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University Degree: Pharmacology

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  1. In this lab report I am going to investigate the neutralising behaviour of six different antacids on hydrochloric acid. Antacids are available in a variety of different formulations and are mainly available as over-the-counter (OTC) preparations.

    Usually the stomach has a pH that falls in between 1.5 and 2.5. This level can drop to 0.8 or even 0.4 in some cases when the stomach is not emptied. This build up in acid can also cause acid reflux up the oesophagus. This occurs when the lower oesophageal sphincter is abnormally relaxed, causing it to remain open. This leaves an open passage way for acid from the stomach to reflux up the oesophagus. This commonly causes heart burn.

    • Word count: 2391
  2. Free essay

    An investigation into the determination of Km and Vmax values for Alkaline Phosphatase

    These results can be used to produce a Lineweaver-Burk plot, from which Km and Vmax can be obtained indirectly. These kinetic parameters can therefore be used to distinguish between the various isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase because they show different sensitivities to inhibitors and heat2. The value of Km is a measure of the affinity of an enzyme for its substance. This, in combination with Vmax, which represents the maximum velocity of the rate of reaction, can be used to identify between isoenzymes as each isoenzyme displays different kinetic characteristics.

    • Word count: 4431
  3. Comparing the dissolution of tablets and capsules. The purpose of this experiment is to test the dissolution of previously prepared capsules containing different paracetamol formulations, and commercial formulations, in order to highlight the difference

    The purpose of this experiment is to test the dissolution of previously prepared capsules containing different paracetamol formulations, and commercial formulations, in order to highlight the differences between the formulations, including dosage form, excipients used, and prizes of brands and therefore quality, that may influence dissolution rate. . METHOD CONSTRUCTION OF CALIBRATION CURVE Dilutions of paracetamol stock solution (100mg/L) were carried out resulting in concentrations of 5 mg/L,10 mg/L,20mg/L, 25 mg/L,30 mg/L, and 40 mg/L. Absorbance of each solution was measured at 249nm using a UV spectrophotometer.

    • Word count: 3442
  4. Pathophysiology of health and disease

    The lab work that goes into the study of blood is performed by a Medical Technologist. Blood diseases affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, the mechanism of coagulation, etc. Physicians specialized in hematology are known as haematologists. Their routine work mainly includes the care and treatment of patients with haematological diseases, although some may also work at the haematology laboratory viewing blood films and bone marrow slides under the microscope, interpreting various haematological test results. In some institutions, haematologists also manage the haematology laboratory. Physicians who work in haematology laboratories, and most commonly manage it, are pathologists specialized in the diagnosis of haematological diseases, referred to as haematopathologists.

    • Word count: 1628
  5. Schizophrenia - Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacological Therapies

    The neurotransmitters in our brain include amino acids, monoamines, peptides and acetylcholine, some of these neurotransmitters are known to be excitatory (glutamate) while some are known to be inhibitory (GABA) and some are known to depend on their receptor in order to determine if the transmitter is inhibitory or excitatory (dopamine) neurotransmitter4. Structure of a typical NEURON 5 A basic neuron contains the cell body, which is the main part of the neuron as it contains all the necessary parts of the cell i.e.

    • Word count: 4027
  6. Schizophrenia

    • Word count: 3956
  7. Lead Toxicology

    Mathieu Orfila, who is widely regarded as the founder of modern toxicology, stated in his book of 1817 'A General System of Toxicology': 'If we were to judge of the interest excited by any medical subject by the number of writings to which it has given birth, we could not but regard the poisoning by lead as the most important to be known of all those that have been treated of, up to the present time' (Orfila, 1817, cited in Gilbert and Weiss, 2006).

    • Word count: 2075
  8. Pharmacy practice research assignment

    Such propositions have proved successful when adopted under a hospital-based self-medication scheme for hospital patients upon discharge. However, the authors want to test the possibility of extending this scheme to older patients in primary care - many of whom are treated in the general practice setting. While the method section describes the sequence of events following each visit from the clinical pharmacist and the restricted involvement of the control group patients in visits 1 and 2, the hypothesis is not explicitly presented. For example, the authors fail to describe the associated impact the independent variable (rationalization of patients' medication and medicines education for intervention group only)

    • Word count: 1879
  9. Case study 6 George: an unquenchable thirst

    Relevance of the blood tests Calcium Serum calcium is important for muscle contractility, cardiac function, blood clotting and neural transmission. The total calcium in the blood can be measured to determine parathyroid function and calcium metabolism. The normal levels of serum calcium is between 2.25-2.75 mmol/l. George's serum calcium is 3.24 mmol/l which is higher than the normal range. Increased levels of serum calcium (hypercalcemia) could be due to hyperparathyroidism. Another cause of hypercalcemia is malignancy, tumour metatasis (myeloma, lung and renal cell)

    • Word count: 3728
  10. Give an account of how the monoamines act as transmitters and their roles in function in the brain

    Pharmacological drugs act on the function of the neurotransmitters in a variety of ways. Signals can be blocked (in the case of analgesics); using chemicals which impede the receptors in the target neuron. The reuptake of neurotransmitters from the extracellular space can be impeded (Torres, Gainetdinov & Caron, 2003) which increases the magnitude of the signal transmitted (for example antidepressants) or the volume of neurotransmitter itself can be increased (for example LSD is similar in structure to serotonin). This method of treatment of both physical and psychological disorders arises from the premise that many disorders originate in neurotransmission dysfunction, or are the result of adaptation of neural activity.

    • Word count: 1991
  11. clinical research essay 2

    Justification for conducting the study; Types of people and the number of people needed to answer the question being studies; Schedule of tests and procedures involved in the study; Medications and/or medical devices involved; Length of the study; Plan for analysing the data produced; Guidelines and rules for stopping the study and ending the study. The point of a clinical trial protocol is to certify that the study is justified, that the protocol is safe for the participants of the study, and consequently the study is designed to allow the research questions to be answered.3 Producing a protocol is in its self quite a time-consuming process, but ultimately time and effort spent effectively results in a high quality document.

    • Word count: 2934
  12. clinical research essay 1

    illness such as cancer.2 Medical breakthroughs often make the news, but you don't usually hear about clinical trials themselves unless something has gone wrong i.e. the phase I TGN1412 trial that was carried out on anti-inflammatory drug at a research unit at Northwick Park Hospital. The drug was designed to treat conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and leukaemia. Eight volunteers were involved in the trial, two of whom were given a placebo and were seen to be fine. But the other six individuals within hours of taking the novel drug suffered multiple organ failure.

    • Word count: 2295
  13. clinical resrach essay 3

    and overall wealth"4 and consequently the population is demanding advanced healthcare standards. With China's admission into the World Trade Organization, the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has aimed to improve the regulatory environment for pharmaceutical products which is "currently valued at over $3.5 billion in China."4 Outsourcing is not a recent concept as it has been used extensively since the mid 1990's and is on the increase.5 It is thought that by 2008 that nearly 50 % of all the drug development expenditure will be devoted to outsourcing in contrast to 4 % at the beginning of the 1990's.5

    • Word count: 1724
  14. Discuss current research into the causes of addiction, using specified examples

    Addiction is more than mere drug use. It is defined specifically as a compulsive pattern of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviour that takes place at the expense of most other activities. The key questions in addiction, therefore, are why some susceptible individuals undergo a transition from casual drug use to compulsive patterns of drug use (Edwards 1981:225-42) There are three different areas of explanation. The first involves the neurobiological effects of drugs and explains drug dependence (addiction) in biological terms. The second area is psychological, explanations concentrate on models of behaviour and differences between individuals.

    • Word count: 1881
  15. Discuss the role of the GABAA receptor chloride channel complex in the action of anxiolytic drugs

    In animal models this behavioural inhibition translates as immobility, or suppression of a behavioural response such as bar-pressing to obtain food. In order to develop new anxiolytic drugs, it is important animal tests are available that give a good guide to activity in man. Examples of animal tests used to demonstrate anxiety are the rotarod and grip strength test, activity cages to measure locomotor activity, the elevated plus maze test, the fear potentiated startle paradigm, testing the righting reflex of mice, and the light-dark choice test where "anxious" mice appear to choose to stay in dark areas rather than light ones.

    • Word count: 2196
  16. With reference to recent research, discuss the ways in which drugs affect human behaviour.

    The source of power for the electrical activity of the nervous system comes from an uneven distribution of charged particles across the membranes of neurones. When an effective stimulus is applied to a neurone, local changes take place inside the membrane, which allows sodium ions to rush through the membrane. This influx of positive charge counteracts the negative resting potential and the cell becomes positively charged. As a result of the movement of charged particles, a wave of electrical activity travels down the axon.

    • Word count: 2401
  17. Should drugs be legalised? There is now considerable debate about whether to legalise or at least decriminalise certain drugs, in particular Cannabis.

    Cannabis The effect a drug has on a person depends on the type of drug, it's strength and how much is taken. Heroin, otherwise known as Smack, Junk or "H" derives from the Opium Poppy. First effects include the feeling of warmth and pleasure, however because it is a hard drug overdosing can cause unconsciousness and if used regularly it produces dependence. In these situation sudden withdrawal can cause vomiting, aches, sweating and tiredness. Cocaine, on the other hand come from the Coca plant, and it makes people excited, over-alert and full of energy, however the effect wears off quickly causing depression and insomnia.

    • Word count: 1365
  18. Struggle with Cocaine Addiction in Bright Lights, Big City.

    Cocaine generates from South America and is mainly grown in Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia. In relevance to You referring to cocaine as "Bolivian Marching Powder" (McInerney 1). "Cocaine is a stimulant" that accelerates various functions of the body (Bozza). Functions that almost always affect the ways an addict acts, thinks, and responds to the world around him/her. Thus, for an addict, like You, cocaine is the way of life. Cocaine plays a significant role in addict's lives often affecting relationships with others. Cocaine is not only used as a method to get high and escape from reality, but cocaine also "replaces relaxed conversation and real sharing" in relationships (Woods 25).

    • Word count: 2924
  19. In light of reduced uptake of the triple MMR vaccination, how do we increase protection levels to WHO recommended levels (95%) and protect the revenues of XYZ Pharmaceuticals

    * Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Scenario 1 for Factor 1 Scenario 1 for Factor 2 Scenario 1 for Factor 3 Scenario 1 for Factor 4 Scenario 1 for Factor 5 Scenario 1 for Factor 6 Scenario 2 for Factor 1 Scenario 2 for Factor 2 Scenario 2 for Factor 3 Scenario 2 for Factor 4 Scenario 2 for Factor 5 Scenario 2 for Factor 6 Scenario 3 for Factor 1 Scenario 3 for Factor 2 Scenario 3 for Factor 3 Scenario 3 for Factor 4 Scenario 3 for Factor 5 Scenario 3

    • Word count: 4280
  20. Discuss the evidence for a dopaminergic system that is involved in reward and drug addiction.

    Dopamine affects brain processes that control movement, emotional response, and the ability to experience pleasure and pain. Regulation of dopamine plays a crucial role in our mental and physical health. Many of the concepts that apply to dopamine apply to other neurotransmitters as well. As a chemical messenger, dopamine is similar to adrenaline. Dopamine affects brain processes that control movement, emotional response, and ability to experience pleasure and pain. Regulation of dopamine plays a crucial role in our mental and physical health. Neurons containing the neurotransmitter dopamine are clustered in the midbrain, in an area called the substantia nigra.

    • Word count: 1970
  21. Should cannabis be legalised?

    am against the legalisation of cannabis, and reading the evidence and arguments I have put together I am sure most people will agree. When arguing for legalisation, people point to the fact that reports from scientists claim that there is no evidence that long-term use causes lasting damage to physical and mental health. This is backed up by recent experiments carried out by Harrison Pope, a psychologist at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He compared 108 users with 72 non-users for symptoms like memory loss and long-term effects with co-ordination and his tests revealed no long-term effects.

    • Word count: 1070
  22. Using the structural, historical and cultural dimensions of the sociological imagination, identify the critical issues that relate to how western medicine has responded to the challenge of alternative medicine.

    Its biological in nature, therefore it reduces illness to a biological process. Its scientific in nature, thus regards the scientific method as providing the only means by which to access valid knowledge. Its mechanistic in nature, therefore conceptualizes the separation of body and mind and perceives the body as a machine of which a disease is a malfunctioning part that requires fixing, and the biomedical model emphasize on finding a cure, rather than prevention of the disease. In contrast, alternative medicine practitioners regard health and illness not only as a physical matter, but also as an emotional and spiritual one.

    • Word count: 642
  23. Investigate the solubility of table salt (NaCl) in distilled water at different temperatures.

    Historians believe that it was one of the first crops to be cultivated by man for its fibre, and the ancient Chinese are believed to have been especially adept at is cultivation in using the hemp fibres to make textiles, fishing nets, ropes and mats. It is the male part of the plant that produces the tough fibres from which hemp cloth and rope is made and the female that generates the sticky aromatic resins of the plant. The whereabouts of cannabis is thought to have reached Europe by 600 BC, following which during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I

    • Word count: 2599
  24. The effect of alcohol consumption on the brain.

    NMDA receptors are affected which was said in a new study that the interactions with dopamine and glutamate neurotransmitter pathways are a key factor in the regulation of the inhibitory affects of alcohol and brain function. They found that alcohol stops the NMDA glutamate receptor, which is a reason you feel "drunk".

    • Word count: 398
  25. Outline the economic arguments for and against legalising cannabis use in the UK.

    There are many slang names for cannabis, some of which are marijuana, weed, hash, spliff, and ganja. Cannabis can be used for medical reasons, as it can relieve nausea and allow patients to eat and live normally. Cannabis has many effects on the human body. It's mildly sedative effect can lead to relaxation, decreased blood pressure, increased appetite, and increased sociability. Cannabis is high in carcinogens, and regular use may damage lungs. The official medical view of cannabis has also undergone a revolution. Although no one believes cannabis is a harmless drug, it is now widely seen to be less dangerous than alcohol or tobacco, although in the long term could cause lung cancer.

    • Word count: 2656
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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Discuss the role of the GABAA receptor chloride channel complex in the action of anxiolytic drugs

    "However, in contrast to diazepam which is a full agonist at all benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptors, L838417 fails to enhance the GABA response at ?1 containing receptors but acts on ?2, 3, and 5 containing receptors apparently with partial agonistic activity. L838417 displayed anxiolytic-like activity in wild type rats as shown in the elevated plus-maze test and in conditioned fear potentiated startle protocol. The behavioural characterisation of L838417 supports the conclusion that the sedative but not the anxiolytic-like properties of benzodiazepines are mediated by ?1 containing GABAA receptors (McKernan et al 2000). It can be expected that more advanced anxiolytic drugs would be agonists selective for ?2 containing GABAA receptors. Also, sub-type specific drugs should display fewer side-effects, such as tolerance and dependence liability and depression of respiration, due to the fact that they only act on a small population of GABAA receptors. In the future it may be possible for subtype specific ligands to be used in the treatment of not only anxiety and depression which are traditionally treated with benzodiazepines, but other neuropsychiatric disorders for which treatment has been relatively unsuccessful to date."

  • Discuss the viability of the legalisation of cannabis for medicinal purposes

    "the arguments that claim that cannabis causes long term damage to the body and these long term side effects outweigh any positive aspects of the drug. Cannabis is plant related to nettles and hops grows wild in many parts of the world, it is believed to have originated in the mountainous regions of India. The plant contains more than four hundred chemicals and can be processed in such a way that it's main active ingredient namely delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC can be ingested to produce psychoactive effects. When smoked THC will reach the brain in about seven seconds; if eaten effects can take much longer. Positive effects can include talkativeness, relaxation, a loss of social inhibition and greater appreciation of sound and colour. Speech may become slurred and co-ordination is usually impaired. Large amounts of the drug can produce hallucinogenic effects. (Gross, 2002: Pg. 112) However as with many drugs there are undesirable side effects. These may come in the form of mild panic and paranoia. To illustrate, a recent study showed that 10 to 15% of people who smoked cannabis reported feelings of confusion or paranoia and around 30% gave these experiences as their reasons for quitting the drug. Nausea and vomiting may occur where too much is taken at once, especially when the drug is taken with alcohol. ("

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