. It can happen to anyone regardless of age but mostly starts among the population between 15 and 30 years of age (Thomas 2006, pg 623). The most common symptoms associated with this condition is bloody diarrhea and pain in the abdomen. In most severe cases, it is always necessary that the physicians offering care remove the colon! The term idiopathic is always used in reference to this condition because its etiology is really never known clearly.

    • Word count: 4898
  6. The aim for this literature review is to use specific information on the use of cannabis and cannabis based products to reduce pain in the patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The rationale for choosing this subject was that the author had experienced a

    Background Multiple sclerosis(MS) is an inflammatory disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged, leading to demyelination and scarring of the brain and spinal cord as well as a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms(MS Society 2011). It affects the ability of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord to communicate with each other. Nerve cells communicate by sending electrical signals called 'action potentials' down long fibers called axons (MSID 2011), which are wrapped in an insulating substance called myelin.

    • Word count: 4018
  7. The essay will briefly discuss 3 core conditions of effective helping skills, empathy, genuineness and acceptance (unconditional positive regard). It will focus on empathy and critically discuss the condition and will look at how empathy affects the nurse

    McCabe (2006) suggests that the offer of help should not be phony and that nurses should not hide behind the role of a counselor. Schnellbacher and Leijssen (2009) define genuineness as being aware of one's own experience otherwise known as self awareness and their findings also imply that genuiness in communication is imperative for healing. Being genuine also helps develop trust in the relationship (McLeod 2003), if a patient does not trust the nurse a therapeutic relationship will not form (McCabe 2006).

    • Word count: 2946
  8. The focus of this assignment will be on a case scenario of an elderly lady with signs of a chronic venous leg ulcer. It will discuss the epidemiology, aetiology and the pathophysiology in relation to venous leg ulcers,

    The action of the leg muscles assist in this movement of venous blood back to the heart. The muscle pumps are located in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, these pumps can be compared to the pump action of the heart (Porth 2002). Chronic venous insufficiency is when the valves become damaged or deformed preventing them from closing; this is often caused by a deep vein thrombosis (Tortora and Grabowski 2000). When this damage has occurred and the valves cannot close the normal flow of blood cannot occur (Porth 2002). The muscle pumps can also become ineffective due to immobility and drive blood in retrograde directions, also the blood does not empty from the deep veins.

    • Word count: 4209
  9. Anthropometric Measurement. This paper begins by comparing and contrasting the three most common types of anthropometric methods used in NHS hospitals (Hamwi method, Body Mass Index and waist measurement). It then explores the need to adjust measurements

    Actual weight is compared with this ideal benchmark (Hamwi, 1967). The advantage of Hamwi's method is that, it is easy to use, optimum body weight can be calculated by without the need for spreadsheet programs. The measurement requires only gender and height (Harvey, 2006). The disadvantage of the Hamwi method is that Dr Hamwi provides no references or explanations on the scientific methodology for his formula (Hamwi, 1967). It is based purely on his experiences and the assumption that, in general, males are larger than females and is therefore inaccurate.

    • Word count: 1827
  10. Interprofessional Education Reflective Essay. This reflective essay on an inter-professional education course argues that, in this particular scenario, problem based learning in a multi-disciplinary student team provided lessons to take into the real clin

    In true interprofessional working, task allocation should not be carried out according to traditional job descriptions but rather according to the person with the necessary skills, tacit knowledge and temperament. When our group of five was first formed, the team went through Tuckman's model: (Buchanan, 2010, p317) We formed by being polite with each other and spending more time introducing ourselves then focusing on the work as each person was keen to establish rapport and fit with the group over completion of the task.

    • Word count: 1389
  11. Urinalysis is executed as part of a routine physical evaluation. It is an inexpensive and easy method to indicate whether further follow up tests may be needed. These tests may include blood tests for diabetes via secretion of glucose in the urine or bloo

    An analysis of the solute composition of urine may aid in the diagnosis of dehydration, which may inform the prescription of oral or intravenous dehydration solution (Higgins, 2007). Ransmayr (2008) illustrates that an important part of the process of urinalysis is communication with the patient. It is important to explain to the patient why she is being asked for a sample, this facilitates patient consent and provides recognition of the patient as a person rather than a clinical object. If the patient is deaf or does not speak English it would be culturally sensitive for the nurse to use an interpreter of the same gender where possible.

    • Word count: 1258
  12. Discuss how integrating knowledge of biology, psychology, sociology and social policy contributes to the delivery of holistic nursing care.

    Antipsychotics main purpose is to block Dopamine receptors in the brain, and it is this block which is believed to be the cause of the development of Tardive Dyskinesia. During the usage of anti-psychotics, dopamine receptors in the brain become damaged, and patients start to develop symptoms which mirror Parkinson's disease sufferers, including involuntary movements, pouting lips, twitching and restlessness, particularly in the legs. Klawans (1973) decribes it as a Hypothesized result from increased responsiveness or supersensitivity of Dopamine receptor sites caused by long-term neuroleptic blockade.

    • Word count: 1278
  13. Free essay

    What Effects Does Poor Hand Hygiene Have On Patients Within a Hospital Setting?

    Polit and Beck (2008) wrote that Evidence Based Practice (EBP) is using the best clinical evidence, to make the best decisions regarding a patient's care. They also say that evidence comes from the research done by nurses and other health care professionals. Therefore, In order to find the correct Knowledge and Evidence to support me, I am going to be using literature searches and the university library to find reliable clinical evidence and research to grasp a good knowledge of the issue regarding my question.

    • Word count: 1678
  14. This locality essay is intended to help you learn how the social context of your patients affects their health. Locality Project - How Homelessness affects Health in Hackney.

    State the information you found on the topic and health in your borough in this section, without comment. You can include photographs of the borough (but not of patients) and specific data in appendices at the end of the essay, if relevant. 5. Draw conclusions commenting on how your findings show the influence of your topic on health in the chosen borough. You also need to indicate how this activity has helped you consider how aspects of everyday life can influence people's experience of health. You are not required to: 1. You should not try to cover more than one of the seminar topics except in a passing reference that demonstrates relevance.

    • Word count: 4846
  15. This essay will reflect on my first clinical experience during my placement.. Kelvin is a 7 years old boy who was admitted for sepsis (febrile neutropenia). I learnt about his medical history, his social background and treatment. I needed to have full un

    As it is impractical to obtain consent every time information is shared with other multi disciplinary, you must ensure patients understand that some information may be made available to other members of the team involved in the delivery of their care. There must be guard against breaches of confidentiality by protecting information from improper disclosures at all time. During my placement, I observed and learned from my mentor as I worked alongside with her. In order to protect patient's confidentiality, the name of the patient will be changed in accordance with the NMC (2008).

    • Word count: 1022
  16. Hematocrit Measurement. The specific purpose of this lab was to determine the hematocrit value of individuals with different gender, conditions, and environment.

    A heparinzed capillary tube was used and collected blood sample 1 by fluid capillary action. One end of the capillary tube containing blood sample 1 was sealed by the capillary tube sealer and placed in one of the slots in the microhematocrit centrifuge. The remaining five samples of blood were carried out in the same procedure as the previous sample. Once all the blood samples are placed in the microhematocrit centrifuge, the samples centrifuged for five minutes to segregate the blood into layers.

    • Word count: 907
  17. Health and Illness

    An example of this is a raised temperature which is classed as a sign but needs interpretation as to whether it is a sign of illness or as a result of exercise. We also covered the models of symptom perception in relation to health and illness behaviour, the first being the attention model in which we receive multiple internal and external cues which can compete for our attention. However, the cognitive - perceptual model is the way we interpret the physical symptoms in the light of our knowledge base.

    • Word count: 556
  18. Biomedical Model

    Whilst looking at this model we covered the basis of hyperkinesis, according to Weller (2009) he defines hyperkinesis as a condition in which there is excessive motor activity as developmental hyperactivity of children is characterised by very restless impulsive behaviour. Hyperkinesis is often associated with children often between the ages of two and four who have a poor attention span and the inability to concentrate. It is becoming more common through adolescence as it links with hyperactivity and restlessness; it is also become a recognised disorder due to high numbers of children being diagnosed with hyperactivity.

    • Word count: 601
  19. Models and framework of care

    Lee is a 42 year old man who was admitted to Accident & Emergency Department (A&E) via emergency services with rectal bleeding, a fractured leg, constipation and severe abdominal pain. After emergency surgery he was admitted to the ward. The diagnosis was made that Lee had cancer of the colon. Colon cancer affects the lower part of the digestive system, the large bowel and the rectum and is rare in people under 40 (Myers 1996). Due to surgery and the removal of the affected areas of the colon a colostomy bag had been inserted.

    • Word count: 2560
  20. Health Promotion

    This essay will identify the key principles a nurse needs to carry out health promotion to enhance patient well being, it will also discuss relevant policies and knowledge needed to carry out health promotion. Drawing upon a clinical example this essay will then examine the barriers and skills a nurse needs to promote health and well being. During a recent clinical placement with a healthvistor, a visit to a new mother in an area of high deprivation brought up issues concerning breastfeeding, the mother assured the health visitor that attachment and positioning was fine as well as the baby's feeding.

    • Word count: 2708
  21. Community Profile

    It is know by the Welsh assembly as a first area due to long-term social and economic disadvantages. The area is dominated by council housing but, despite the impact of 'right-to-buy' legislation, the levels of home owner housing is low. History The City's Population in the 18th century stood at 6,000 which grew as the city industrialized into a busy seaport, thriving as a centre for trade in tin-plate, steel tin-plate, copper smelting and coal export (Inglis-jones, 1954). In the 19th century overcrowding became a major issue as people flocked to the city to gain work. As a result poor housing and sanitation led to major demographic problems such as outbreaks of cholera and tuberculosis and the health of the city was compromised.

    • Word count: 4796
  22. Ethics and Law

    According to Hope et al (2008) Ethics is based on how a person should think and act. However Buka (2008) states that ethics can be based on social, religious and cultural beliefs. The NMC Code of Conduct (2008) provides a guideline to ethical decision making and the standards of professionalism that is required by the nurses. The case study referred to in this essay is about an elderly patient who has senile dementia, severe heart problems, immobile, is permanently in a nursing home and hwo has come into hospital for an operation to correct her current hip fracture.

    • Word count: 1650
  23. Engaging with Vulnerable People

    In case 6 the patient's children are deemed vulnerable hence the reason why they have been placed into care. This essay will be looking specifically at certain areas of vulnerability including discrimination, prejudice, mental illness, safeguarding children and adult abuse. Paying particular attention to how the patient is affected and how anti-discriminatory practices can be promoted. The concept of vulnerability has been used to mean impairment to the physical or mental well being needed for a normal life and that it is at constant risk. The patient has been identified as vulnerable as she displays and fits into certain criteria.

    • Word count: 1978
  24. Should special needs children be educated in mainstream schools

    Children with SEN have regularly been segregated into separate learning environments, specifically intended to cater for the student's area(s) of needs (Jenkinson, 1997). This system is beneficial to some educators, as they are able to apply specific curriculum for the needs of the children. The abilities of children vary in individuals, and having a school setting in place specifically for those with special needs can enable teachers and educators to apply techniques and give specific support to those who require.

    • Word count: 1100
  25. Delegation of Medication Administration

    Delegation, to a great extent, involves the controlling function of management (McConnell, 2007). Further, delegation involves the concept of liability. When a RN delegates a task to a subordinate, he or she is legally accountable for the outcomes of the performed task. For this reason, RNs must follow strict guidelines when determining whether or not a task is suitable for delegation. This study will compare the appropriate use of delegation to the appropriate use of empowerment. The legal and ethical ramifications that inhibit empowerment will also be evaluated. Although McConnell (2007) argues that the two are closely related, empowerment is seen as a form of supervision that allows employees to solve their own problems.

    • Word count: 1299

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