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University Degree: Pharmacology

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    An investigation into the determination of Km and Vmax values for Alkaline Phosphatase

    These results can be used to produce a Lineweaver-Burk plot, from which Km and Vmax can be obtained indirectly. These kinetic parameters can therefore be used to distinguish between the various isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase because they show different sensitivities to inhibitors and heat2. The value of Km is a measure of the affinity of an enzyme for its substance. This, in combination with Vmax, which represents the maximum velocity of the rate of reaction, can be used to identify between isoenzymes as each isoenzyme displays different kinetic characteristics.

    • Word count: 4431
  2. Comparing the dissolution of tablets and capsules. The purpose of this experiment is to test the dissolution of previously prepared capsules containing different paracetamol formulations, and commercial formulations, in order to highlight the difference

    The purpose of this experiment is to test the dissolution of previously prepared capsules containing different paracetamol formulations, and commercial formulations, in order to highlight the differences between the formulations, including dosage form, excipients used, and prizes of brands and therefore quality, that may influence dissolution rate. . METHOD CONSTRUCTION OF CALIBRATION CURVE Dilutions of paracetamol stock solution (100mg/L) were carried out resulting in concentrations of 5 mg/L,10 mg/L,20mg/L, 25 mg/L,30 mg/L, and 40 mg/L. Absorbance of each solution was measured at 249nm using a UV spectrophotometer.

    • Word count: 3442
  3. Schizophrenia - Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacological Therapies

    The neurotransmitters in our brain include amino acids, monoamines, peptides and acetylcholine, some of these neurotransmitters are known to be excitatory (glutamate) while some are known to be inhibitory (GABA) and some are known to depend on their receptor in order to determine if the transmitter is inhibitory or excitatory (dopamine) neurotransmitter4. Structure of a typical NEURON 5 A basic neuron contains the cell body, which is the main part of the neuron as it contains all the necessary parts of the cell i.e.

    • Word count: 4027
  4. Schizophrenia

    • Word count: 3956
  5. Case study 6 George: an unquenchable thirst

    Relevance of the blood tests Calcium Serum calcium is important for muscle contractility, cardiac function, blood clotting and neural transmission. The total calcium in the blood can be measured to determine parathyroid function and calcium metabolism. The normal levels of serum calcium is between 2.25-2.75 mmol/l. George's serum calcium is 3.24 mmol/l which is higher than the normal range. Increased levels of serum calcium (hypercalcemia) could be due to hyperparathyroidism. Another cause of hypercalcemia is malignancy, tumour metatasis (myeloma, lung and renal cell)

    • Word count: 3728
  6. In light of reduced uptake of the triple MMR vaccination, how do we increase protection levels to WHO recommended levels (95%) and protect the revenues of XYZ Pharmaceuticals

    * Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Scenario 1 for Factor 1 Scenario 1 for Factor 2 Scenario 1 for Factor 3 Scenario 1 for Factor 4 Scenario 1 for Factor 5 Scenario 1 for Factor 6 Scenario 2 for Factor 1 Scenario 2 for Factor 2 Scenario 2 for Factor 3 Scenario 2 for Factor 4 Scenario 2 for Factor 5 Scenario 2 for Factor 6 Scenario 3 for Factor 1 Scenario 3 for Factor 2 Scenario 3 for Factor 3 Scenario 3 for Factor 4 Scenario 3 for Factor 5 Scenario 3

    • Word count: 4280
  7. Pharmacology. The use of co-beneldopa and selegiline in the treatment of Parkinsons disease

    There the cells release essential dopamine neurotransmitters that help control movement and coordination (ADAM, 2011). Currently, there is no cure for Parkinson's disease and as yet no knowledge as to why people get the condition (Parkinson?s UK, 2011). Parkinson's doesn't directly cause people to die, but symptoms do get worse over time (Parkinson?s UK, 2011). Parkinson's doesn't directly cause people to die, but symptoms do worsen over time (Parkinson?s UK, 2011) which does have a contributory factor to mortality rates. Pharmocokinetics is a branch of pharmacology that is concerned with both the rates at which the drug is absorbed and eliminated and what influences the time the drug moves between one biological compartment and another (Hollinger, 2003).

    • Word count: 3937

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Discuss the role of the GABAA receptor chloride channel complex in the action of anxiolytic drugs

    "However, in contrast to diazepam which is a full agonist at all benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptors, L838417 fails to enhance the GABA response at ?1 containing receptors but acts on ?2, 3, and 5 containing receptors apparently with partial agonistic activity. L838417 displayed anxiolytic-like activity in wild type rats as shown in the elevated plus-maze test and in conditioned fear potentiated startle protocol. The behavioural characterisation of L838417 supports the conclusion that the sedative but not the anxiolytic-like properties of benzodiazepines are mediated by ?1 containing GABAA receptors (McKernan et al 2000). It can be expected that more advanced anxiolytic drugs would be agonists selective for ?2 containing GABAA receptors. Also, sub-type specific drugs should display fewer side-effects, such as tolerance and dependence liability and depression of respiration, due to the fact that they only act on a small population of GABAA receptors. In the future it may be possible for subtype specific ligands to be used in the treatment of not only anxiety and depression which are traditionally treated with benzodiazepines, but other neuropsychiatric disorders for which treatment has been relatively unsuccessful to date."

  • Discuss the viability of the legalisation of cannabis for medicinal purposes

    "the arguments that claim that cannabis causes long term damage to the body and these long term side effects outweigh any positive aspects of the drug. Cannabis is plant related to nettles and hops grows wild in many parts of the world, it is believed to have originated in the mountainous regions of India. The plant contains more than four hundred chemicals and can be processed in such a way that it's main active ingredient namely delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC can be ingested to produce psychoactive effects. When smoked THC will reach the brain in about seven seconds; if eaten effects can take much longer. Positive effects can include talkativeness, relaxation, a loss of social inhibition and greater appreciation of sound and colour. Speech may become slurred and co-ordination is usually impaired. Large amounts of the drug can produce hallucinogenic effects. (Gross, 2002: Pg. 112) However as with many drugs there are undesirable side effects. These may come in the form of mild panic and paranoia. To illustrate, a recent study showed that 10 to 15% of people who smoked cannabis reported feelings of confusion or paranoia and around 30% gave these experiences as their reasons for quitting the drug. Nausea and vomiting may occur where too much is taken at once, especially when the drug is taken with alcohol. ("

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