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Everyone was paid $4.50 and told that they would receive this even if they quit during the study. There were two confederates: an experimenter and a learner. The participant drew lots with the confederate and always ended up as the teacher. He was told that he must administer increasingly strong electric shocks to the participant each time he got a question wrong. The machine was tested on the participant to show him that it worked. The learner, sitting in another room, gave mainly wrong answers and received his (fake) shocks in silence until they reached 300 volts (very strong shock).
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According to Heath (1995), Implementation begins after the care plans has been developed, and focus on the initiation of nursing interventions to achieve the goals of care. A nursing intervention is any act that a nurse do to implement the nursing care plan or any specific objective of the plan. Roper et al (1996) suggest that a patient or client may require intervention in the form of support, medication, treatment for the current condition or treatment to prevent future health problems of the patient or client.
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Pathophysiology and the client adaptation - case study relates to a client who sustained a pelvic fracture from a road crash
If Grey-Turner's sign (Wright, 1997) presents, i.e. a bluish discoloration of the lower abdominal flanks and lower back, it may indicate pelvic fracture has caused retroperitoneal bleeding. The retroperitoneal space can accommodate up to 4 litres of blood (Phipps et al, 1999), thus ongoing monitor vital signs and Grey-Turner's sign at the early stage of the case is necessary. The sciatic nerve is the thickest and longerst nerve in the body. Two nerves (tibial and common peroneal) wrapped in a common sheath make up the sciatic nerve.
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Firstly, this paper will present the factors leading to my client's admission to the clinical area in which I was placed. This will be followed by personal history and assessment of
Dave was conscious and complained of central chest pain, radiating down his arms and into his jaw. On admission it was noted he was short of breath, clammy, nauseous. The pain had begun three hours before when he was at home decorating. He explained the pain was 'unbearable' and persisted despite resting. Acute pain indicates that tissue damage is occurring and is a warning signal to that individual that action is required to stop further damage (Mcleane, 1999). Pain in unrelated areas during an MI is known as referred pain.
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To ensure safe practice the area surrounding the patients' bed was cleared of any obstacles, this would then allow us to move around the bed freely. We then made sure that no windows were ajar also, as this would of caused a draught and made the patient feel uncomfortable. To maintain the patients' privacy and dignity we pulled the curtains around the bed and the ones on the window. Once Nurse Smith and I had ensured the safety and warmth of the room, we then continued to get the equipment needed for the bed bath, (see appendix 1).
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Reflection is an active process that will enable me and other heath care professionals to gain a deeper understanding of any experience with patients. (Johns and Freshwater 2005) I this assignment I will emphasise on the personal aspects
What Using the group work on professionalism I will reflect on communication. In that session we were put in small groups of five to discus professionalism. We are all studying different professions. As a group we had to put ideas together to define the definition of professionalism. We all first discussed and then compared the codes of professional conduct for each of the profession. Communication played very important part in this significant learning experience. Communication is the process by which information, meanings and feelings are shared through speaking (verbal) and gestures (non verbal)
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Teamwork is an integral part of Accident and Emergency care and if it is jeopardized problems tends to occur. Looking at communication, consent and teamwork I will explore and reflect the ways in which the patient I observed was treated.
For example the blood pressure, respirations, pulse and oxygen saturations were measured every five minutes to monitor any changes. Everything seemed to becoming a bit clearer as I watched and I started to understand what was happening. The relative still appeared to be very apprehensive. I explained to the relatives with the knowledge that I had in order to help the situation and make them understand why the professionals where doing certain procedures. I felt almost helpless, although I did offer support to the family that needed it at the time. It was determined that the patient needed to have a thrombolysis treatment.
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This essay explores acute confusion in elderly hospital patients. It was found that a high proportion
In addition, elders that develop delirium in hospital are more likely to be released into nursing homes rather than back into the community (Aditya & Sharma 2003). The introduction of better prevention, detection, and management strategies for acute confusion should improve outcomes for elderly patients. Causes of acute confusion in elderly hospital patients Elders are thought to have an increased risk for developing acute confusion due to their reduced physical reserves, prevalence of chronic illness, reduced neural function (which may involve pre-existing cognitive impairment), and polypharmacy (Mentes et al.
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To identify and focus on a specific risk to a patient. In order to do this effectively, a recognised risk assessment tool will be used and a treatment plan
Further to this, the Churchill Livingstone's Dictionary of Nursing (2002, p384) suggests that all risk assessments should be clearly structured. Therefore, an accurate assessment of a client's risk is vital in ensuring that the correct care plan is utilised to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient. Risk assessment and management is an integral part of the nurse's role. The Royal College of Nursing's (RCN, 2002) definition of nursing reinforces the importance of using clinical judgement as a tool when providing care to assist people in maintaining or recovering health.
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This assignment will look at the high acuity needs of James and why he was initially nursed in the HDU instead of on an orthopedic or genitourinary ward.
It is important to mention that confidentiality will be maintained throughout this report. The actual name of the person will be changed, and any identifying information will be changed or omitted from this report. Informed consent was obtained from James in order to complete this report. According to the Department of Health (1991), informed consent can help give people control over their lives, promote trust and partnership between all parties concerned, and encourage individuals to accept responsibility for their health. The writer explained that this report was a requisite for the completion of the paper and it would involve an interview with James about his medical condition as well as allowing the writer access to his notes.
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Nightingales impacts began when she volunteered her services during the Crimean War addressing the needs of wounded soldiers. It was during her time her that she revealed the appalling hygiene conditions in which the soldiers were living and she noticed that death rates were not down to injuries and infections but due to bad sanitary practice. Being a keen statistician and researcher she analysed and documented the data that she discovered producing the 'polar-area diagram', this is a statistical model which helps compare data, this showed that nursing care decreased the mortality of soldiers, and with the help of her contact John Delane, the editor of The Times, she published her findings.
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By reviewing previous literature many ideas and perspectives can be gained, this can aid in the formulation of research questions and will also prevent the exact same research being carried out twice, (Parahoo, 1997). Birtwistle et al describe how many of today's district nurses provide follow-up bereavement visits and offer some type of bereavement counselling, advice and support. Their literature search of this area produced very little evidence on which this practice could be based. They carried out a comprehensive literature search using various popular databases such as CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane, Embase and Psychlit.
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Using this information I was able to investigate the type of care that would be needed. I was also able to establish some key areas that I could enquire about to fully understand necessary procedures. This type of self-directed learning is driven by motivation and andragogy, which are key components known to influence the direction of the adult learner (Rogers, 1996). Charters (2000) also states voluntary learning that is active and personal to the individual are effective methods of learning. An introductory questionnaire was also received. Although this was a welcome difference compared to most placements, my answers were not discussed with my mentor upon my arrival.
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Several skills required in order to be become an effective nurse, there are particular areas that I personally have and continue to struggle with. During the adaptation months I found I had problems with over involving myself emotionally
One of the greatest difficulties was the language barrier even though I had been in England for a while and studied for the required International English Language Testing System qualification. I had to learn many new words, abbreviations and names of medicines. I would usually write these down and look them up as I returned home after work in order to keep up to speed. I also found it helped immensely that I am good team worker. This combined with a friendly attitude made the adaptation process trouble-free.
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Evidence based medicine then developed into evidence based heath care, which is an even broader term than evidence based medicine and can be defined as the conscientious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients or the delivery of health services. Evidence based practice is even more wide-ranging term. The major justification for evidence-based practice within nursing is to improve patient care. Other benefits of evidence-based practice include demonstration of effectiveness, justify skill mix, problem solving, identifying needs, provides a rationale for practice, provides consistent information, enhances professional status and to show purchases the use of evidence based practice (le May, 1999).
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Nurses must be made aware that inadequate formal procedures to assess patients' underlying medical problems have been blamed as a contributing factor in around 70% of preoperative deaths, as reported by (Hoile 2002). The findings of the National Confidential Enquiry into Preoperative Deaths (NCEPOD), was based on reports of deaths within 3 days of a surgical intervention, and follows the patient's journey through an illness and the delivery of hospital care. Consideration for the psychological, sociological or spiritual needs of the patient, become equally important.
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This assignment will look at how the change theory of Lewin can be applied to a clinical situation that has ethical, advocacy and legal ramifications
For this phase to be successful, an accurate assessment of the problem must be made along with a decision to change. In this phase people become disenchanted and become aware of a need for change. In the initial unfreezing phase of change the individual becomes aware of the need for change through three mechanisms. Hein and Nicholson, (1994) identify the first as occurring when the individuals expectations fail to be met (lack of confirmation). The second occurs when the individual feels uneasy about a certain action or lack of action (guilt/anxiety), and the third is when an obstacle to change has been removed (psychological safety).
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The aim of this essay is to explore and demonstrate understanding of how Patient with chronic illness adapts to change
They may experience fear and loss of confidence, often making rehabilitation slow. I worked in a rehabilitation (rehab) ward for eight weeks. I followed a patient case to understand chronic illness and adjustment. Anne is in her forties and she has been married for fourteen years. She has two children age 20 and 19 years. They moved recently in to new house with a big mortgage commitment. Anne felt generally unwell for several weeks. Then she began to feel weak and breathless and very itchy. Over one weekend she developed a great sense of weakness.
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This essay explores how the nursing profession has evolved since Florence Nightingale and how any change in the direction of n
Those who support transformational leadership believe it to be much more than a passing fad. Embracing this style of Leadership has been described as 'the key to future nursing development' (Cook 2001:41) Covey (1992, cited in Wieck&Evans 2003:22), describes the goal of the transformational leader as: ...to transform people and organisations in a literal sense, to change them in mind and heart; enlarge vision, insight and understanding; clarify purposes; make behaviour congruent with beliefs, principles or values; and bring about changes that are permanent, self perpetuating and momentum building. The five principles of transformational leadership include; 1)
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This essay will discuss the legal, ethical and professional concept of patient/client confidentiality and will identify any im
As a student nurse and not registered, there is an agreement in place that student nurses will adhere to these codes . During a placement within the community the author was working closely with the district nurses, clients were visited within their own homes and nursing homes, on one particular occasion the author visited a nursing home with the District nurse to treat a lady who I will refer to as Mrs Green this is pseudonym in order to comply with the NMC 2002 guidelines with relation to confidentiality.
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In the context of life long learning within nursing, midwifery or Healthcare. Discuss what study methods may help you to achieve your individual goals effectively,......and reflect upon your role as a learner.
standards and guidelines designed to allow the practitioner to provide the best possible care for the patients (NMC, 2002a). Life long learning is essential to the rapid change in knowledge, technology and society therefore it is important that individuals continually keep updating their skills and expertise. The NMC expects this very such thing in the Code of Professional Conduct (NMC, 2002b). For lifelong learning to be achieved it has been highlighted that nurses should have support from many various sources, such as personal tutors with the confines of the university, and also in their clinical practise provided by mentors.
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This assignment is based on a critical incident experienced by a student nurse while working with a charge nurse in a surgical ward at a
Furthermore, communicating effectively is essential to nursing practice. Good communication skills underpin the processes involved in assessment, care planning and the development of a therapeutic relationship between nurse and patient (Arnold 1999).Communication can, therefore be described as the lynchpin of nursing action (Miller 2002). It could also be viewed as the basic tool for the development of nurse patient relationships (Miller 2002), Research evidence suggests that effective leadership, good interpersonal skills and effective management style can contribute to a better learning and working environment (Wicke 2004; Tomey 2000; Hargie et al 1994; Wondrak 1998; Arnold and Bog 2003).
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Type 1 diabetes is therefore treated with insulin, (insulin was discovered in 1922 by Banting and Best). Type 1 diabetes is a catabolic disorder characterised by a lack of insulin, raised blood glucose levels and a breakdown of body fats and proteins. The lack of insulin in the body of type 1 patients means they are prone to the development of Ketoacidosis, (Porth, 2002). Type 2 diabetes usually develops when the body no longer produces adequate insulin or when the body resists insulin action. This resistance to insulin stimulates further insulin secretion from the Beta cells to overcome the demand to maintain a normoglycemic state. Over time the response from the Beta cells declines due to exhaustion.
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Nursing is a caring discipline, although the role of the nurse changed dramatically over the centuries
(Ellis and Hartlay, 2000: 165) However, caring and curing is not the only important task for the nurse. He or she also participates in health promotion, for example educating clients about health and the prevention of infirmity. In today's society, nursing takes place in many different contexts including patients' homes, communities, hospitals, schools or rehabilitation facilities and is involved in a range of different health care activities. The work of a nurse can reach from primary health care to tertiary care and encompasses a central role in ensuring the highest standards of health care in different environments. Nurses today have an immense responsibility in association with working in a diversity of different health care settings.
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In these situations it is the job of the nurse to help the client become empowered. As with becoming healthy, clients must empower themselves, as the client has the maximum impact on their life and health (Kuokkanen & Leino-Kipi, 2000). Nurses can only help, by creating a sense of client self-worth, and supporting the process by providing knowledge (empirical, aesthetic, ethical, personal), and skill. (Dam & Nyatanga, 2002). A nurses goal in a client empowering situation, is the well-being of the client, except in this situation the mindset is not "I must get the patient to regain health", the mindset is, "I must help the client regain health" with this mindset the nurse enters into a collaborative relationship with the client, where the client plays the part of an equal partner and, an active (receiving/giving information)
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