• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19
  20. 20
    20
  21. 21
    21
  22. 22
    22
  23. 23
    23
  24. 24
    24

Pulmonary tuberculosis. My objectives was to learn more about mycobacterium tuberculosis, and overview on pulmonary tuberculosis

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Amira saidin ? manchestersem3 Introduction (TB thesis sem 3) Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the microorganism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can affect several organs of the human body, including the brain, the kidneys and the bones; but most commonly it affects the lungs (Pulmonary Tuberculosis). The first stage of the infection usually lasts for several months. During this period, the body's natural defenses (immune system) resist the disease, and most or all of the bacteria are walled in by a fibrous capsule that develops around the area. Before the initial attack is over, a few bacteria may escape into the bloodstream and be carried elsewhere in the body, where they are again walled in. In many cases, the disease never develops beyond this stage - and is referred to as TB infection. If the immune system fails to stop the infection and it is left untreated, the disease progresses to the second stage, active disease. There, the germ multiplies rapidly and destroys the tissues of the lungs (or the other affected organ). In some cases, the disease, although stoped at first, flares up after a latent period. Sometimes, the latent period is many years, and the bacteria become active when the opportunity presents itself, especially when immunity is low. The second stage of the disease is manifested by destruction or "consumption" of the tissues of the affected organ. When the lung is affected, it results in diminished respiratory capacity, associated with other symptoms; when other organs are affected, even if treated adequately, it may leave permanent, disabling scar tissue. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is currently threatening to re-emerge with a greater threat to morbidity and mortality of patients badly affect by it. The phenomenon of drug and multi-drug resistance (MDR) has made the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis one of the most feared organisms. This is more strikingly demonstrated by the increased occurrence of tuberculosis among the young, the elderly and the immunocompromised, with AIDS being a classic example. ...read more.

Middle

4. Granulomatous endometritis, high power microscopic. 5. Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain, microscopic, AFB stain. 6. Auramine stain, M. tuberculosis, fluorescence microscopy. 4.5 Physical Primary tuberculosis is characterized by the absence of any signs on clinical evaluation. These patients are identified by a positive TST result. Tuberculin hypersensitivity may be associated with erythema nodosum and phlyctenular conjunctivitis. Signs of disease depend on the site involved (pulmonary or extrapulmonary). Pulmonary disease may manifest itself in several forms, including endobronchial tuberculosis with focal lymphadenopathy, progressive pulmonary disease, pleural involvement, and reactivated pulmonary disease. Endobronchial disease: Enlargement of lymph nodes may result in signs suggestive of bronchial obstruction or hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. Vocal cord paralysis may occur as a result of local nerve compression. Dysphagia due to esophageal compression also may be observed.[12][14] Progressive primary pulmonary tuberculosis: This condition presents with classic signs of pneumonia, including tachypnea, nasal flaring, grunting, dullness to percussion, egophony, decreased breath sounds, and crackles. Pleural effusion: Signs include tachypnea, respiratory distress, dullness to percussion, decreased breath sounds, and, occasionally, features of mediastinal shift. 1. Pulmonary Tuberculosis Types Pulmonary Tuberculosis types are Primary Tuberculosis Pneumonia, Tuberculosis Pleurisy, Cavitary Tuberculosis, Miliary TB, Laryngeal Tuberculosis[12] 5.1 Primary Tuberculosis Pneumonia This uncommon type of TB presents as pneumonia and is very infectious. Patients have a high fever and productive cough. It occurs most often in extremely young children and the elderly. It is also seen in patients with immunosuppression, such as HIV-infected and AIDS patients, and in patients on long term corticosteroid therapy. 5.2 Tuberculosis Pleurisy This usually develops soon after initial infection. A granuloma located at the edge of the lung ruptures into the pleural space, the space between the lungs and the chest wall. Usually, a couple of tablespoons of fluid can be found in the pleural space. Once the bacteria invade the space, the amount of fluid increases dramatically and compresses the lung, causing shortness of breath (dyspnea) ...read more.

Conclusion

TB is not caused by perspiration drying on one?s back, by over-exertion or fatigue TB is not caused by smoking or pollution, although these clearly damage the lungs. TB is not caused by poor nutrition, although this could make a person who inhales a TB bacterium more likely to develop TB disease. TB is not transmitted through food or drinks or using other utensils. TB is acquired through exposure to someone sick with active TB of the lungs. Mild symptoms of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and brief, often no obvious signs, many patients were unknowingly spent, and showed that PPD. TB prevention and control takes two parallel approaches. In the first, people with TB and their contacts are identified and then treated. Identification of infections often involves testing high-risk groups for TB. In the second approach, children are vaccinated to protect them from TB. No vaccine is available that provides reliable protection for adults. However, in tropical areas where the levels of other species of mycobacteria are high, exposure to nontuberculous mycobacteria gives some protection against TB. Since humans are the only host of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, eradication would be possible. This goal would be helped greatly by an effective vaccine. Treatment for TB uses antibiotics to kill the bacteria. Effective TB treatment is difficult, due to the unusual structure and chemical composition of the mycobacterial cell wall, which makes many antibiotics ineffective and hinders the entry of drugs. Progression from TB infection to TB disease occurs when the TB bacilli overcome the immune system defenses and begin to multiply. In primary TB disease?1?5% of cases?this occurs soon after infection. However, in the majority of cases, a latent infection occurs that has no obvious symptoms. These dormant bacilli can produce tuberculosis in 2?23% of these latent cases, often many years after infection. The risk of reactivation increases with immunosuppression, such as that caused by infection with HIV. In patients co-infected with M. tuberculosis and HIV, the risk of reactivation increases to 10% per year. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Healthcare essays

  1. Nursing : An Example of a Clinical Incident

    When the commotion started outside and I was unable to project my voice over the noise this caused me to become agitated. There were also situations when babies were crying and this caused a lot of disturbances and so an interval during my part of the session was necessary and

  2. The Effectiveness of Brief Interventions in Reducing Binge

    found that 20% of male and 6% of female students had caused damage to property when drunk. The costs involved for repairs in most cases are enormous. Researchers argue that most times compared with tobacco or illicit drugs, alcohol is clearly more "expensive" in terms of the resources expended in dealing with the adverse consequences of abusive drinking.

  1. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Prescription drug use ...

    Recommendation suggestions are-- 1. Awareness regarding side-effects and dosage of the prescription drug use 2. To educate the people about safe drug practices by Making advertisement at commercial level with the aid of banners, organizing cultural programmes, entertainment education regarding its ill effect on health.

  2. Presbyopia and Progressive Powered Lenses.

    This makes them more attractive than any other multifocal lenses (bifocals or trifocals), where there is a visible line delimitating the distance prescription from the reading one. Also, the progressive lenses provide a complete range of working distances, unlike the bifocals which can provide only distance and reading prescriptions.

  1. The aim of this study was to investigate the health and nutritional status of ...

    and some types of cancer could be reduced by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption (DOH, 2005). This was supported in a worldwide risk assessment of cancer which found 5% of cancer to be attributed to low fruit and vegetable consumption (Danaei et al, 2005).

  2. Review of Factors Influencing Successful Patient Education in a Rehab Unit for Spinal Cord ...

    According to these studies, patient education is one of the valuable information tools that can help individuals with spinal cord injuries in minimising hospitalisations and practitioner consultations. More than ever, patients with severe spinal cord injuries require timely and high quality information on the issues related to health and medicine

  1. Patient care pathways for patients with malignant disease - Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Risk Factors Hodgkin?s Lymphoma accounts for a ratio of 1.2:1 in males especially before puberty (Map of Medicine, 2013). Studies undertaken by scientists have determined that Hodgkin?s lymphoma is caused by a variety of factors which include changes to immunity, infections, genetic factors, chemicals and lifestyle factors.

  2. Each year 1 million people die from malaria. Discuss whether these deaths are avoidable ...

    could be prevented by environmental management?. (?Preventing Disease through Healthy Environments?) In the past, in 1950s America, oil was used to stop the growth of mosquitoes by removing their breeding ground. This suggests that if a wealthy country can eradicate malaria then there is no reason why all countries can?t eradicate it.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work