• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea in the United States. It is also a major cause of gastroenteritis as well. Although gastroenteritis associated with rotavirus is not usually fatal in the United States, it can be extremely fatal in developing c

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rotavirus Rotavirus is an infectious disease that is caused by an RNA virus. It is a member of the Reoviridae family of viruses. Members of the Reoviridae family have a genome that consists of 11 double-stranded RNA segments which are surrounded by a double-layered protein capsid. The virus particles are about 70 nm in diameter. Six groups of rotavirus have been identified. Groups A,B, and C infect humans (FDA, 2009.) Groups D,E, and F infect certain animals. Rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea in the United States. It is also a major cause of gastroenteritis as well. Although gastroenteritis associated with rotavirus is not usually fatal in the United States, it can be extremely fatal in developing countries. In this country, the virus is responsible for 3.5 million cases of diarrhea annually. It is also responsible for approximately 50,000 hospitalizations and accounts for around 20 deaths of children under the age of 5 every year. In both underdeveloped and developed nations, rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in young children and infants. ...read more.

Middle

The biggest problem is diarrhea. The diarrhea is usually watery and does not contain blood or mucous. It is important to consume plenty of liquids in order to keep hydrated. Neurologic symptoms can occur in extreme cases as a result of an electrolyte imbalance or direct viral infection in the central nervous system. Rotavirus is also associated with aseptic meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, acute myositis, hepatic abscess, pneumonia, Kawasaki disease, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Crohn's disease. Gastroenteritis, resulting from rotavirus, can lasts for months in children with immunodeficiency. Diagnoses of rotavirus involves taking a stool sample or performing a rectal swab. Detection of rotavirus is routinely done with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for rotavirus. ELISA can be used to detect antigen late in the course of illness. For quick diagnosis, latex agglutination kits may be used. An enzyme immunoassay or (EIA) is the most widely used test used to screen stool samples. ...read more.

Conclusion

In many hospitals, people with rotavirus are kept isolated from other patients. Because the virus is so prevalent, it is very difficult or even impossible to prevent rotavirus infection. Even places with excellent standards of hygiene and sanitation can become contaminated. Vaccination is the most effective preventive measure. An older vaccine to prevent rotavirus was withdrawn due to adverse side effects. The United States Food and Drug Administration approved a live virus vaccine for use in infants. However, this recommendation was withdrawn in 1999 because the vaccine appeared to increase the risk of intestinal problems. The vaccine was known as RotaShield. In 2006, the FDA approved a new rotavirus vaccine. This vaccine RotaTeq is a live oral vaccine for use in children. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted to recommend a newly licensed vaccine to protect against rotavirus. Studies have shown that the vaccine prevents about 74% of all rotavirus cases, about 98% of severe rotavirus cases, and about 96% of hospitalizations due to rotavirus. Three doses of the rotavirus vaccine are recommended at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Healthcare essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    MRSA. About 1 in 3 of us carries SA on the surface of our ...

    4 star(s)

    This is known as infection control. (Hernan, M, D & Chang, R 2006) The number of antibiotic resistant bacteria has increased in recent years due to people not finishing the full course of antibiotics they have been prescribed, which allows some bacteria to survive, develop a resistance to the antibiotic

  2. This assignment will look at COPD and its associated problems as well as smoking ...

    the five main models are medical, behaviour change, educational, empowerment and social change. The medical model is characterised by preventing ill health and premature death whereas the behaviour approach encourages patients to live a healthy lifestyle. The educational approach provides information and knowledge to patients to allow them to make informed decisions concerning their health and lifestyle choices.

  1. Causes of stress in the workplace and the effect on the staff as well ...

    By Dawn Bewick Part Two 3c Demonstrate the skills required to work effectively in a team and give examples from the workplace Good listening skills are invaluable when working with others. There is an art to being able to discover what another person is trying to communicate, and this can take many years to perfect.

  2. Review and discussion of 1993 meeting between the United States President Bill Clinton and ...

    Clearly, the levels of individualism or communalism minimally impact the effectiveness of a national health care system. Italian critics blame financial hindrance for the failure of their system, but the world's wealthiest nation, the United States, fell short in producing any system that could be coined a national health care system (Ferrera 235).

  1. The cot death controversy.

    Does the diagnosis require a deliberate intention to deceive? How, in any particular case, is it possible to distinguish between fabrication and exaggeration? Some features identified in MSBP - the perpetrator's denial of the cause of the child's illness, the disappearance of symptoms and signs when the child is removed from the perpetrator - can be found in other forms of child abuse.

  2. The treatment of the mentally ill in the United States has traveled a long ...

    Almshouses, where the insane were thrown in with the poor, aged, orphaned, etc., were used as one way of dealing with the break down. Also, private donors and charities gave money to help out those in acute distress. However, the money was usually insufficient in dealing with the numbers of people in need.

  1. Depression associated with low mood in the elderly.

    She also experiences pains in her head and the back of her neck due to arthritis. Epidemiological research of low mood Depression associated with low mood in the elderly is the focus of the assinment, however depression varies widely and can be characterised by varieties of symptoms.

  2. Each year 1 million people die from malaria. Discuss whether these deaths are avoidable ...

    For control by drugs; malaria was originally treated by Chloroquine, however due to widespread use, many strains of malaria are now resistant to the drug. The WHO recommends the use of one of 5 ACTs (artemisinin-based combination therapy) and primaquine.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work