Occupational Health and Safety
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Introduction Occupational Health and Safety is associated with the physical, physiological and psychosocial conditions of an organisation's workforce, allied to aspects of work and the work context (De Cieri & Kramar, 2003, pp. 99). Occupational health and safety is a necessary and fundamental aspect in any productive organisations. Work-related injuries, diseases and stress and quality of the working-life of the employees are related to the employees' effectiveness. (Stone, 2002, pp. 646). Barling (2004) stated that occupational health and safety is a major issue for employees, and how management deals with this issue of both academic and practical significance. The most frequent organizational approaches used to produce a sufficient level of safety have focused on the optimal design of equipment (i.e., an ergonomic approach), adherence with government-imposed standards (i.e., a legislative approach), or compliance with the terms of collective agreements. Therefore, systematic approaches to occupational safety and health are rapidly emerging internationally as the pre-eminent strategy for employers to reduce occupational illness and injury. In addition, Schulte (2002) stated that the aim of the pre-eminent strategy is to improve knowledge, increase understanding, and apply information to specific problems. There are three topics that are emerged in this paper, those are: the significance of Occupational Health and Safety management and planning, Occupational Health and Safety Hazard example (work-related stress)
There are some cultures that may have to be implemented inside the organisation as a safety culture, which also can be contributed as possible solution in preventing Occupational Health and Safety issues, such as work-related stress. First is suggested by Clarke, 2003; Fuller & Vassie, 2003; Geller, 2001; Dilley & Kleiner (1996), is the trust between all stakeholders. Second is the honest, equitable and accessible communication, which can guarantee shared knowledge and understanding between all members of the organisation (Clarke, 2003; Frosdick, 1995; Fuller, 2002; Mozza & Wyld, 2002; Zwetsloot, 2001). Next is participation with the aim of encouraging employees in engaging actively in decision-making process and implementation strategies (Ariss, 2003; Dilley and Kleiner, 1996; Mozza & Wyld, 2002; Zwetsloot, 2001). Leadership is another possible culture to be implemented inside the organization, which reflected in planning, long term commitment, creativity and positive actions of managers, to endorse resource and support active involvement in safety activities and participation (Geller, 2001; Zwetsloot, 2001). Moreover, it is widely accepted that, employees require correlative abilities, skills, and knowledge to empower them to create a safe work environment. In this situation, particular train is necessary to achieve that goal, meanwhile, full understanding, sharing and awareness of all factors impacting on safety is need (Ariss, 2003; Mozza & Wyld, 2002; Zwetsloot, 2001).
178-187. Kleiman, L.S. (2000), Human Resource Management: A managerial tool competitive Advantage, South-Western, America. Macintosh, M. & Gough, R. (1998), "The impact of workplace change on occupational health and safety: A study of four manufacturing plants", Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 155-175. Mozza, M.L. & Wyld, D.C., (2002), "The carrot or the soft stick? The perspective of American safety professional on behaviour and incentive - based protection programmes", Management Research, Vol. 25, Issue 11, pp. 23-42. O'Brien, F. & Garavan, T.N. (2001), "An investigation into the relationships between safety climate and safety behaviours in Irish organisations", Irish Journal of Management, Vol. 22, Issue 1, pp. 141-170. Pearn, M. (2003), Australian human resource management guide, CCH Australia Limited, Australia. Schulte P.A. (2002), "Approaches to sharing occupational safety and health information on a global scale", American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 210-216. Schulte, P.A., Okun, A., Stephenson, C.M., Colligan, M., Ahlers, H., Gjessing, C., Loos, G., Niemeier, R.W. & Sweeney, M.H. (2003), "Information dissemination and use: Critical components in occupational safety and health", American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 5, pp. 515-531. Selye, H.(1956), The stress of life, McGraw-Hill,New York,NY. Stone, R.J. (2002), Human Resource Management, Queensland, John Wiley & Son Australia, Australia. Zwetsloot, G., (2001), "The Management of innovation by frontrunner companies in environment management and health and safety", Environmental Management & Health, Vol. 12, Issue 2/3, pp. 207-214. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page 1 of 7
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